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Strategies for Interpreting Instructional Images Used to Support Language Learning

colin gray
colin gray
colin grayAssistant Professor at Purdue University

Strategies for Interpreting Instructional Images Used to Support Language Learning

1 of 13
visualsforlearning
professor elizabeth boling
students abdullah atuwaijri, jiyoon jung,
          cagri yildirim, colin gray,
          micah modell, craig howard
research question
identifying strategies learners
use to make sense of images
  during the learning process
background and
relevant literature
- Extend existing research on the role of learner
  interpretation of visuals (Boling, Eccarius, Smith, Frick, 2004)
- Literature reviewed includes readings in:
  semiotics (von Engelhardt, 2002; Kress, 2004; Sless, 1986; Van
  Leeuwen, 2001), aesthetics in the design of instruction
  (Parrish, Wilson, & Dunlap, 2010); message design (Fleming,
  1987); document design (Schriver, 1996); and cognitive
  load theory related to multimedia (Mayer, Hegarty, S.
  Mayer, & Campbell, 2005)

- A gap currently exists between theories
  prescribing characteristics of visuals and the
  authentic use of visuals in learning
naturalistic research design
- Dyads worked in pairs, agreeing on their choice of
  images to match sentences in vocabulary practice
- All dyads used materials adapted from authentic
  language learning practice activities with images
  meeting message design guidelines
- Prompts were used by the researchers to
  encourage verbalization; stimulated recall was
  used to probe for further data
- Analysis
  - repeated viewing of video-taped sessions and
    transcripts
  - identification of themes
participants & context
- Students from IEP (Intensive English Program) and
  Near Eastern Languages and Cultures (NELC)
  programs
 - First language Arabic learning English
 - First language English learning Arabic

- Total of 8 dyads between two programs

      program           male         female
   Arabic speakers
                          6             2
   learning English
   English speakers
                          6             2
   learning Arabic
activity
           someone giving
           blood?
           a girl who is sitting
           on a floor?
           a girl who is sitting
           in a garden?
           a pupil in a
           classroom?
           Which picture
           shows a look of
           concern?
           someone listening
           to something?
           a library?
           someone who is
           missing someone?
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Strategies for Interpreting Instructional Images Used to Support Language Learning

  • 1. visualsforlearning professor elizabeth boling students abdullah atuwaijri, jiyoon jung, cagri yildirim, colin gray, micah modell, craig howard
  • 2. research question identifying strategies learners use to make sense of images during the learning process
  • 3. background and relevant literature - Extend existing research on the role of learner interpretation of visuals (Boling, Eccarius, Smith, Frick, 2004) - Literature reviewed includes readings in: semiotics (von Engelhardt, 2002; Kress, 2004; Sless, 1986; Van Leeuwen, 2001), aesthetics in the design of instruction (Parrish, Wilson, & Dunlap, 2010); message design (Fleming, 1987); document design (Schriver, 1996); and cognitive load theory related to multimedia (Mayer, Hegarty, S. Mayer, & Campbell, 2005) - A gap currently exists between theories prescribing characteristics of visuals and the authentic use of visuals in learning
  • 4. naturalistic research design - Dyads worked in pairs, agreeing on their choice of images to match sentences in vocabulary practice - All dyads used materials adapted from authentic language learning practice activities with images meeting message design guidelines - Prompts were used by the researchers to encourage verbalization; stimulated recall was used to probe for further data - Analysis - repeated viewing of video-taped sessions and transcripts - identification of themes
  • 5. participants & context - Students from IEP (Intensive English Program) and Near Eastern Languages and Cultures (NELC) programs - First language Arabic learning English - First language English learning Arabic - Total of 8 dyads between two programs program male female Arabic speakers 6 2 learning English English speakers 6 2 learning Arabic
  • 6. activity someone giving blood? a girl who is sitting on a floor? a girl who is sitting in a garden? a pupil in a classroom? Which picture shows a look of concern? someone listening to something? a library? someone who is missing someone?
  • 7. data collection - Use of existing level-appropriate language activity with visual and textual elements video - Subjects were video recorded while working in teams to interpret instructional images in the arabic context of completing the chosen instructional translation activity, reflecting on the activity in their native language - Arabic video recordings were transcribed and transcription translated into English by an outside party for further analysis by the research group - English video recordings were transcribed and Arabic words were translated
  • 8. observations - learners‟ strategies are not entirely available to the themselves; they are not verbalized in a direct manner and analysis is necessarily interpretive - “everyone‟s been to the Wells library … “ - strategies are not distinct between visuals and text; learners move back and forth, opportunistically privileging one or the other - support was found for Schriver‟s (1996) hypothesis that readers use all means available to interpret texts (visuals and text)
  • 9. preliminary analysis - lived experiences and schema - use of internal context - comparing images and sentence structure - interrogating the image—attending to content in detail - extrapolation from minimal cues - “something about looking—there‟s a mirror …” - “that word reminds me of „blood‟”
  • 10. remaining analysis & study - complete transcripts and translations - full, repeated review - hypothesized strategies - future study designs need to retain the authentic learning context and focus more specifically on the visual component of texts
  • 11. references Boling, E., Eccarius, M., Smith, K., & Frick, T. (2004). Instructional illustrations: Intended meanings and learner interpretations. Journal of Visual Literacy, 24(2), 185-204. Fleming, M. L. (1987). Designing pictorial/verbal instruction: Some speculative extensions from research to practice. In The psychology of illustration. (pp. 136-57). New York: Springer Verlag. Fleming, M., & Levie, W. H. (1993). Instructional message design: Principles from the behavioral and cognitive sciences (2nd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Educational Technology Publications. Kress, G. (2004). Reading images: Multimodality, representation and new media. Information Design Journal, 12(2), 110-119. Mayer, R. E., Hegarty, M., Mayer, S., & Campbell, J. (2005). When static media promote active learning: Annotated illustrations versus narrated animations in multimedia instruction. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 11(4), 256-65. Parrish, P., Wilson, B. G., & Dunlap, J. C. (in press). Learning experience as transaction: A framework for instructional design. Educational Technology. Schriver, K. A. (1996). Dynamics in document design: Creating text for readers. New York: Wiley Computer Publishing. Sless, D. (1986). In search of semiotics. Totowa, New Jersey: Barnes & Noble Books. van Leeuwen, T. (2001). Semiotics and iconography. In T. van Leeuwen & C. Jewitt (Eds.), Handbook of visual analysis. (pp. 92-118). London: Sage Publications. von Engelhardt, J. (2002). The language of graphics: A framework for the analysis of syntax and meaning in maps, charts and diagrams. Amsterdam: Institute for Logic, Language and Computation, Universiteit van Amsterdam.
  • 13. activity content - someone giving blood? look of concern? - a girl who is sitting on a - someone listening to floor? something? - a girl who is sitting in a - a library? garden? - someone who is missing - a pupil in a classroom? someone? - Which picture shows a