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Periods of Art

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Periods of Art

  1. 1. A Timeline of Art By Seth Cole Periods of Art
  2. 2. <ul><li>(1). Overview </li></ul><ul><li>(2). Paleolithic, Mesolithic, and Neolithic Art </li></ul><ul><li>(3). Classical Art </li></ul><ul><li>(4). Medieval Art </li></ul><ul><li>(5). Renaissance </li></ul><ul><li>i. Artist Spotlight: Leonardo da Vinci </li></ul><ul><li>(6). Baroque & Rococo </li></ul><ul><li>(7). Neoclassicism </li></ul><ul><li>8. Romanticism </li></ul><ul><li>9. Realism </li></ul><ul><li>10. Impressionism </li></ul><ul><li>11. Post-Impressionism </li></ul><ul><li>12. Expressionism </li></ul><ul><li>13. Cubism </li></ul><ul><li>i. Artist Spotlight: Pablo Picasso </li></ul><ul><li>14. Surrealism </li></ul><ul><li>15. Pop Art </li></ul><ul><li>i. Artist Spotlight: Andy Warhol </li></ul>Table of Contents
  3. 3. <ul><li>Since the beginning of mankind, human beings have attempted to demonstrate their feelings on life, love, religion, and other topics by creating art. Whether it is architecture and paintings, or sculpture and cave drawings, their art has acted as a time capsule, and allowed us to see how artists viewed the world in their time. </li></ul><ul><li>As time and technology progressed, so did art, and art history has been divided into periods based on techniques and common trends. In this presentation I will further delve into some of these periods, and explore the techniques, trends, works, and artists that have defined humanity through art. </li></ul>Overview
  4. 4. <ul><ul><li>Even in ancient times, Homo Sapiens have created art. These pieces of art often involved stone; whether it was stacking them, painting them, or carving into them. Later in the era, pottery, as well as weaving, developed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These works shared a common theme of food, fertility, basic human figures, and animals. </li></ul></ul>Paleolithic, Mesolithic, and Neolithic Art 30,000 BC to 2,000 BC
  5. 5. <ul><li>Stonehenge </li></ul><ul><li>Wiltshire, England </li></ul><ul><li>Circa. 2500 BC </li></ul>
  6. 6. Gobustan Petroglyphs Gobustan, Azerbaijan Circa. 10,000 BC
  7. 7. Lascaux Cave Paintings Southwestern France Circa. 17,300 BC
  8. 8. Classical Art Classical Art 500 BC to 500 AD <ul><ul><li>Developed by the Greeks, Classical Art dates back to as early as 500 BC. To honor their vast pantheon of gods, the Greeks created beautiful sculptures and elegant architecture with marble. Their artists were highly focused on portraying the beauty of humans, and created sculptures that were highly naturalistic. Despite popular belief, these sculptures were not white when completed, but were painted a vast array of colors. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Following their conquering of the Greeks, the Romans adapted the Greeks' artistic style for they believed it was unparalleled. In fact, most of the Classical Art that has survived today is Roman, not Greek. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Bronze Sculpture National Archeological Museum, Athens, Greece Circa. 460 B.C.
  10. 10. Augustus of Prima Porta Vatican Museums, Vatican City 1 st Century A.D.
  11. 11. Laocoon and His Sons Vatican Museums, Vatican City Circa. 25 B.C.
  12. 12. Medieval Art 500 AD to 1400 AD <ul><ul><li>Following the collapse of the Roman Empire in 476 AD, Western Europe became largely decentralized, except for the centralizing power of the Catholic Church. Also after the collapse of the Roman empire, Europe saw a period of artistic backwardness, as the highly refined methods of art from the Classical period were forgotten. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Characteristics of Medieval art include: </li></ul><ul><li>- Focus on religious (Christian) themes </li></ul><ul><li>- Disproportionate and little perspective </li></ul><ul><li>- Two-Dimensional and flat </li></ul><ul><li>- A Hieratic Scale </li></ul>
  13. 13. Maesta Duccio di Buoninsegna 1311 AD
  14. 14. The Calling of the Apostles Peter and Andrew Duccio di Buoninsegna 1308 AD
  15. 15. Christ on the Mount of Olives Master of the Trebon Altarpiece 1380 AD
  16. 16. Renaissance <ul><ul><li>Due to contact with the Arab world and the rediscovery of ancient Greek and Roman texts, the Renaissance brought a change in Europe culturally. Following the Greek's and Roman's methods before them, Renaissance artist's paintings were focused more on celebrating the human individual, rather than entirely on religion as it had during the Medieval era. Characteristics of Renaissance art include: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Realism and focus on humans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Accurate Perspective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Natural Background </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Light and Shadowing </li></ul></ul>Late 1300's to 1600 AD
  17. 17. The Creation of Adam Michelangelo 1511 AD
  18. 18. David Michelangelo 1504 AD
  19. 19. Artist Spotlight: Leonardo da Vinci <ul><ul><li>Born in 1452 in Italy, Leonardo da Vinci was the archetypal “Renaissance Man”. Along with being an outstanding artist, Leonardo was also an accomplished scientist, musician, architect, sculptor, mathematician and engineer. Because he was a gargantuan procrastinator and his techniques were sometimes destructive, only around fifteen of his paintings have survived. </li></ul></ul>Self Portrait 1512 AD
  20. 20. Artist Spotlight: Leonardo da Vinci Mona Lisa 1519 AD The Last Supper 1498 AD
  21. 21. Baroque & Rococo 17th Century to the 18th Century <ul><ul><li>To appeal and compete with Protestant churches for worshipers following the Protestant Reformation, the Catholic church sponsored the creation of impressive religious art and architecture, known as the Baroque movement. Baroque art is characterized by rich color, Christian themes, intense shadowing, and highly dramatic scenes that are heavily foreshortened </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In France during the late 1750's, the “Late Baroque” period, or Rococo emerged. Rococo art was much different than Baroque art, as many Baroque artists gave up their symmetry for the ornate and playful style of Rococo. Rococo art was often used by nobles for displaying their wealth. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Elevation of the Cross Peter Paul Rubens 1611 AD (Baroque)
  23. 23. David Gian Lorenzo Bernini 1624 AD (Baroque)
  24. 24. The Swing Jean-Honore Fragonard 1767 AD (Rococo)
  25. 25. Neoclassicism Late 18th Century to Mid-19th Century <ul><ul><li>Inspired by the Enlightenment, Neoclassicism grew as a response to the declining Rococo movement. Neoclassical art was had a much darker subject matter than Rococo art, and was often used in French politics under such leaders as Maximilian Robespierre as well as Napoleon Bonaparte. Additionally, Neoclassicism adopted many characteristics of Greek and Roman Classicism, which is evident in the poses of figures, the types of paint, and the drapery of fabrics. </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Oath of the Horatii Jacques-Louis David 1784 AD
  27. 27. The Death of Marat Jacques-Louis David 1793 AD
  28. 28. The Intervention of the Sabine Women Jacques-Louis David 1795 AD
  29. 29. Romanticism <ul><ul><li>The Romanticism movement originated as a revolt against the Age of Enlightenment and the Scientific Revolution of early modern Europe. Unlike Neoclassicism, Romanticist artists created paintings far more dreamy and imaginary than Neoclassical artists, and were often narratives. Additionally, Romanticism paintings appealed to the emotions of trepidation and awe, through nightmarish narratives and awe inspiring natural shots. </li></ul></ul>1780 AD to 1850 AD
  30. 30. Liberty Leading the People Eugene Delacroix 1830 AD
  31. 31. The Nightmare Henry Fuseli 1781 AD
  32. 32. Wanderer Above the Sea of Fog Caspar David Friedrich 1818 AD
  33. 33. Realism 1848 AD to 1900 AD <ul><ul><li>Realism began as a rejection of the imagination and subjectivism of Romanticism, and focused more on accurate observation of the ordinary world. Realist artists were characterized by painting everyday people in ordinary situations, as well as being audacious by painting explicit subject matter like prostitutes. Additionally, Realism paintings were often en plein air, which means they were painted while outdoors. </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. The Gleaners Jean-Francois Millet 1857 AD
  35. 35. Bonjour, Monsieur Courbet Gustave Courbet 1854 AD
  36. 36. A Burial at Ornans Gustave Courbet 1850 AD
  37. 37. Impressionism 1865 AD to 1885 AD <ul><ul><li>During the Industrial Revolution in France, the Impressionist movement began. Like Realists, Impressionists sought to capture a specific moment in time, but laid much more emphasis on the effects of light than the Realists. Additionally, Impressionism is characterized by small, but visible, brush strokes, open composition, and real life subject matter. </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Woman with a Parasol Claude Monet 1875 AD
  39. 39. Paris Street, Rainy Day Gustave Caillebotte 1877 AD
  40. 40. Children on a Farm Camille Pissarro 1887 AD
  41. 41. Post-Impressionism 1885 AD to 1910 AD <ul><ul><li>Unhappy with the trivial subject matter of Impressionism, the Post-Impressionism movement began in France in the late 19 th century. Like Impressionism, Post-Impressionism had a strong emphasis on light, as well as distinguishable brushstrokes. Additionally, Post-Impressionism became an even greater medium for expression, as it was not afraid to have unorthodox subject matter. </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. The Starry Night Vincent van Gogh 1889 AD
  43. 43. A Sunday Afternoon on the Island La Grande Jatte Georges Seurat 1886 AD
  44. 44. Where Do We Come From? What Are We? Where Are We Going? Paul Gauguin 1897 AD
  45. 45. Expressionism 1890 AD to 1935 AD <ul><ul><li>Originating in Germany at the end of the 19 th century, Expressionism was focused more on the emotion of color rather than the reality of it, and often times appeared abstract. Expressionist artists sought to express the meaning and emotion of an experience, often times distorting their works greatly for added emotional effect. </li></ul></ul>
  46. 46. The Scream Edvard Munch 1893 AD
  47. 47. Amedeo Modigliani Diego Rivera 1914 AD
  48. 48. Sokea Soittoniekka (Blind Musician) Alvar Cawen 1922 AD
  49. 49. Cubism 1905 AD to 1920 AD <ul><li>Beginning at the start of the 20 th century, Cubism emerged. Rejecting naturalistic depiction of prior movements, Cubists preferred compositions of shapes and forms used in an abstract way. Cubism can be further divided into two branches: Analytical and Synthetic Cubism. Analytical Cubism had greater depth and focused on breaking down forms into simple geometric shapes, while Synthetic Cubism was much more flat and often used mixed media and collage. </li></ul>
  50. 50. Woman with a Guitar Georges Braque 1913 AD
  51. 51. Artist Spotlight: Pablo Picasso Self Portrait 1907 AD <ul><li>Born in Spain in 1881, Pablo Picasso, along with Georges Braque, are often considered the creators of the Cubism movement. His style of art changed dramatically through his life, and his work can be divided into many periods including the Blue, Rose, African-Influenced, Cubist, and Surrealist periods. Additionally, Picasso's Cubism often featured a distorted reality to demonstrate that things could be seen from many different perspectives. Picasso's work was often times based on world events, such as Guernica , a portrayal of the German bombing of the Spanish city of Guernica, as well as a distorted portrait of Josef Stalin that got him into trouble with his fellow communists . </li></ul>
  52. 52. Artist Spotlight: Pablo Picasso Three Musicians 1921 AD Guernica 1937 AD
  53. 53. Artist Spotlight: Pablo Picasso Girl with a Mandolin (Fanny Tellier) 1910 AD Les Demoiselles d'Avignon 1907 AD
  54. 54. Surrealism 1917 AD to 1950 AD <ul><li>After World War I, art in the Western World tended to be dominated by dark themes such as uncertainty and anxiety. Surrealism was one of the darkest of these movements, and Surrealists placed realistic objects in unrealistic situations in order to confuse the viewer's sense of reality. Additionally, other characteristics of Surrealism include a dreamlike setting, and disturbing visuals. </li></ul>
  55. 55. The Persistence of Memory Salvador Dali 1931 AD
  56. 56. The Elephant Celebes Max Ernst 1921 AD
  57. 57. Without Hope Frida Kahlo 1945 AD
  58. 58. Pop Art Late 1950s to Early 1970s <ul><li>Toward the late 1950's, a movement known as Pop Art emerged. Pop Art focused on subjects that wouldn't normally be considered art, such as advertisements, pop culture, and consumerism. Additionally, because Pop Art incorporated pop culture, it was easily accessible to the average person. </li></ul>
  59. 59. Just What Is It That Makes Today's Homes So Different, So Appealing? Richard Hamilton 1956 AD
  60. 60. Drowning Girl Roy Lichtenstein 1963 AD
  61. 61. Artist Spotlight: Andy Warhol <ul><li>Born in Pennsylvania in 1928, Andy Warhol was a leading figure in the Pop Art movement. Andy Warhol had many talents, and throughout his career he was an accomplished painter, an unconventional filmmaker, a commercial illustrator, and a record producer. In addition to painting pictures of Campbell's soup cans or Coca-Cola bottles, Warhol also did much printing. Some of his subjects for printing included Elvis Presley, Marilyn Monroe, and Mickey Mouse. </li></ul>Camouflage Self Portrait 1986 AD
  62. 62. Artist Spotlight: Andy Warhol Campbell's Soup I 1968 AD Mickey Mouse 1981 AD
  63. 63. Artist Spotlight: Andy Warhol Green Coca-Cola Bottles 1962 AD Eight Elvises 1063 AD
  64. 64. Bibliography <ul><li>Barron's: AP World History by John McCannon </li></ul><ul><li>AP World History 2009 by Kaplan </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  65. 65. Uncredited Artwork <ul><li>Poulnabrone Dolmen in Ireland </li></ul><ul><li>Rock Painting at Bhimbetka, India </li></ul><ul><li>Female figure at Catal Huyuk, Turkey </li></ul><ul><li>Fresco from the Villa of the Mysteries: Pompeii, Itally </li></ul><ul><li>Greek Pottery at Athens, Greece </li></ul><ul><li>The Seated Scribe at the Louvre </li></ul><ul><li>Scenes from the Life of Christ – Bondone </li></ul><ul><li>The Rocky Mountains: Lander's Peak by Albert Bierstadt </li></ul><ul><li>The Raft of the Medusa by Theodore Gericault </li></ul><ul><li>The Betrothal of the Virgin by Raphael </li></ul><ul><li>Small Cowper Madonna by Raphael </li></ul><ul><li>La Primiveria by Bottecelli </li></ul><ul><li>Adoration by Peter Paul Rubens </li></ul><ul><li>The Death of Socrates by Jacques-Louis David </li></ul><ul><li>The Lictors Bring to Brutus the Bodies of his Sons by Jacques-Louis David </li></ul><ul><li>The Stone Breakers by Gustave Courbet </li></ul><ul><li>Bather Sleeping by the Brook by Gustave Courbet </li></ul><ul><li>The End of the Working Day by Jules Breton </li></ul>
  66. 66. Uncredited Artwork <ul><li>Dancer with a Bouquet of Flowers (Star of the Ballet) by Edgar Degas </li></ul><ul><li>The Cliff at Etretat after the Storm by Claude Monet </li></ul><ul><li>Water Lilies by Claude Monet </li></ul><ul><li>Portrait of Dr. Gachet by Vincent van Gogh </li></ul><ul><li>The Cyclops by Odilon Redon </li></ul><ul><li>On White II by Wassily Kandinsky </li></ul><ul><li>Rehe im Walde by Franz Marc </li></ul><ul><li>Pair of Women (Women embracing each other) by Egon Schiel </li></ul><ul><li>L'Ange du Foyer ou le Triomphe du Surréalisme by Max Ernst </li></ul><ul><li>Still Life with Fruit Dish and Mandolin by Juan Gris </li></ul><ul><li>Portrait of Picasso by Juan Gris </li></ul><ul><li>Lion, Cheval, Dormeuse Invisibles by Salvador Dali </li></ul><ul><li>Portrait by Joan Miro </li></ul><ul><li>I was a Rich Man's Plaything by Eduardo Paolozzi </li></ul><ul><li>Still Life #20 by Tom Wesselmann </li></ul>