eBooks 2012: Where Are We?

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This workshop hopes to provoke a group discussion as we explore the history and development of the ebook and the various models that have emerged for acquiring and accessing them, archiving them and evaluating their usage. We'll explore such topics as aggregation, individual publisher platforms, and patron-driven acquisitions. We’ll have a look at standards for ebook reader display and usage statistics and, time permitting, we’ll talk briefly about copyright challenges as well as impromptu topics that arise from the discussion.

With Jeff Carroll, Acting Director for Collection Development–Columbia University & Colleen Major, Head, Electronic Resources Management: Operations & Analysis, Columbia University.

Published in: Education, Technology, Business
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eBooks 2012: Where Are We?

  1. 1. E-Books 2012: What’s on the Catwalk?
  2. 2. E-Books 2012: What’s on the Catwalk? WLA Conference 2012 Colleen Major Electronic Resources Librarian Columbia University Libraries Jeff Carroll Acting Director for Collection Development Columbia University Libraries
  3. 3. Publishers vs. Libraries: An E-Book Tug of War The New York Times: Stross, Randall; 12/24/2011
  4. 4. HarperCollins puts new limits on library e-books The Los Angeles Times: Glanton, Dahleen; 3/7/2011 Publishers vs. Libraries: An E-Book Tug of War The New York Times: Stross, Randall; 12/24/2011
  5. 5. U.S. sues Apple, publishers in e-book price scheme The Chicago Tribune: Bartz, Diane and Gupta, Poornima; 4/11/2012 Publishers vs. Libraries: An E-Book Tug of War The New York Times: Stross, Randall; 12/24/2011 HarperCollins puts new limits on library e-books The Los Angeles Times: Glanton, Dahleen; 3/7/2011
  6. 6. E-books sales surge after holidays USA Today: Minzesheimer, Bob; 1/9/2012 Publishers vs. Libraries: An E-Book Tug of War The New York Times: Stross, Randall; 12/24/2011 HarperCollins puts new limits on library e-books The Los Angeles Times: Glanton, Dahleen; 3/7/2011 U.S. sues Apple, publishers in e-book price scheme The Chicago Tribune: Bartz, Diane and Gupta, Poornima; 4/11/2012
  7. 7. E-books spark battle inside the publishing industry The Washington Post: Maneker, Marion; 12/27/2009 Publishers vs. Libraries: An E-Book Tug of War The New York Times: Stross, Randall; 12/24/2011 HarperCollins puts new limits on library e-books The Los Angeles Times: Glanton, Dahleen; 3/7/2011 U.S. sues Apple, publishers in e-book price scheme The Chicago Tribune: Bartz, Diane and Gupta, Poornima; 4/11/2012 E-books sales surge after holidays USA Today: Minzesheimer, Bob; 1/9/2012
  8. 8. EBooks Unbound! …now what? E-Books in CLIO (total bib. Records.) 0 200,000 400,000 600,000 800,000 1,000,000 1,200,000 FY04 FY05 FY06 FY07 FY08 FY09 FY10 Total E-Book Expenditures $0 $200,000 $400,000 $600,000 $800,000 $1,000,000 FY07 FY08 FY09 FY10 Library Based Springer/Wiley HathiTrust Project Gutenberg Ebrary/EBSCOhost EBooks JSTOR Project Muse UniversityPress Scholarship Online Consumer Based Kindle/Nook, etc. Device oriented App-oriented Overdrive Google Books Future epub format/standards Tablets v. e-readers More flexible EBook collections Functionality DRM Checkout/downloads Discoverability/Searchability Jeff Carroll jc677@columbia.edu Cris Ergunay cmm64@columbia.edu Colleen Major cmm2169@columbia.eduColumbia University Libraries
  9. 9. • How we got here
  10. 10. • How we got here • Trends and Data
  11. 11. • How we got here • Trends and Data • Publisher motivation
  12. 12. • How we got here • Trends and Data • Publisher motivation • E-books on the catwalk
  13. 13. • How we got here
  14. 14. Life Magazine images from Google Books: http://books.google.com/books/about/LIFE.html?id=3z8EAAAAMBAJ Accessed on 5/5/2012
  15. 15. Life Magazine images from Google Books: http://books.google.com/books/about/LIFE.html?id=3z8EAAAAMBAJ Accessed on 5/5/2012
  16. 16. Life Magazine images from Google Books: http://books.google.com/books/about/LIFE.html?id=3z8EAAAAMBAJ Accessed on 5/5/2012
  17. 17. Life Magazine images from Google Books: http://books.google.com/books/about/LIFE.html?id=3z8EAAAAMBAJ Accessed on 5/5/2012
  18. 18. Life Magazine images from Google Books: http://books.google.com/books/about/LIFE.html?id=3z8EAAAAMBAJ Accessed on 5/5/2012
  19. 19. Life Magazine images from Google Books: http://books.google.com/books/about/LIFE.html?id=3z8EAAAAMBAJ Accessed on 5/5/2012
  20. 20. Life Magazine images from Google Books: http://books.google.com/books/about/LIFE.html?id=3z8EAAAAMBAJ Accessed on 5/5/2012
  21. 21. Life Magazine images from Google Books: http://books.google.com/books/about/LIFE.html?id=3z8EAAAAMBAJ Accessed on 5/5/2012
  22. 22. • 1971
  23. 23. • 1971 • Michael Hart starts Project Gutenberg by digitizing the Declaration of Independence on Xerox Sigma V Mainframe computer in Materials Research Lab at Univ. of Illinois
  24. 24. • 1971 • Michael Hart starts Project Gutenberg by digitizing the Declaration of Independence on Xerox Sigma V Mainframe computer in Materials Research Lab at Univ. of Illinois • Mainframe was one of 15 nodes making up ARPANET
  25. 25. • 1971 • Michael Hart starts Project Gutenberg by digitizing the Declaration of Independence on Xerox Sigma V Mainframe computer in Materials Research Lab at Univ. of Illinois • Mainframe was one of 15 nodes making up ARPANET • Goal: to digitize 10,000 of the most consulted books by end of 20th Century
  26. 26. Project Gutenberg number of e-books Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Project_Gutenberg_total_books.svg
  27. 27. • 1971 • Michael Hart starts Project Gutenberg by digitizing the Declaration of Independence on Xerox Sigma V Mainframe computer in Materials Research Lab at Univ. of Illinois • Mainframe was one of 15 nodes making up ARPANET • Goal: to digitize 10,000 of the most consulted books by end of 20th Century • More than 38,000 publicly available e-books as of 2012
  28. 28. • 1971 • Project Gutenberg • 1998
  29. 29. • 1971 • Project Gutenberg • 1998 • NetLibrary
  30. 30. • 1971 • Project Gutenberg • 1998 • NetLibrary • 1999
  31. 31. • 1971 • Project Gutenberg • 1998 • NetLibrary • 1999 • Ebrary
  32. 32. • 1971 • Project Gutenberg • 1998 • NetLibrary • 1999 • Ebrary • 2000
  33. 33. • 1971 • Project Gutenberg • 1998 • NetLibrary • 1999 • Ebrary • 2000 • Overdrive launches Content Reserve
  34. 34. • 1971 • Project Gutenberg • 1998 • NetLibrary • 1999 • Ebrary • 2000 • Overdrive launches Content Reserve • 2006
  35. 35. • 1971 • Project Gutenberg • 1998 • NetLibrary • 1999 • Ebrary • 2000 • Overdrive launches Content Reserve • 2006 • Sony introduces Sony e-reader
  36. 36. • 1971 • Project Gutenberg • 1998 • NetLibrary • 1999 • Ebrary • 2000 • Overdrive launches Content Reserve • 2006 • Sony introduces Sony e-reader • 2007
  37. 37. • 1971 • Project Gutenberg • 1998 • NetLibrary • 1999 • Ebrary • 2000 • Overdrive launches Content Reserve • 2006 • Sony introduces Sony e-reader • 2007 • Amazon introduces Kindle
  38. 38. • 1971 • Project Gutenberg • 1998 • NetLibrary • 1999 • Ebrary • 2000 • Overdrive launches Content Reserve • 2006 • Sony introduces Sony e-reader • 2007 • Amazon introduces Kindle • 2009
  39. 39. • 1971 • Project Gutenberg • 1998 • NetLibrary • 1999 • Ebrary • 2000 • Overdrive launches Content Reserve • 2006 • Sony introduces Sony e-reader • 2007 • Amazon introduces Kindle • 2009 • Barnes & Noble introduces Nook
  40. 40. • 1971 • Project Gutenberg • 1998 • NetLibrary • 1999 • Ebrary • 2000 • Overdrive launches Content Reserve • 2006 • Sony introduces Sony e-reader • 2007 • Amazon introduces Kindle • 2009 • Barnes & Noble introduces Nook • 2011
  41. 41. • 1971 • Project Gutenberg • 1998 • NetLibrary • 1999 • Ebrary • 2000 • Overdrive launches Content Reserve • 2006 • Sony introduces Sony e-reader • 2007 • Amazon introduces Kindle • 2009 • Barnes & Noble introduces Nook • 2011 • In April, Amazon announces it’s selling more e-books than print books
  42. 42. • Models • Aggregators
  43. 43. • Models • Aggregators • Offer e-book collections for subscription
  44. 44. • Models • Aggregators • Offer e-book collections for subscription • Content often backlist
  45. 45. • Models • Aggregators • Offer e-book collections for subscription • Content often backlist • Publishers can pull titles out of collection
  46. 46. • Models • Aggregators • Purchase
  47. 47. • Models • Aggregators • Purchase • Usually includes “perpetual access” and archival rights
  48. 48. • Models • Aggregators • Purchase • Usually includes “perpetual access” and archival rights • Not really “ownership”
  49. 49. • Models • Aggregators • Purchase • PDA/DDA
  50. 50. • Models • Aggregators • Purchase • PDA/DDA • Patron-Driven, or Demand-Driven Acquisitions
  51. 51. • Models • Aggregators • Purchase • PDA/DDA • Patron-Driven, or Demand-Driven Acquisitions • Makes broad universe of titles available to patrons
  52. 52. • Models • Aggregators • Purchase • PDA/DDA • Patron-Driven, or Demand-Driven Acquisitions • Makes broad universe of titles available to patrons • Library purchases after x number of uses
  53. 53. • Models • Aggregators • Purchase • PDA/DDA • Patron-Driven, or Demand-Driven Acquisitions • Makes broad universe of titles available to patrons • Library purchases after x number of uses • No guarantee of long-term availability for titles not purchased
  54. 54. Year Net Dollar Sales Overall (in billions) Net Dollar Sales for E- Books* (in billions) 2008 26.5 0.2 2009 27.1 2010 27.9 0.9 Size of U.S. Total Publishing Industry: 2008-2010 * Estimated based on available data. Source: Association of American Publishers http://www.publishers.org/bookstats/highlights/ Libraries in the aggregate represent an estimated 6.8% of these totals.
  55. 55. Size of U.S. Total Publishing Industry: 2008-2010 * Estimated based on available data. Source: Association of American Publishers http://www.publishers.org/bookstats/highlights/ Year Net Unit Sales Overall (in billions) Net Unit Sales for E- Books* (in billions) 2008 2.470 0.010 2009 2.510 2010 2.570 0.114
  56. 56. Year Net Dollar Sales Overall (in billions) Net Dollar Sales for E- Books* (in billions) 2008 26.5 0.2 2009 27.1 2010 27.9 0.9 Size of U.S. Total Publishing Industry: 2008-2010 * Estimated based on available data. Source: Association of American Publishers http://www.publishers.org/bookstats/highlights/ Libraries in the aggregate represent an estimated 6.8% of these totals.
  57. 57. Year Net Dollar Sales Overall (in billions) Net Dollar Sales for E- Books* (in billions) 2008 26.5 0.2 2009 27.1 2010 27.9 0.9 Size of U.S. Total Publishing Industry: 2008-2010 * Estimated based on available data. Source: Association of American Publishers http://www.publishers.org/bookstats/highlights/ Libraries in the aggregate represent an estimated 6.8% of these totals. E-Books and Libraries represent potential risk in disproportion to size.
  58. 58. Publisher motivation
  59. 59. Publisher motivation Efforts to protect revenue:
  60. 60. Publisher motivation Efforts to protect revenue: • Impose limits on usage (e.g., 1 user per copy)
  61. 61. Publisher motivation Efforts to protect revenue: • Impose limits on usage (e.g., 1 user per copy) • Not selling to libraries at all
  62. 62. Publisher motivation Efforts to protect revenue: • Impose limits on usage (e.g., 1 user per copy) • Not selling to libraries at all • Selling a “license to use content” rather than selling actual content.
  63. 63. Publisher motivation Efforts to protect revenue: • Impose limits on usage (e.g., 1 user per copy) • Not selling to libraries at all • Selling a “license to use content” rather than selling actual content. • Attempt to address “First-Sale Doctrine” under U.S. copyright law (U.S.C. 17, sec. 109 and 202.)
  64. 64. Publisher motivation Efforts to protect revenue: • Impose limits on usage (e.g., 1 user per copy) • Not selling to libraries at all • Selling a “license to use content” rather than selling actual content. • Attempt to address “First-Sale Doctrine” under U.S. copyright law (U.S.C. 17, sec. 109 and 202.) • U.S. sues Apple, publishers in e-book price scheme The Chicago Tribune: Bartz, Diane and Gupta, Poornima; 4/11/2012
  65. 65. Publisher motivation Efforts to protect revenue: • Impose limits on usage (e.g., 1 user per copy) • Not selling to libraries at all • Selling a “license to use content” rather than selling actual content. • Attempt to address “First-Sale Doctrine” under U.S. copyright law (U.S.C. 17, sec. 109 and 202.) • U.S. sues Apple, publishers in e-book price scheme The Chicago Tribune: Bartz, Diane and Gupta, Poornima; 4/11/2012 • Apple and 5 publishers accused of price collusion over e- books
  66. 66. E-Books 2012: What’s on the Catwalk?
  67. 67. What's happening at Columbia?
  68. 68. Columbia University - Expenditures
  69. 69. Columbia University - bibliographic records
  70. 70. Manhattan Research Library Initiative (MaRLI) • University Press Scholarship Online (UPSO) o NYU, NYPL, Columbia U o Fordham, Kentucky, Florida, Hong Kong, Cairo  frontlist  e-access, via Oxford and Ebrary  print discount  1 print copy to NYPL
  71. 71. • Columbia and Cornell University Libraries • partnership that enables us to pool resources to provide content, expertise, and services that are impossible to accomplish acting alone  2CUL E-Books Task Force
  72. 72. E-Books Task Force • JSTOR/Project Muse • Bibliographic access • OpenURL linking • workflow analysis
  73. 73. E-Books Task Force Bibliograp hic Access
  74. 74. OpenURL Linking
  75. 75. Cornell U Libraries •III: ERM, DBs, openURL •360: MARC, Summon •Ex Libris: ILS •Local CUL systems Columbia U Libraries •360: ERM, MARC, Summon,COUNTER, E-Journals, openURL •Ex Libris: ILS, Metalib •Local CUL systems: DBs
  76. 76. Columbia's E-Book firm ordering workflow
  77. 77. Cornell's E-Book firm ordering workflow
  78. 78. E-Book package workflow. - Columbia and Cornell
  79. 79. E-Book package workflow differences. - Columbia and Cornell
  80. 80. Usage Statistics • Electronic Resource Assessment Working Group - charged with recommending ways of employing use data effectively to assess e-resource collections, improve end-user access, and provide meaningful reports to library managers. e-Duke Books Scholarly Collection Columbia has purchased since 2009 • has purchased the discounted print add-on option o Reviewed 2011 use data of print and online titles
  81. 81. Provocative Statements • Discoverability should come through using utilities outside of the traditional catalog (Summon, Google) • Amazon lending model (Freading) will replace traditional lending models • The purchasing model for E-Books should be PDA/DDA for all but largest of research libraries. • Libraries should use student budget lines to fund on-demand purchases.
  82. 82. Key Resources • Pew Research Center • Report: The Rise of e-reading • Book Industry Study Group (BISG) • Consumer Attitudes towards E-Book Reading

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