Strategies for Interpreting Instructional Images Used to Support Language Learning
visualsforlearningprofessor elizabeth bolingstudents abdullah atuwaijri, jiyoon jung, cagri yildirim, colin gray, micah modell, craig howard
research questionidentifying strategies learnersuse to make sense of images during the learning process
background andrelevant literature- Extend existing research on the role of learner interpretation of visuals (Boling, Eccarius, Smith, Frick, 2004)- Literature reviewed includes readings in: semiotics (von Engelhardt, 2002; Kress, 2004; Sless, 1986; Van Leeuwen, 2001), aesthetics in the design of instruction (Parrish, Wilson, & Dunlap, 2010); message design (Fleming, 1987); document design (Schriver, 1996); and cognitive load theory related to multimedia (Mayer, Hegarty, S. Mayer, & Campbell, 2005)- A gap currently exists between theories prescribing characteristics of visuals and the authentic use of visuals in learning
naturalistic research design- Dyads worked in pairs, agreeing on their choice of images to match sentences in vocabulary practice- All dyads used materials adapted from authentic language learning practice activities with images meeting message design guidelines- Prompts were used by the researchers to encourage verbalization; stimulated recall was used to probe for further data- Analysis - repeated viewing of video-taped sessions and transcripts - identification of themes
participants & context- Students from IEP (Intensive English Program) and Near Eastern Languages and Cultures (NELC) programs - First language Arabic learning English - First language English learning Arabic- Total of 8 dyads between two programs program male female Arabic speakers 6 2 learning English English speakers 6 2 learning Arabic
activity someone giving blood? a girl who is sitting on a floor? a girl who is sitting in a garden? a pupil in a classroom? Which picture shows a look of concern? someone listening to something? a library? someone who is missing someone?
data collection- Use of existing level-appropriate language activity with visual and textual elements video- Subjects were video recorded while working in teams to interpret instructional images in the arabic context of completing the chosen instructional translation activity, reflecting on the activity in their native language- Arabic video recordings were transcribed and transcription translated into English by an outside party for further analysis by the research group- English video recordings were transcribed and Arabic words were translated
observations- learners‟ strategies are not entirely available to the themselves; they are not verbalized in a direct manner and analysis is necessarily interpretive - “everyone‟s been to the Wells library … “- strategies are not distinct between visuals and text; learners move back and forth, opportunistically privileging one or the other- support was found for Schriver‟s (1996) hypothesis that readers use all means available to interpret texts (visuals and text)
preliminary analysis- lived experiences and schema- use of internal context - comparing images and sentence structure - interrogating the image—attending to content in detail- extrapolation from minimal cues - “something about looking—there‟s a mirror …” - “that word reminds me of „blood‟”
remaining analysis & study- complete transcripts and translations- full, repeated review- hypothesized strategies- future study designs need to retain the authentic learning context and focus more specifically on the visual component of texts
referencesBoling, E., Eccarius, M., Smith, K., & Frick, T. (2004). Instructional illustrations: Intended meanings andlearner interpretations. Journal of Visual Literacy, 24(2), 185-204.Fleming, M. L. (1987). Designing pictorial/verbal instruction: Some speculative extensions from researchto practice. In The psychology of illustration. (pp. 136-57). New York: Springer Verlag.Fleming, M., & Levie, W. H. (1993). Instructional message design: Principles from the behavioral andcognitive sciences (2nd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Educational Technology Publications.Kress, G. (2004). Reading images: Multimodality, representation and new media. Information DesignJournal, 12(2), 110-119.Mayer, R. E., Hegarty, M., Mayer, S., & Campbell, J. (2005). When static media promote active learning:Annotated illustrations versus narrated animations in multimedia instruction. Journal of ExperimentalPsychology: Applied, 11(4), 256-65.Parrish, P., Wilson, B. G., & Dunlap, J. C. (in press). Learning experience as transaction: A framework forinstructional design. Educational Technology.Schriver, K. A. (1996). Dynamics in document design: Creating text for readers. New York: WileyComputer Publishing.Sless, D. (1986). In search of semiotics. Totowa, New Jersey: Barnes & Noble Books.van Leeuwen, T. (2001). Semiotics and iconography. In T. van Leeuwen & C. Jewitt (Eds.), Handbook ofvisual analysis. (pp. 92-118). London: Sage Publications.von Engelhardt, J. (2002). The language of graphics: A framework for the analysis of syntax andmeaning in maps, charts and diagrams. Amsterdam: Institute for Logic, Language and Computation,Universiteit van Amsterdam.
activity content- someone giving blood? look of concern?- a girl who is sitting on a - someone listening to floor? something?- a girl who is sitting in a - a library? garden? - someone who is missing- a pupil in a classroom? someone?- Which picture shows a