“The study of how individuals, households, and societies choose to use their scarce resources efficiently in order to satisfy their diverse wants. By definition, economics is a social or behavioural science because it studies human behaviour just like other social sciences, but it emphasizes the need to make wise choices in order to use scarce resources in an efficient way to satisfy diverse wants” (Sage, 2009).
Referencing and zotero (business)
Although an assignment is your own opinion, it needs to
be backed up by evidence (research, reports, case studies,
theories, etc. ).
Referencing is how we allow the reader to know which
evidence you used, either to formulate or back up your
There are many different referencing styles, in DBS School
of Business the Harvard style is used. Specifically the style
found in the “Cite them Right” series of books.
Referencing: What is it
and Why bother
To give weight to your argument, the more evidence
supplied the better.
Go give credit to those whose knowledge you’ve utilised
To prove that you conducted your own secondary
To avoid committing plagiarism.
To establish academic credibility.
To instruct others where to find the information that you
used (reference lists are a great source of information).
1. Direct Quote
When using someone else exact words, always place them
within “quotation marks”. Treat long quotes (40+ words) as
Instead of using a direct quote you can re-write someone
else’s idea or theory in your own words. This is called
paraphrasing. However, you must completely re-write the
original text – you cannot simply change it around a little!
If you want to give a brief synopsis of the entire content of
another work, you can briefly summarise it without going into
a lot of detail.
HOW TO CITE…
Only quote directly from a text when it's important for
your reader to see the actual language used by the author
of the source.
Use a direct quote to make an observation/claim
Make you observation/claim and then back it up by
inserting a quote.
Research has shown that “acts of plagiarism are often conflated with
other intellectual property crimes…” (Lampert, 2008, p. 15).
Lampert, L. D. (2008) Combating student plagiarism: an academic
librarian's guide. Oxford: Chandos.
Preferred method to cite academically for numerous
The flow of the language is maintained.
The author demonstrates knowledge by
articulating in own words.
Plagiarism incidents reduced.
Jobber, D., and Lancaster, G. (2006) Selling and sales management.
Harlow: Financial Times/Prentice Hall.
Original text must
In some cultures selling and trade in general
have low social approval. A company selling
overseas may thus have difficulty in recruiting
appropriate sales personnel.
Finding local employees to sell products in
foreign countries can be challenging, as
trading may not be viewed in as favourable as
light as in the company’s home country.
(Jobber and Lancaster, 2006, p. 178)
Very like paraphrasing, except a complete body of work
(book/chapter) is summarised in the author’s own words.
Normally a quick description of the main points or a brief
You should include a signal or phrase to identify
who/what you are summarising.
In the article “Getting Down to Business” the author outlined the
measures that the company has adopted to reinvent itself by improving
customer service and targeting business customers (Dunn, 2014).
Dunn, G. (2014) 'Getting down to business', Airline Business, 30 (5), pp.
26-29. Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost [Online]. (Accessed: 1
You read a book by Boyle and she cites Hill on page 12.
If possible try and locate Hill’s book.
If not possible, secondary reference.
A large minority, 38 per cent, of the cinema audience of Reservoir Dogs
were women, according to the Cinema Adverting Association (Hill,
1997, cited in Boyle, 2005, p. 12).
Boyle, K. (2005) Media and violence. London: Sage Publications.
Take a record of all of the materials that you used as you go
Zotero is great for this.
Save sources in your personalised Discovery folder.
Make notes on the eBook version of the book (Dawsonera)
Create an in-text citation every time you mention someone
else’s work (possibly several citations for each book, article,
Build an alphabetised Reference List which contains every
source cited, this goes at the end of your assignment.
Three Step Process
You give statistics.
The information is unique and not known by most people.
The reader might ask, “How do you know that?”
You use a direct quotation from someone else.
You use someone else’s ideas.
You paraphrase / take info from elsewhere.
You must reference
The information is commonly known (either by the general
population, or commonly known within the particular
When most or all of your sources say the same thing on
that particular point.
When it is your own original thought or opinion.
No need when…
When you’re not sure… Cite
Need to cite a
fact? Credo is
great for factual
Book with one author
(Cooper, 2009, p. 309)
According to Cooper (2009, p. 309)
Sometimes things not so straightforward though..
Book (2,3, more authors)
Book with an editor (Different chapters written by different
Journal Article from print journal
As information is all around us, you’ll use lots of
different sources when compiling assignments and
they all need to be referenced;
Your Reference List should appear at the end of your
assignment, it provides the information necessary for
a reader to locate and retrieve any source you cite in
Reference List entries answer key questions;
Who created this? (most important)
When was it created?
Where is this information found?
Where was the source created?
Who created the source?
Author(s) Author(s) Author (s)
When was it
Year of Creation
What is this
Title of Book/Title
Title of Article Title of Webpage
Where is it
N/A Title of Journal –
Volume – Issue –
Title of Website
Where was the
Who created the
Publisher N/A N/A
Where can it be
N/A N/A URL link
When did you
N/A N/A Date you used
You can copy and paste reference list entries from both
Discovery and Credo (some formatting required).
You can create book references with ISBNs via the
citethisforme website (some formatting required).
You can download a plugin for Firefox called Zotero, this is
reference management software that both manages your
bibliographic data and creates reference lists (minimal
Best news is that Zotero is officially supported by DBS and
the Library runs a workshop in it.
Some Good News
A research tool that allows you to Collect, Organise, Cite
and Sync your data.
Works best with Firefox as a plugin.
Zotero standalone available also, works by installing
Zotero connectors to Chrome, Safari or Opera.
Plugin for word processors available;
Libre Office/Open Office
Business students choose the Harvard “Cite them Right”
9th Edition from list of styles.
Minimal formatting required (Done in Zotero).
Create personal account;
Access to content via Zotero website