Introduksi KonsepData-Information-Knowledge-Data-Information-Knowledge-Wisdom (DIKW)Introduction to the Concept of Data-Information-Knowledge-Wisdom (DIKW)Materi Kedua Matakuliah Pengantar Teknologi InformasiDisampaikan oleh Coky Fauzi Alfi
Contents▪ What is the Data?▪ What is the Information?▪ What is the Knowledge?▪ What is the Wisdom?▪ DIKW Hierarchy
All our knowledge brings us nearer to our ignorance,All our ignorance brings us nearer to death,But nearness to death no nearer to GOD.Where is the Life we have lost in living?Where is the wisdom we have lost in knowledge ?Where is the knowledge we have lost in information ?The cycles of Heaven in twenty centuriesBring us farther from GOD and nearer to the Dust.The Rock (T. S. Eliot)
What is the Data?▪ Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia, Data adalah: 1. kenyataan yang ada yang berfungsi sebagai bahan sumber untuk menyusun suatu pendapat; 2. keterangan yang benar; 3. keterangan atau bahan yang dipakai untuk penalaran atau penyelidikan.▪ Tesaurus Bahasa Indonesia, Data sama dengan: ?? – bahan, bukti, evidensi, fakta, informasi, keterangan, masukan, petunjuk, statistik
What is the Data?▪ Data is raw.▪ It simply exists and has no significance beyond its existence (in and of itself).▪ It can exist in any form, usable or not.▪ It does not have meaning of itself(Russell Ackoff)
What is the Data?▪ Data by itself has no meaning → "of no use until...in a usable form“ → "know-nothing“ (Milan Zeleny)▪ Data are values of qualitative or quantitative variables. Data are typically the results of measurements and can be visualized using graphs or images.
Types of DataSun 1. Data as Fact Data are representations of facts about the world.Hot 2. Data as Signal Data are conceived of as "sensory stimuli, which we perceive through our senses"Word 3. Data as Symbol Data are "recorded (captured or stored) symbols"
What is the Information ?▪ Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia, Informasi adalah: 1. penerangan; 2. pemberitahuan▪ Tesaurus Bahasa Indonesia, Informasi adalah: 1. penerangan, penjelasan; 2. bahan, berita, data, embaran, fakta, kabar, keterangan, laporan, liputan, warta
What is the Information ?Information is data that has been givenmeaning by way of relational connection. This"meaning" can be useful, but does not have tobe.(Russell Ackoff)
What is the Information ?Information is inferred from data in the processof answering interrogative questions (e.g.,"who", "what", "where", "how many", "when"),thereby making the data useful for decisionsand/or action.
What is the Knowledge ?Knowledge transforms "information intoinstructions.“(Russel Ackoff)
What is the Knowledge ? Knowledge is the combination of data andinformation, to which is added expert opinion, skillsand experience, to result in a valuable asset whichcan be used to aid decision making.(The European Committee for Standardizations"Guide to Good Practice in Knowledge Management“)
Communicating KnowledgeKnowledge can be transferred.Writing is the most available and most universal of allforms of recording and transmitting knowledge.
Situated KnowledgeSituated knowledge is knowledge specific to aparticular situation, generated by trial and erroror learning from experience.
Partial KnowledgeIn real life situations, our knowledge is alwaysincomplete or partial. We often have a limitedamount of information and make decisionsaccordingly.
Scientific KnowledgeScientific knowledge is generated by scientificmethod.The scientific method consists of the collection ofdata through observation and experimentation, andthe formulation and testing of hypotheses.
Types of Knowledge1. Tacit Knowledge Kind of knowledge that is hard to encode and communicate2. Explicit Knowledge Kind of knowledge that can be encoded and is transmittable in language
What is the Wisdom ?Wisdom is the ability to increase effectiveness.Wisdom adds value, which requires the mentalfunction that we call judgment. The ethical andaesthetic values that this implies are inherent to theactor and are unique and personal.(Jennifer Rowley)