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A Case Study in
Designing Online
Instruction using van
Merriënboer's Ten Steps
to Complex Learning
Carol Watson, Colin Gray, Xiaokai Jia,
Jiyoon Jung, Yurong Wang, Ted Frick
Indiana University
session objectives
- Provide background information on the design project

- Present an overview of the 4C/ID model and Ten Steps

- Discuss challenges and solutions encountered during
  our design process

- Answer questions
background information
- Need for project

- Why this reading course was selected

- Why the model was selected
original course goals
- Develop an understanding of key issues and concepts within IST

- Develop the ability to critically analyze and synthesize IST-related
  publications from a variety of perspectives

- Develop a literature review for a topic of interest within IST.
(van Merriënboer, 1997)
4C/ID compared
to Ten Steps
Learning Tasks                        1. Design Learning Tasks
                                      2. Sequence Task Classes
                                      3. Set Performance Objectives
Supportive Information                4. Design Supportive Information
                                      5. Analyze Cognitive Strategies
                                      6. Analyze Mental Models
Procedural Information                7. Design Procedural Information
                                      8. Analyze Cognitive Rules
                                      9. Analyze Prerequisite Knowledge
Part-task Practice                    10.Design Part-task Practice

(van Merriënboer & Kirschner, 2007)
academic year
design process
- Weekly research team meetings

- Shared notes taken each week

- Fall 2010
 - IRB Approval, Data Collection

- Spring 2011
 - Identification of authentic, whole task
 - Knowledge claims
knowledge claim chart
summer design process
- We addressed multiple "steps" at once
 - learning tasks and task classes
 - supportive and procedural information

- Development tasks:
 - Planned a schedule: analysis of development tasks
 - Consolidated some of the tabled decisions
 - Defined the learning tasks
 - Updated the reading list
 - Changed the sequence
 - Developed supports: markups of key claims
sample task class
sample article markup
key features
- Kept the current goals of the course, but more intentionally
  designed based on collaborative design discussions
 - Task-based: Four simple-to-complex, elaborative task classes
 - Fading levels of supports within a task class
 - Part-task practice on citing in APA style & searching credible resources
 - More flexible and modular weekly design

- Course is still in development, with target online date of Fall 2012
challenges
- Defining the audience and learning goals

- Defining/designing Learning Tasks

- Sequencing task classes

- Identifying knowledge claims
residential implementation
- Knowledge claims as a main unit of discussion

- Additional/updated readings

- Streamlined deliverables for the course
 - Annotated Bibliography
 - Major Literature Review

- Use of knowledge claim template for readings
 - Knowledge claims made by the author
 - Support for each claim listed
 - Two additional references that support the reading
looking forward
- Primacy of critique
 - Individual
 - Group

- Public presentations via YouTube

- Video annotations to encourage discussion
references
Booth, W. C., Colomb, G. G., & Williams, J. M. (1995). The craft of research. Chicago, IL: University of
Chicago Press.

Frick, T. W. (2011). The theory of totally integrated education: TIE. [Unpublished manuscript] Retrieved
from http://educology.indiana.edu/Frick/TIEtheory.pdf

Frick, T. W., Chadha, R., Watson, C., & Zlatkovska, E. (2010). Improving course evaluations to improve
instruction and complex learning in higher education. Educational Technology Research and
Development, 58(2), 115-136. doi:10.1007/s11423-009-9131-z

Maccia, G. S. (1987). Genetic epistemology of intelligent natural systems. Systems Research, 4(3), 213-
218.

Maccia, G. S. (1988). Genetic epistemology of intelligent natural systems: Propositional, procedural
and performative intelligence. Paper presented at Hangzhou University, China. Retrieved July
17, 2011, from
http://educology.indiana.edu/Maccia/GeneticEpistemologyOfIntelligentSystems_propositionalProced
uralPerformativeIntelligence1988.pdf

Peirce, C. S. (1932). Collected papers, Vol. II, Elements of logic (C. Hartshorne & P. Weiss, Eds.).
Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Reigeluth, C. M., & Frick, T. W. (1999). Formative research: A methodology for creating and improving
design theories. In Instructional design theories and models: A new paradigm of instructional theory.
(pp. 633-51).

Short, T. L. (2007). Peirce’s theory of signs. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Steiner, E. (1988). Methodology of theory building. Sydney, Australia: Educology Research Associates.

van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (1997). Training complex cognitive skills: A four-component instructional
design model for technical training. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Educational Technology
Publications.

van Merriënboer, J. J. G., & Kirschner, P. A. (2007). Ten steps to complex learning: A systematic
approach to four-component instructional design. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
questions
original design
of the course
- Weekly reading list

- In-class discussions (both instructor- and student-led)

- Written critique of readings (weekly)

- Literature Review on a topic in the field (selected by student)
use of “ten steps"
 1. Design Learning Tasks --> "most daunting" what does it mean by
     "authentic"; differs individually:: decided what the authentic task for-
     class is, and then found TIE to be useful to inform the design process.
     however, "a conflict" was found.
 2. Sequence Task Classes --> a time factor;
 3. Set Performance Objectives --> n/a
 4. Design Supportive Information --> brainstorming mostly complete; only
     one type (eg. highlight) were actually developed by the project end
     but not implemented in FA11 onsite R711; instead a worksheet was
     used.
 5. Analyze Cognitive Strategies --> n/a
 6. Analyze Mental Models --> n/a
 7. Design Procedural Information --> brainstormed
 8. Analyze Cognitive Rules --> n/a
 9. Analyze Prerequisite Knowledge --> thought of... but not completely
 10. Design Part-task Practice --> brainstormed; APA practice were
     implemented
==> would this sound too "evaluative"


===> sequentially address the challenges?

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IDCL AECT Concurrent Presentation

  • 1. A Case Study in Designing Online Instruction using van Merriënboer's Ten Steps to Complex Learning Carol Watson, Colin Gray, Xiaokai Jia, Jiyoon Jung, Yurong Wang, Ted Frick Indiana University
  • 2. session objectives - Provide background information on the design project - Present an overview of the 4C/ID model and Ten Steps - Discuss challenges and solutions encountered during our design process - Answer questions
  • 3. background information - Need for project - Why this reading course was selected - Why the model was selected
  • 4. original course goals - Develop an understanding of key issues and concepts within IST - Develop the ability to critically analyze and synthesize IST-related publications from a variety of perspectives - Develop a literature review for a topic of interest within IST.
  • 6. 4C/ID compared to Ten Steps Learning Tasks 1. Design Learning Tasks 2. Sequence Task Classes 3. Set Performance Objectives Supportive Information 4. Design Supportive Information 5. Analyze Cognitive Strategies 6. Analyze Mental Models Procedural Information 7. Design Procedural Information 8. Analyze Cognitive Rules 9. Analyze Prerequisite Knowledge Part-task Practice 10.Design Part-task Practice (van Merriënboer & Kirschner, 2007)
  • 7. academic year design process - Weekly research team meetings - Shared notes taken each week - Fall 2010 - IRB Approval, Data Collection - Spring 2011 - Identification of authentic, whole task - Knowledge claims
  • 9. summer design process - We addressed multiple "steps" at once - learning tasks and task classes - supportive and procedural information - Development tasks: - Planned a schedule: analysis of development tasks - Consolidated some of the tabled decisions - Defined the learning tasks - Updated the reading list - Changed the sequence - Developed supports: markups of key claims
  • 12. key features - Kept the current goals of the course, but more intentionally designed based on collaborative design discussions - Task-based: Four simple-to-complex, elaborative task classes - Fading levels of supports within a task class - Part-task practice on citing in APA style & searching credible resources - More flexible and modular weekly design - Course is still in development, with target online date of Fall 2012
  • 13. challenges - Defining the audience and learning goals - Defining/designing Learning Tasks - Sequencing task classes - Identifying knowledge claims
  • 14. residential implementation - Knowledge claims as a main unit of discussion - Additional/updated readings - Streamlined deliverables for the course - Annotated Bibliography - Major Literature Review - Use of knowledge claim template for readings - Knowledge claims made by the author - Support for each claim listed - Two additional references that support the reading
  • 15. looking forward - Primacy of critique - Individual - Group - Public presentations via YouTube - Video annotations to encourage discussion
  • 16. references Booth, W. C., Colomb, G. G., & Williams, J. M. (1995). The craft of research. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. Frick, T. W. (2011). The theory of totally integrated education: TIE. [Unpublished manuscript] Retrieved from http://educology.indiana.edu/Frick/TIEtheory.pdf Frick, T. W., Chadha, R., Watson, C., & Zlatkovska, E. (2010). Improving course evaluations to improve instruction and complex learning in higher education. Educational Technology Research and Development, 58(2), 115-136. doi:10.1007/s11423-009-9131-z Maccia, G. S. (1987). Genetic epistemology of intelligent natural systems. Systems Research, 4(3), 213- 218. Maccia, G. S. (1988). Genetic epistemology of intelligent natural systems: Propositional, procedural and performative intelligence. Paper presented at Hangzhou University, China. Retrieved July 17, 2011, from http://educology.indiana.edu/Maccia/GeneticEpistemologyOfIntelligentSystems_propositionalProced uralPerformativeIntelligence1988.pdf Peirce, C. S. (1932). Collected papers, Vol. II, Elements of logic (C. Hartshorne & P. Weiss, Eds.). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Reigeluth, C. M., & Frick, T. W. (1999). Formative research: A methodology for creating and improving design theories. In Instructional design theories and models: A new paradigm of instructional theory. (pp. 633-51). Short, T. L. (2007). Peirce’s theory of signs. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. Steiner, E. (1988). Methodology of theory building. Sydney, Australia: Educology Research Associates. van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (1997). Training complex cognitive skills: A four-component instructional design model for technical training. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Educational Technology Publications. van Merriënboer, J. J. G., & Kirschner, P. A. (2007). Ten steps to complex learning: A systematic approach to four-component instructional design. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
  • 18. original design of the course - Weekly reading list - In-class discussions (both instructor- and student-led) - Written critique of readings (weekly) - Literature Review on a topic in the field (selected by student)
  • 19. use of “ten steps" 1. Design Learning Tasks --> "most daunting" what does it mean by "authentic"; differs individually:: decided what the authentic task for- class is, and then found TIE to be useful to inform the design process. however, "a conflict" was found. 2. Sequence Task Classes --> a time factor; 3. Set Performance Objectives --> n/a 4. Design Supportive Information --> brainstorming mostly complete; only one type (eg. highlight) were actually developed by the project end but not implemented in FA11 onsite R711; instead a worksheet was used. 5. Analyze Cognitive Strategies --> n/a 6. Analyze Mental Models --> n/a 7. Design Procedural Information --> brainstormed 8. Analyze Cognitive Rules --> n/a 9. Analyze Prerequisite Knowledge --> thought of... but not completely 10. Design Part-task Practice --> brainstormed; APA practice were implemented ==> would this sound too "evaluative" ===> sequentially address the challenges?

Editor's Notes

  1. Defining the audience and learning goalsThe specific audience of the course was initially confusing, especially with the different composition of the online Ed.D. program as compared to the traditional residential Ph.D. program. The learning goals, while set out in the course objectives, were applied to the course objectives in a more direct way than in former versions of the residential course. In particular, the learning goal for the course was condensed to “thinking like an academic researcher,” and placing the goals for the course within that framework.Meet the goals of critique (which seemed to be primary), while still gaining key content knowledge about IST.Defining/designing Learning Tasks / Sequencing task classesThe learning tasks were difficult to identify as well. The identified tasks came out of our discussion of knowledge claims and theories of knowledge, especially in regard to support of knowledge claims in the context of academic literature. The group discussed a number of approaches to meeting the overall learning goals, but the process wasn’t really solidified until the evaluation process during the summer. Even in the summer work, the learning tasks related to the primary literature review deliverables were left unaddressed (the third learning goal of the course). Finding articles to sequence against each task class was difficult, especially in finding clear examples of know-how and know-that-one knowledge that were foregrounded in articles. Also how to deal with more advanced categorization of knowledge claims.Identifying knowledge claimsAfter working through the creation of task classes, the group worked through each article to identify knowledge claims. Although this seemed like a straightforward task, the team members struggled to identify consistent primary claims in the article. Issues that came up included the role of supporting claims (from other research literature) and unique claims the article was making, and the required knowledge of the reader to understand this differentiation. A member from outside the team reviewed the markups from the summer design work, and provided helpful feedback on the identified knowledge claims. Belief of claims as well (own experience).
  2. Fall 2011 residential course includes:Knowledge claims in relation to content rather than content-focused discussionNew readings and some updated readings (new editions) based on summer workA new sequence of deliverables for the course, using an annotated bibliography as the midterm deliverable (replacing a small literature review), allowing students to work toward their major literature review in a more progressive way throughout the semesterA new template to be completed for at least one reading each week. Includes identification of knowledge claims, support for each claim from the article, and the identification of two additional sources that support the reading. (Building research skills and competencies in reading literature critically)
  3. We identified critique as a primary element in the course, and believe this goal must be prominent in the online course. This includes the importance of individual critique (through tools like the knowledge claim template) as well as group critique, where multiple viewpoints are considered (replacing group work that often takes place in the residential course).Although development efforts are ongoing, these goals might be addressed through required public presentations via YouTube. This medium allows other class members to collaborate and critique other student presentations through the use of video annotations.