Byzantine part 2

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Byzantine part 2

  1. 1. Rise of the Byzantine Era <ul><li>Christianity goes mainstream </li></ul>
  2. 2. We need a church! What to use? <ul><li>Roman Basilicas fit the requirements of the growing Christian followers </li></ul><ul><li>were suited for Christian worship as congregation could sit and listen to the deacon </li></ul>Apse Nave
  3. 3. The parts of a Roman Basilica Campanile Side Aisle Apse Altar Columns Transept Nave Atrium Covered Walkway
  4. 4. Example of a Roman Basilica Church <ul><li>a triumphal arch separates the nave from the apse (symbol of Christ’s victory over eternal death) </li></ul><ul><li>this plan became the basis for European Cathedrals in later years </li></ul>St. Paul Outside the Walls, Interior View (Begun 368, reconstructed 1823) Nave Apse Altar
  5. 5. • mosaics of coloured glass and gold cover the walls and triumphal arch • 80 granite columns in four rows • floor is decorated with inlaid marble designs • frescos also used in Basilicas but few remain (minature murals that illustrated, enhanced and clarified the written word of the bible)
  6. 6. “ St. Apollinare in Classe” 470, Ravenna • exteriors were very conservative in appearance (simple red brick) Outside View of Roman Basilica Church
  7. 7. Fighting...back and forth and back and forth... <ul><li>Constantine dies and the Roman Empire soon becomes split into Eastern and Western Empires </li></ul>Eastern Empire Western Empire
  8. 8. Barbarian Invasions !
  9. 9. <ul><li>In the first half of the 5 th Century Rome is attacked by the Visigoths, Huns, and Vandals leaving the once proud city in ruins </li></ul><ul><li>the Empire is now focused around Constantinople </li></ul>
  10. 10. Monasteries <ul><li>Monasteries are established as a refuge from worldly disorder </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. The Benedictine order was established by St. Benedict and was charged with the responsibility of copying and preserving important religious manuscripts and papers </li></ul>
  11. 11. Mosaics: Roman vs. Byzantine <ul><li>Roman mosaics used polished, coloured natural stone </li></ul>
  12. 12. Byzantine Mosaic <ul><li>Byzantine mosaics used brightly coloured glass (tessarae) pressed into wet plaster </li></ul>*this uneven texture causes the mosaic to glitter Mosaic from St. Paul Outside the Walls
  13. 13. Early Christian Sculpture <ul><li>very little sculpture was made in the early Christian church, most of which has been destroyed </li></ul><ul><li>stone sarcophagi were carved in relief (Roman development) but subject matter was Christian </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>early Christian work still has Roman influence (natural rather than symbolic form) </li></ul><ul><li>Christ is a beardless Roman-looking youth </li></ul>The Good Shepherd, 3 rd Century, Marble, Half life size Roman Pastoral God, Aristaeus
  15. 15. Chalice of Antioch 350-500 CE, Silver and Gilt, 19 cm high <ul><li>Inner plain silver cup sits in outer ornate shell </li></ul><ul><li>When first re-discovered after WWI, it was thought to be the “Holy Grail” (the cup that Christ drank from at the last supper) </li></ul><ul><li>Two figures of Christ on each side (one youthful, one mature) </li></ul><ul><li>Apostles, animals and birds are woven into vines, branches, leaves and grapes -- all symbolic of Christ’s work </li></ul><ul><li>Eagle is a symbol of immortality </li></ul>
  16. 16. Chalice of Antioch, detail
  17. 17. Da . Da Da!!!! Justinian saves the day!! <ul><li>in 527 Justinian ascends the throne of the Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine Empire), recaptures most of southern Italy and establishes Ravenna on the east coast as the new center of power </li></ul><ul><li>his reign begins the Golden Age of Byzantine culture and art and during this time an amazing number of churches are constructed in Ravenna </li></ul>Roman Empire at Justinian’s rise to power (527) Roman Empire at Justinian’s Death (527) Ravenna
  18. 18. San Vitale, Exterior, 525-547, Ravenna
  19. 19. <ul><li>large Octagonal Church with Dome over center </li></ul><ul><li>mosaics under arches illustrate biblical and contemporary events </li></ul>San Vitale - Interior, 525-547, Ravenna
  20. 20. <ul><li>Look at that mosaic madness!!! All out of tiny pieces of glass! </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Semicircle depicts two stories from the life of Abraham </li></ul><ul><li>Look at how clear the images are, easy to read and interpret. </li></ul><ul><li>With only a select few in the population able to read, these images were key in telling the story of the Bible. </li></ul>
  22. 23. <ul><li>Emperor Justinian and Attendants, mosaic, San Vitale </li></ul><ul><li>How would you describe how these figures look? ___________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Where do you see Christian symbols in this piece? (if you look closely and you know what to look for, there are at least 6) </li></ul>
  23. 24. <ul><li>halo informs us that Justinian is God’s holy representative </li></ul><ul><li>stylized, tall figures but faces are somewhat natural (most likely portraits) </li></ul><ul><li>costumes hide figure beneath, and are very stylized </li></ul><ul><li>large eyes stare from almond shaped faces </li></ul><ul><li>figures seem to float and pose for the viewer </li></ul><ul><li>monogram of Christ on shield </li></ul><ul><li>gold background symbolizes the holiness and perfection of heaven </li></ul>
  24. 25. <ul><li>following a revolt in 532, Justinian rebuilds Constantinople including the large Basilica Hagia Sophia (Church of Holy Wisdom) </li></ul><ul><li>**minarets were added in 1453 when the Moslems conquered Constantinople and changed the church into a Mosque </li></ul>Hagia Sophia
  25. 26. Future Architects take note: The Design of Hagia Sophia <ul><li>One of the most celebrated architectural masterpieces OF ALL TIME!!! </li></ul><ul><li>Incredible dome seems to float thanks to the pendentives that hold it up (no obvious big pillars </li></ul><ul><li>Known for its “mystical” light quality </li></ul><ul><li>designed by architects Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletos (don’t worry, you don’t have to memorize those names :) ) </li></ul><ul><li>structural challenge of placing a dome on a square structure in an aesthetically pleasing way </li></ul><ul><li>four concave triangles (pendentives) solve the problem and provide a graceful transition to the piers below...this had NEVER been tried on any other building before!! </li></ul>
  26. 27. The marvel of pendentives... See how the pendentives seem to disguise how the massive weight of the dome is held up? Very light and airy as a result....
  27. 28. Floor plan of Hagia Sophia <ul><li>Enormous piers that hold up the dome allow walls to have windows which let in light </li></ul>Pier Pendentive
  28. 29. Floor plan of Hagia Sophia <ul><li>Enormous piers that hold up the dome allow walls to have windows which let in light </li></ul>Pier Pendentive
  29. 30. <ul><li>80 m long, 40 m wide, dome is 60 m high (50 on the inside...that is the length of two basketball courts, end to end) </li></ul><ul><li>largest interior space in the world at the time </li></ul><ul><li>originally walls were covered with Byzantine mosaics </li></ul><ul><li>completed in less than 6 years </li></ul>
  30. 31. <ul><li>mosaics either scraped off or covered over by Muslims after conversion to Islam </li></ul><ul><li>today Hagia Sophia is a museum of Byzantine art </li></ul><ul><li>Christ appears compassionate and loving, face is realistic, robes and book are stylized and unnatural (restored in 1933) </li></ul>Hagia Sophia Mosaics Christ between the Virgin and Saint John the Baptist, mosaic, 1261
  31. 32. Enthroned Madonna and Child, 13 th Century, Egg Tempera on panel, 122 x 77 cm <ul><li>some mural painting was done near the end of the Byzantine Empire (iconostasis) </li></ul><ul><li>egg tempera was combined with gold to produce brilliant backgrounds </li></ul><ul><li>realistic gentle face and hands </li></ul><ul><li>poses are symbolic </li></ul><ul><li>robes appear flat, and use oriental-styled sunbursts </li></ul><ul><li>perspective and foreshortening is wrong </li></ul><ul><li>child is out of proportion—like a miniature adult </li></ul>
  32. 33. The Fall of the Roman Empire <ul><li>7 th Century – Islam is on the rise and soon Africa and the Near East are overrun by Arab armies </li></ul><ul><li>11 th Century – the Turks occupy a large part of Asia Minor, and the remaining elements in Southern Italy fall to the Normans </li></ul><ul><li>in 1453 the Turks conquer Constantinople itself </li></ul>
  33. 34. To sum up... <ul><li>Roman Basilica plan used for churches </li></ul><ul><li>Barbarian tribes drive Roman Empire out of Rome </li></ul><ul><li>Justinian re-conquers area and makes Ravenna the new capital </li></ul><ul><li>Roman Mosaics - natural stone / Byzantine Mosaics - pieces of glass </li></ul><ul><li>Hagia Sophia in Constantinople an architectural marvel </li></ul><ul><li>Byzantine mosaics develop a very distinctive style. Used to illustrate biblical stories </li></ul>

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