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Sketching
Design Thinking:
Representations of
Design in Education
and Practice
Colin M. Gray & Martin A. Siegel
DRS // CUMULUS | May 15, 2013
Reflection is embedded in a variety of
educational domains
(Ellmers, 2006; Rogers, 2001; Schön, 1983)
Creation of schema as potentially evaluative
in relation to design expertise?
(Nelson & Stolterman, 2012; Siegel & Stolterman, 2008)
Viewing the design studio as “a coherent
system of activity” that connects to practice
(Brandt, et al., 2011; Shaffer, 2007)
background
review of
literature
literature
“Playing the Whole Game”
Viewing education in a holistic, action-driven way
(Perkins, 2010)
Linking education and practice together through the studio
(Schön, 1983; Shulman, 2005)
literature
Reflection
Reflection-in-action as a tacit process “in the moment”
(Schön, 1983)
Reflection-on-action as a more explicit act
(Ellmers, 2006; Schön, 1983)
literature
Expertise in Design Practice
Generic model of expertise
(Dreyfus, 2003; Lawson & Dorst, 2009)
Domain specific model of expertise in interaction design
(Siegel & Stolterman, 2008)
context
First-year Master’s students in the Human-Computer
Interaction design (HCI/d) program in a School of
Informatics
Interaction design practitioners
context
data
Students (60)
Three “whole game of HCI” sketches during an
introductory design course (undergraduate and
graduate students)
Practitioners (6)
One “whole game of HCI” sketch completed during
an interview for a larger study
methods
methods
Thematic coding
Analysis of formal visual characteristics
analysis
Analysis of intact sets of student reflection sketches
Sketches coded based on organizational paradigms and
formal characteristics
findings
ROUND 1
ROUND 1
ROUND 1
ROUND 1
ROUND 1
ROUND 1
ROUND 1
ROUND 2
ROUND 2
ROUND 2
ROUND 2
ROUND 2
ROUND 2
ROUND 2
ROUND 2
ROUND 3
ROUND 3
ROUND 3
ROUND 3
findings
Beginning designer to hardened professional
Risk-averse and simplistic to chaotic and deep
Linear to non-linear to linear
Individual designer to team of collaborators
D
ESIGN
EXPERTISE
LINEAR-
SIMPLE-
ABSTRACT
ITERATIVE-
COMPLEX-
CONCRETE
END OF
FIRST
SEMESTER
DESIGN
PRACTITIONER
START OF
FIRST
SEMESTER
next steps
next steps
Richer data collection to establish context surrounding the
creation of these sketches (currently underway)
Additional work on reflection as a way to externalize conceptions
of design thinking
references
Brandt, Carol B., Cennamo, Katherine, Douglas, Sarah, Vernon,
Mitzi, McGrath, Margarita & Yolanda Reimer. 2011. “A theoretical
framework for the studio as a learning environment”. International
Journal of Technology and Design Education, 1-20. doi:10.1007/
s10798-011-9181-5
Dreyfus, Stuart E. 1981. Formal models vs. Human situational
understanding: Inherent limitations on the modeling of business
expertise. Berkeley: Operations Research Center, University of
California.
Dreyfus, H. L. 2003. The Spinoza Lectures. University of
Amsterdam.
Dubberly, Hugh. 2004. How do you design: A compendium of
models. San Francisco, CA: Dubberly Design Office. Retrieved
from http://www.dubberly.com/articles/how-do-you-design.htm
Ellmers, Grant. 2006. “Reflection and graphic design pedagogy:
Developing a reflective framework to enhance learning in a
graphic design tertiary environment”. In Proceedings of thinking
the future: Art, design and creativity: ACUADAS 2006 conference.
Rogers, Russell R. 2001. “Reflection in higher education: A
concept analysis”. Innovative Higher Education, 26(1): 37-57. doi:
10.1023/A:101098640452
Lawson, Bryan, & Kees Dorst. 2009. “Expertise in design”. In
Design expertise, 81-112. Oxford: Architectural Press.
Nelson, Harold G., and Erik Stolterman. 2012. The design way:
Intentional change in an unpredictable world (2nd ed.).
Cambridge: MIT Press.
Perkins, David N. 2010. Making learning whole: How seven
principles of teaching can transform education. San Francisco:
Jossey-Bass.
Shaffer, David W. (2003). Portrait of the oxford design studio: An
ethnography of design pedagogy. WCER Working Paper No.
2003-11. Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin-Madison,
Wisconsin Center for Educational Research.
Schön, Donald A. 1983. The reflective practitioner: How
professionals think in action. New York: Basic Books.
Schön, Donald A. 1985. The design studio: An exploration of its
traditions and potentials. London: RIBA Publications Limited.
Schön, Donald A. 1987. Educating the reflective practitioner:
Toward a new design for teaching and learning in the professions.
San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Siegel, Martin A., and Erik Stolterman. 2008. “Metamorphosis:
Transforming non-designers into designers”. In Undisciplined!
Proceedings of the Design Research Society Conference 2008:
378:1-13. Sheffield, UK: Sheffield Hallam University.

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Sketching Design Thinking: Representations of Design in Education and Practice

  • 1. Sketching Design Thinking: Representations of Design in Education and Practice Colin M. Gray & Martin A. Siegel DRS // CUMULUS | May 15, 2013
  • 2. Reflection is embedded in a variety of educational domains (Ellmers, 2006; Rogers, 2001; Schön, 1983) Creation of schema as potentially evaluative in relation to design expertise? (Nelson & Stolterman, 2012; Siegel & Stolterman, 2008) Viewing the design studio as “a coherent system of activity” that connects to practice (Brandt, et al., 2011; Shaffer, 2007) background
  • 4. literature “Playing the Whole Game” Viewing education in a holistic, action-driven way (Perkins, 2010) Linking education and practice together through the studio (Schön, 1983; Shulman, 2005)
  • 5. literature Reflection Reflection-in-action as a tacit process “in the moment” (Schön, 1983) Reflection-on-action as a more explicit act (Ellmers, 2006; Schön, 1983)
  • 6. literature Expertise in Design Practice Generic model of expertise (Dreyfus, 2003; Lawson & Dorst, 2009) Domain specific model of expertise in interaction design (Siegel & Stolterman, 2008)
  • 8. First-year Master’s students in the Human-Computer Interaction design (HCI/d) program in a School of Informatics Interaction design practitioners context
  • 9. data Students (60) Three “whole game of HCI” sketches during an introductory design course (undergraduate and graduate students) Practitioners (6) One “whole game of HCI” sketch completed during an interview for a larger study
  • 11. methods Thematic coding Analysis of formal visual characteristics
  • 12. analysis Analysis of intact sets of student reflection sketches Sketches coded based on organizational paradigms and formal characteristics
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  • 39. findings Beginning designer to hardened professional Risk-averse and simplistic to chaotic and deep Linear to non-linear to linear Individual designer to team of collaborators
  • 42. next steps Richer data collection to establish context surrounding the creation of these sketches (currently underway) Additional work on reflection as a way to externalize conceptions of design thinking
  • 43. references Brandt, Carol B., Cennamo, Katherine, Douglas, Sarah, Vernon, Mitzi, McGrath, Margarita & Yolanda Reimer. 2011. “A theoretical framework for the studio as a learning environment”. International Journal of Technology and Design Education, 1-20. doi:10.1007/ s10798-011-9181-5 Dreyfus, Stuart E. 1981. Formal models vs. Human situational understanding: Inherent limitations on the modeling of business expertise. Berkeley: Operations Research Center, University of California. Dreyfus, H. L. 2003. The Spinoza Lectures. University of Amsterdam. Dubberly, Hugh. 2004. How do you design: A compendium of models. San Francisco, CA: Dubberly Design Office. Retrieved from http://www.dubberly.com/articles/how-do-you-design.htm Ellmers, Grant. 2006. “Reflection and graphic design pedagogy: Developing a reflective framework to enhance learning in a graphic design tertiary environment”. In Proceedings of thinking the future: Art, design and creativity: ACUADAS 2006 conference. Rogers, Russell R. 2001. “Reflection in higher education: A concept analysis”. Innovative Higher Education, 26(1): 37-57. doi: 10.1023/A:101098640452 Lawson, Bryan, & Kees Dorst. 2009. “Expertise in design”. In Design expertise, 81-112. Oxford: Architectural Press. Nelson, Harold G., and Erik Stolterman. 2012. The design way: Intentional change in an unpredictable world (2nd ed.). Cambridge: MIT Press. Perkins, David N. 2010. Making learning whole: How seven principles of teaching can transform education. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Shaffer, David W. (2003). Portrait of the oxford design studio: An ethnography of design pedagogy. WCER Working Paper No. 2003-11. Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin-Madison, Wisconsin Center for Educational Research. Schön, Donald A. 1983. The reflective practitioner: How professionals think in action. New York: Basic Books. Schön, Donald A. 1985. The design studio: An exploration of its traditions and potentials. London: RIBA Publications Limited. Schön, Donald A. 1987. Educating the reflective practitioner: Toward a new design for teaching and learning in the professions. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Siegel, Martin A., and Erik Stolterman. 2008. “Metamorphosis: Transforming non-designers into designers”. In Undisciplined! Proceedings of the Design Research Society Conference 2008: 378:1-13. Sheffield, UK: Sheffield Hallam University.