Calving time grainger co_2010

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Calving time grainger co_2010

  1. 1. Calving Time<br />Dr. Bob Coley<br />Coley Veterinary Services<br />
  2. 2.
  3. 3.
  4. 4. It is CALVING Time in Tennessee!!!!<br />
  5. 5. Reproduction is the Most Economically Important Trait in Beef Cattle!<br />The sorriest calf you ever sell is worth more than your best stillbirth!<br />Reproduction is estimated to be worth 10 times more than growth traits and 20 times more than carcass traits<br />
  6. 6. Reproductive Goals for the Beef Herd<br />90 to 95% in heat the first 21 days of the breeding season<br />70 to 80 percent conceive on first breeding<br />Less than 5% difficult calvings<br />90% of cows bred wean a calf<br />
  7. 7. Breed Heifers to Calve Earlier than the Cow Herd<br />Allows better calving supervision<br />Allows more time for them to start cycling and get bred back <br />
  8. 8. Breed Heifers to Calve at 24 Months of Age<br />Have heifers at 2/3 of mature body weight before breeding at 15 months of age<br />This requires that she gain about 1 and ½ pounds per day up to breeding<br />Weight gain should continue so that they calve in moderate body condition<br />Have heifers pregnancy checked and cull the extras<br />
  9. 9. Replacement Heifer Selection<br />Older, larger, structurally correct and from above average parents<br />Reproductive tract scores<br />Scrotal circumference in sires<br />Calving problems<br />Pelvic area<br />Breed of bull<br />
  10. 10. Measuring Pelvic Area to Prevent Difficult Births<br />Measuring the width and height of the birth canal<br />May help to find the extremely small ones, but is not as helpful as using calving ease bulls<br />
  11. 11. Calving Difficulties<br />Lighter calves are born easier than heavier ones and bigger heifers calve more easily than smaller ones<br />Generally, using genetically low birth weight sires is the easiest way to prevent calving difficulties<br />Research has not shown shape of calf to predict calving problems<br />
  12. 12. Breed of Bull<br />There is more variation between bulls than between breeds<br />However, low birth weight English breeds may have an advantage over Continental breeds for use on heifers<br />
  13. 13. Calving Problems<br />
  14. 14. 14<br />3 stages of parturition<br />Preparatory<br />Fetal Expulsion<br />Expulsion of placenta or afterbirth<br />
  15. 15. 15<br />Preparatory Stage (2-6 hours)<br />Calf rotates to upright position<br />Uterine contractions begin<br />Water sac expelled<br />
  16. 16. 16<br />Delivery (1 hour or less)<br />Cow usually lying down<br />Fetus enters birth canal<br />Front feet and head protrude first<br />Calf delivery completed<br />
  17. 17. 17<br />Cleaning (2-8 hours)<br />Caruncle-cotyledon (button) attachments relax<br />Uterine contractions expel membranes<br />
  18. 18. How Long Do I Wait?<br />
  19. 19. Normal Presentation<br />
  20. 20. One Hour<br />
  21. 21. 21<br />Parturition<br />
  22. 22. 22<br />Steps in calving assistance<br />3. Examine size of the calf relative to the birth canal.<br />If too big can paralyze cow<br />If determined early, a successful C-section can be done<br />4. Attach obstetrical chains to the front legs<br />Loop of each chain around each leg<br />Slide chain up on the cannon bone 2-3 inches above the ankle joints and dew claws<br />Ensure chain pulls from bottom of the leg (dew claw side)<br />
  23. 23. Use Proper Technique<br />
  24. 24. 24<br />Proper placement of OB chains<br />
  25. 25. 25<br />Proper use of OB chains<br />
  26. 26. 26<br />Proper use of OB chains<br />
  27. 27. Backwards<br />
  28. 28. One Leg Back<br />
  29. 29. Two Legs Back<br />
  30. 30. Head Back<br />
  31. 31. Breech<br />
  32. 32. 32<br />Improper use of force!<br />
  33. 33. 33<br />Starting the calf<br />
  34. 34. 34<br />Starting the calf<br />Clear the airways and clean mucus from mouth area<br />Stimulate the calf by rubbing vigorously<br />If necessary give artificial respiration<br />
  35. 35. “I’ve Got A Problem!”<br />
  36. 36. Prolapse<br />
  37. 37. The Reproductive System of The Cow<br />The vagina <br />The cervix<br />The uterus <br />
  38. 38. Types of Prolapses<br />Vagina<br />Cervix<br />Uterus<br />Rectum<br />
  39. 39. Vagina and Cervix<br />
  40. 40.
  41. 41.
  42. 42.
  43. 43.
  44. 44.
  45. 45.
  46. 46. Uterus<br />
  47. 47.
  48. 48.
  49. 49.
  50. 50.
  51. 51.
  52. 52.
  53. 53.
  54. 54.
  55. 55. Retained Placenta<br />
  56. 56.
  57. 57.
  58. 58.
  59. 59.
  60. 60. Nursing Calf Management<br />
  61. 61. Colostrum = Key to Calf Health<br />
  62. 62. Colostrum Management<br />Colostrum – first milk<br />Contains antibodies (which fight disease) that are absorbed through the small intestine of the calf.<br />
  63. 63. Early consumption = BETTER<br />6 hours of life = 50% absorption<br />12 hours of life = 33% absorption<br />24 hours of life = 0% absorption<br />
  64. 64. Goal for Colostrum<br />2 quarts consumed in the first two hours of life<br />4 quarts before 12 hours<br />High quality<br />
  65. 65. Colostrum Quality Influenced by<br />Nutrition<br />Poor hay<br />Minerals<br />Internal and external parasites<br />Heat stress<br />BCS<br />Vaccinations<br />Age of Cow<br />
  66. 66. Cow Colostrum = Better than Heifers<br />More disease exposure<br />More antibodies<br />
  67. 67. Colostrum has long term impacts on production.<br />Less sickness<br />Less deaths<br />Higher ADG<br />
  68. 68. Nursing Calves<br />A number of procedures will help assure the newborn calf gets off to a healthy start.<br />Examine for problems<br />Dip navel, weigh<br />Castrate, implant<br />Identify with tag, tattoo, etc.<br />Record <br />
  69. 69. Calf Scours<br />
  70. 70. Calf Diarrhea<br />Causes: <br />Rotavirus<br />Coronavirus<br />E.coli<br />Salmonella<br />Clostridium perfringes<br />Cryptospordia<br />
  71. 71. Calf Diarrhea<br />Losses<br />Deaths ( 50% in severe outbreaks)<br />Weight (35 lbs. Less at weaning)<br />Treatment costs<br />
  72. 72. CLINICAL SIGNS<br />Mild Cases:<br /> loose stool or diarrhea<br />Severe cases:<br /> profuse diarrhea (watery)<br /> depression<br /> sunken eyes<br /> weakness <br /> coma<br /> death<br />
  73. 73. Calf Diarrhea<br />Prevention<br />Sanitation<br />Clean pastures are best<br />Well drained and dry<br />Protection from wind and elements<br />Reduce stress on cows and calves<br />Assist with calving as needed<br />Keep animals clean and dry<br />Cows BCS 6-7<br />Make sure calves nurse ASAP<br />4-6 quarts of colostrum in 1st 24 hours<br />Vaccinate the cow prior to calving<br />Disease protection thru colostrum<br />Oral vaccines to newborns<br />
  74. 74. Treatment<br />Oral fluids (electrolytes)<br />IV fluids<br />Anti-diarrhea<br />Antibiotics<br />probiotics<br />
  75. 75. Bovine Respiratory Disease<br />INFECTION<br />(Viruses and<br />Bacteria)<br />STRESS<br />(Environmental and Management)<br />+<br />=<br />BRD<br />
  76. 76. Calf Pneumonia<br /><ul><li>31% OF ALL CATTLE DEATHS
  77. 77. 88% OF DEATHS IN S.E. BEEF CALVES
  78. 78. $624 MILLION IN LOSSES</li></ul>DEATHS<br />MEDICAL TREATMENTS<br />LABOR<br />DECREASED ANIMAL PERFORMANCE<br />
  79. 79. Calf Pneumonia<br />Agent – bacteria and viruses<br />Transmission – aerosol spread<br />Signs<br />Depression, respiratory distress, cough, fever, death<br />Treatment<br />Antibiotics, anti-inflammatory drugs<br />Prevention<br />Minimize stress, vaccination<br />
  80. 80. “Never Waste a Dead Calf”<br />
  81. 81. Pneumonia<br />Pictures needed<br />
  82. 82. Decision to Treat<br />Deviations from normal behavior<br />Not eating, staying in one place too long<br />Cough, nasal discharge<br />
  83. 83. Vaccinations for Nursing Calves<br />There are vaccines available for new-born calves, that may be useful in some situations.<br />Discuss vaccinating very young calves with a veterinarian.<br />
  84. 84. Preweaning<br />Approximately one month prior to weaning, calves should have a preweaning treatment. This includes:<br />Vaccinations<br />Parasite control<br />Castration, dehorning<br />Growth implant<br />Bunk training<br />
  85. 85. Weaning<br />Weaning calves is stressful. Attempt to minimize the event by:<br />Moving cows out, leaving calves in a familiar environment.<br />Having adequate water and hay available.<br />Placing feed and water along fences – as calves pace the fence, they will discover them more easily<br />
  86. 86. Weaning<br />Booster vacc. calves that received pre-weaning treatment.<br />Calves not treated preweaning should be treated as per preweaning treatments.<br />
  87. 87. Preweaned, Weaning, and Weaned Calves<br />Too many TN calves are weaned and sold “fresh-off-the-cow”, resulting in:<br />Highly-stressed calves<br />Calves more likely to become diseased<br />This results in TN producers receiving less money for their calves.<br />

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