Content Conundrum: Remaking the Value Chain


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As the focus of publishing shifts to digital content, information providers are reengineering the content supply chain to maximize revenues, lower costs and meet changing consumer demands.

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Content Conundrum: Remaking the Value Chain

  1. 1. • Cognizant 20-20 InsightsContent Conundrum:Remaking the Value Chain Executive Summary • Legacy/disparate systems are leading to data latency, inhibiting real-time content delivery. The global information and publishing industry is in the midst of a digital revolution that is • Multiple content conversions are required to transforming the face of this business segment. deliver standardized content across multiple The rise of the millennials and their quest for platforms. anytime, anywhere content, as well as a multitude • The digital-first strategy requires better of technology advancements, are reshaping the taxonomy management and an improved core business of information dissemination. This underlying information architecture. is forcing information providers and publishers to realize that digital content consumption differs • There is a need to make content “smarter,” add semantic capabilities, improve search and greatly from the consumption of print content boost opportunities for monetization. and to reexamine how they manage their content supply chains. • A lack of IT-BPO synergy exists between technology and content services to aid faster These developments — most notably, the time-to-market and continuing advancement increasing availability of free content, the primacy of automation. of search as a revenue model, a growing emphasis on content monetization and the ability to render First-Mover Advantage content in multiple formats across multiple devices The industry has responded positively, with — are redefining the way information providers leading publishers in segments such as scientific/ and publishers conduct business. The propensity technical/medical (STM), education, books and to continuously improve the management of newspapers building capabilities to offer better content assets, while maximizing its monetiza- differentiated content. By reengineering the tion potential, is reaffirming the adage, “content content supply chain, the industry intends to reap is king.” additional benefits that include: As market demand for enriched content increases, • Creating new revenue models out of existing content assets. publishers are looking at better ways of optimizing their content supply chains. The progress has • Meeting changing consumer content interac- been slow, and the path has been riddled with tions. inherent pain points, including: • Making one’s content accessible to the right consumer at the right time for the right • Print-centric content workflows are not optimized for digital, mobile delivery. outcome. cognizant 20-20 insights | november 2011
  2. 2. • Speeding time-to-market. The Content Lifecycle:• Lowering “transaction” costs. What the Future HoldsWith the focus of the content business shifting In a print-centric world, the publishing process —to digital, the race is on to offer differentiated from product envisioning and content authoring,content in niche areas, leading to a significant through distribution — was split into four distinctsurge in volume. Publishers across segments segments: author, production, storage andhandle large volumes of unstructured content delivery. Today’s changing market dynamics,that must first be standardized in media-neutral players, processes and systems require publishersformats. to rethink their content generation, storage and delivery strategies, as well as reassess theAdded to this, publishers are also looking at underlying tools, technologies and processes thatmonetizing their legacy archived content, which power them.means going beyond generic PDF conversions,to converting legacy content to XML and tagging Maximizing returns on content assets requireseach asset in order to enhance search and moneti- content publishers to view the “production”zation opportunities. Redigitizing backlisted titles segment as not merely a content services playhas opened up new growth vistas for book and but a combination of the architect, structure,education businesses, most notably at companies enhance and produce stages. These segments,such as Pearson and Wiley. along with the author stage, will not necessarily be sequential in order but will flatten and inter-Content Strategy: Why Now? mingle, depending on the publisher and the finalThe digital transformation sweeping the industry product. The new content supply chain, hence,is led by the proliferation of e-readers, tablets needs to be seen as a seven-stage process (seeand smartphones that are wirelessly linked in Figure 1), as follows:real-time to global content stores and supply 1. Author: This stage includes content acqui-systems. At the core, XML repositories and newer sition, authoring and ingestion, as well astechnologies are altering the way content is product development. Interactions arestored and consumed today. These changes in managed between the publisher and theconsumption and storage patterns have created author(s), and in some cases, multiple informa-a ripple effect, translating into changes in the tion channels are applied.way content is acquired, processed and enriched.The ripples have impacted the initial areas of the 2. Architect/Design: In this stage, XML schemacontent supply chain, most notably in content and document type definition (DTD) witharchitecture and enhancement, underlining the taxonomy definition and the underlying infor-growing relevance of taxonomy management and mation architecture is designed or applied.effective metadata tagging and their direct cor- Taxonomy (i.e., classifying content in a hierar-relation to search. chical structure) and XML schema design will become a key focus area, as publishers seek toWhile publishers and content service providers make sense of the growing volume of social-(or content BPO companies) previously partnered media-derived, unstructured content and offerin the content production process, today content content products to their readers.publishers need “knowledge partners” that, in 3. Structure: Essential format conversions aretheir quest for market leadership, will apply the managed in this stage. This is important, givennecessary domain expertise and best practices. the mutiple sources and formats of contentTraditionally, content publishers and IT service acquisition, as well as the market-drivenproviders have been strong in the content storage demand for content delivery across differentand delivery areas. The developments caused by formats and platforms (e.g., PDF to XML, XMLthe aforementioned ripple effect are blurring the to HTML5, XML to NewsML, etc.). The explosionfine line between IT and content BPO services and of e-readers and devices, each with their ownaccentuating the move toward smart content and proprietary format, further increases thetighter IT-BPO synergy. importance of content structuring. cognizant 20-20 insights 2
  3. 3. 4. Enhance: Here, publishers enrich content and mobile, smartphone/tablets and multimedia add value through metadata tagging, linking delivery platforms. similar articles and indexing, providing the In addition, content publishers need to look at framework for linking content and related four key horizontal components that will form the items. Entity extraction, resolution and linking new content supply chain across the aforemen- make the content “smart” and are increasingly tioned seven segments: an integral part of the content provider’s infor- mation landscape. • Knowledge Layer: A core understanding of their industry domains, such as STM, education5. Produce: This stage includes content service and legal, as well as the latest technolo- areas, which can be viewed as a set of com- gies and tools, are essential for creating the moditized activities, such as typesetting, underlying information architecture, linking paginating and proofing. data, metadata tagging and better taxonomy management.6. Store: In the storage stage, binary and non- binary content stores are created, as are XML • Technology Layer: Technology know-how is needed to develop applications and build APIs, repositories and digital asset management adapters, product implementations, enhance- products, providing enhanced search capabili- ments and support. ties. Search is increasingly used as an informa- tion discovery tool across segments and is the • Product Layer: Capabilities across a multitude of product areas are required, including new revenue stream for many information and authoring tools such as the Adobe suite of content providers. products; editorial workflow products and tools7. Deliver: This final stage includes the need for such as Atex, K4 and Woodwing; CMS products capabilities to render content in print, online, such as Documentum and eScenic; and XML repositories like MarkLogic.The New Content Lifecycle Author Architect Structure Enhance Produce Store Deliver 1. Author Servicing 1. Semantic Tagging 1. Convert/Key 1. Edit/Copy Edit 1. Format 1. Operate CMS 1. Operate Delivery 2. Collect Aggregate 2. Ontology/ 2. Structure 2. Value-Add/ 2. Paginate System 3. Review Taxonomy Tagging 3. Scan/OCR Enhance 3. Produce 2. Customer/ User-Generated Fulfillment Content 3. Inventory Management Project Management Service 1. Authoring System 1. Tools & Systems 1. Conversion & 1. Editorial/ 1. Pagination or 1.CMS 1. Web Delivery 2. Collection System for Ontology/ Structuring Tools Value-Add Production 2. QA System Systems 3. Review System Taxonomy/ 2. XML Schemas Systems System 3. Search & 2. Print Production Semantics/ 2. XML Editors 2. XSLT Style Retrieval System Metada Sheets 3. E-learning/ Multimedia Workflow Management System (or Business Process Management System) 1. Develop/ 1. Develop/ 1. Develop/ 1. Develop/ 1. Develop/ 1. Develop/ 1. Develop Implement Implement Implement Implement Implement Implement Delivery System 2. Manage/Maintain 2. Manage/ 2. Manage & 2. Manage & 2. Manage & 2. Manage & 2. Maintain & 3. QA Maintain Maintain Maintain Maintain Maintain Repair 3. QA 3. QA 3. QA 3. QA 3. QA 3. QA Product Designing, Customizing, Upgrading & Maintaining Service Layer 1. Write/Develop 1. Content 1. Select & 1. Value-Add/ 1. Select & 1. Select & 1. Architect/ 2. Review/Select/ Architecture Architect/Design Enhance Architect/Design Architect/ Design Delivery Asses 2. Develop Ontology Conversion & 2. Abstracting. Pagination/ Design CMS Systems 3. Market Study/ 3. Design Semantics Structuring Tools Indexing Production Systems Business Plan 4. Select Metadata 3. Industry Standards 4. Architect/ Field 4. Select/Architect/ Design System 5. Industry Standards Design XML Editors Knowledge Layer Architect/ Structure/ Format/ Create Enhance/Edit Manage Deliver Design Convert ProduceFigure 1 cognizant 20-20 insights 3
  4. 4. • Services Layer: Traditionally managed by set of activities designed to maximize returns content BPO providers, this layer will manage on content assets. This includes redesigning the the content production processes, from copy- information architecture; conducting assess- editing to pre-press. ments around the current state of the content business and underlying systems; and per-The Publisher of Tomorrow forming a structured content audit to unearthBy adopting a seven-pillar/four-services matrix, hidden assets and marketability of currentcontent publishers can embrace a more collab- assets to maximize existing revenue streams.orative publishing ecosystem and eliminate thesiloed and legacy-systems-dominated world in A recent consulting assignment at a largewhich many content publishers live. In this model, UK-based magazine revealed that minimalgreater emphasis is given to XML schema design, tagging of content within the magazine’s Web sitetaxonomy management and dynamic content and lack of connection between the magazine’smanagement, which encompasses automatic content assets were directly impacting revenues,metadata tagging. In sum, this approach not only as sales teams found it difficult to drive contenthelps content publishers overcome a lack of coor- monetization across various aspects of its onlinedination that exists between current IT and BPO presence.providers, but it will also help content publishersenhance the value of all content assets. Another engagement revealed that by hyper- linking and directing traffic to its “group” site,Moreover, with increasing market appetite for an information publisher with a multi-productcustom content and the emergence of micro portfolio could enhance content-driven revenuecontent monetization, publishers need to create streams and create additional cross-sell andsmaller nuggets, or bite-size content, by break- up-sell opportunities. Hyperlinks from free sitesing down and packaging text into its smallest and newsletters can help information providersminimum form as words, chapters, images, graph- generate new revenue streams by drivingics, etc. Knowledge partners can help publishers additional traffic to their paid sites, wheredeconstruct, reassemble and monetize custom premium content can be served and monetized.content packages based on user demand. As content providers embark on this journey,Enhanced content monetization cannot be accom- a knowledge partner with the right mix ofplished without precise tagging of content assets. technology, domain, product and services skillsWhile custom content publishing is prevalent in can offer the experience and insights needed tothe education sector, newer segments — such as implement the process and technology trans-information, news and even information interme- formation needed to fulfill content providers’diaries — are waking up to this opportunity. aspirations of providing enriched, niche and world-class content to their end consumers.A publisher’s content strategy is not aboutlegacy modernization or new product imple-mentation; rather, it should encompass a wholeAbout the AuthorsSwami Nathan C is a Senior Manager within Cognizant Business Consulting and the domain lead for thecompany’s Information, Media and Entertainment business unit. He has over 19 years of publishing andIT experience, with deep understanding of the global media and information markets and is a core leadin the company’s content strategy initiative. Swami has played a key role in multiple engagements acrossthe newspaper, education, STM information, legal information and content services segments. He holdsa post-graduate degree in management from Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani, India, andcan be reached at Dhandhania has 25 years of experience as a professional consultant and content entrepreneur inthe IT/BPO industry. Among his many accomplishments, he built a content services business that offereda variety of services to global publishers in the STM, legal and educational segments. Punit specializesin content transformation, IT and BPO/KPO strategies and advises C-level execs on key information andpublishing organizations. Punit can be reached at cognizant 20-20 insights 4
  5. 5. About CognizantCognizant (NASDAQ: CTSH) is a leading provider of information technology, consulting, and business process out-sourcing services, dedicated to helping the world’s leading companies build stronger businesses. Headquartered inTeaneck, New Jersey (U.S.), Cognizant combines a passion for client satisfaction, technology innovation, deep industryand business process expertise, and a global, collaborative workforce that embodies the future of work. With over 50delivery centers worldwide and approximately 130,000 employees as of September 30, 2011, Cognizant is a member ofthe NASDAQ-100, the S&P 500, the Forbes Global 2000, and the Fortune 500 and is ranked among the top performingand fastest growing companies in the world. Visit us online at or follow us on Twitter: Cognizant. World Headquarters European Headquarters India Operations Headquarters 500 Frank W. Burr Blvd. 1 Kingdom Street #5/535, Old Mahabalipuram Road Teaneck, NJ 07666 USA Paddington Central Okkiyam Pettai, Thoraipakkam Phone: +1 201 801 0233 London W2 6BD Chennai, 600 096 India Fax: +1 201 801 0243 Phone: +44 (0) 20 7297 7600 Phone: +91 (0) 44 4209 6000 Toll Free: +1 888 937 3277 Fax: +44 (0) 20 7121 0102 Fax: +91 (0) 44 4209 6060 Email: Email: Email:© Copyright 2011, Cognizant. All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transmitted in any form or by anymeans, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the express written permission from Cognizant. The information contained herein issubject to change without notice. All other trademarks mentioned herein are the property of their respective owners.