Discourse or Document?
Issues of adopting Emerging Digital Genres for
           Scholarly Communication

              Dr...
My prior research and this presentation

●   I study linguistic aspects of scholarly communication (blogs, microblogs, wik...
Initial observations

●   scholarly communication shaped by the technology
●   digital scholarly communication at the mome...
Terminology: digital natives vs. digital immigrants

It is amazing to me how in all the hoopla and debate these days about...
Terminology: the long tail

                             For too long we've been suffering the tyranny of
                ...
Terminology: conceptually spoken vs. conceptually
written language
conceptually spoken language                  conceptua...
Terminology: conceptual metaphors

There is a cognitive and cross-linguistic tendency to interpret new, abstract, complex ...
A (very brief) history of scholarly publishing
Science blogging: UsefulChem

                          To clear up confusion, I will use the term Open
                  ...
Lab wikis: OpenWetWare

                         OpenWetWare is an effort to promote
                         the sharing ...
arXiv and Twitter mashups: Tweprints
                                  Tweprints aims to collect and
                     ...
Video abstracts: Journal of Number Theory

                               “The WWW allows us to personalize our
          ...
Visualizing and embedding data: ManyEyes/Wordle

                         Rather than representing the end result of the
 ...
How can we characterize what is happening?

In comparison to paper-based scholarship, digital scholarly information is...
...
From the Object Web to the Social Web




       1990s                            2009
Object Web metaphors vs. Social Web metaphors

Object Web metaphors                    Social Web metaphors
●   page      ...
What has motivated the shift of metaphors?

Object Web                              Social Web
●   bound to specific devic...
Speaking vs. writing


  “speaking”           “writing”

  spontaneous          planned

  discursive           monologic
...
Frequencies words in academic papers and blogs

Academic papers in linguistics: the, of, and, in, a, to, is, that, univers...
At the heart of scholarship: authority

●   scholarly communication is dependent on authority
●   paper-based scholarly co...
Issues

●   especially those disciplines where “the data does not speak” (=Humanities) are potentially
challenged in their...
Likely future forms

●   less uninterrupted monologue
●   pastiches of media and voices
●   meta-information likely to be ...
Thanks for listening!
Thanks for listening!
Discourse or Document?
Issues of adopting Emerging Digital Genres for
           Scholarly Communication

              Dr...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Discourse Or Document? Issues of adopting Emerging Digital Genres for Scholarly Communication

1,286 views

Published on

Held on June 24th 2009 in Cologne at the 5th International Conference on e-Social Science (http://www.ncess.ac.uk/conference-09/) as part of the workshop 'Scientific Writing and New Patterns of Scientific Communication' organized by Julian Newman and Esther Breuer.

Published in: Technology, Education
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,286
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
25
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
40
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Discourse Or Document? Issues of adopting Emerging Digital Genres for Scholarly Communication

  1. 1. Discourse or Document? Issues of adopting Emerging Digital Genres for Scholarly Communication Dr. des. Cornelius Puschmann, M.A. Heinrich-Heine University Düsseldorf cornelius.puschmann@uni-duesseldorf.de Scientific Writing and New Patterns of Scientific Communication 5th International Conference on e-Social Science Maternushaus, Cologne 24 June 2009
  2. 2. My prior research and this presentation ● I study linguistic aspects of scholarly communication (blogs, microblogs, wikis) ● this presentation addresses ● conceptualizations of paper-based vs. digital communication ● how differences in these conceptualizations are linguistically reflected ● what the implications are for scholarly communication
  3. 3. Initial observations ● scholarly communication shaped by the technology ● digital scholarly communication at the moment largely imitates pre-digital forms (“e-journals”, “e-books” etc) ● we are increasingly shedding the constraints of pre-digital metaphors (Web 2.0) ● but cultural conventions follow technology only slowly (“cultural lag”)
  4. 4. Terminology: digital natives vs. digital immigrants It is amazing to me how in all the hoopla and debate these days about the decline of education in the US we ignore the most fundamental of its causes. Our students have changed radically. Today’s students are no longer the people our educational system was designed to teach. - Prensky (2001)
  5. 5. Terminology: the long tail For too long we've been suffering the tyranny of lowest-common-denominator fare, subjected to brain-dead summer blockbusters and manufactured pop. Why? Economics. Many of our assumptions about popular taste are actually artifacts of poor supply-and-demand matching - a market response to inefficient distribution. The main problem, [...] is that we live in the physical world. - Anderson (2004)
  6. 6. Terminology: conceptually spoken vs. conceptually written language conceptually spoken language conceptually written language ● prototype: face-to-face communication ● prototype: paper document ● conversation ● reference works ● phone call ● legal texts ● instant messaging/Twitter ● newspapers ● planned speeches ● academic articles ● … ● … = prototype is medially spoken, co-spatial, = prototype is medially written, non-co- synchronous, dialogical spatial, asynchronous, monological Koch & Oesterreicher (1994)
  7. 7. Terminology: conceptual metaphors There is a cognitive and cross-linguistic tendency to interpret new, abstract, complex and non- physical concepts in terms of familiar, concrete, simple(r) and tangible concepts. An example: THEORIES (AND ARGUMENTS) ARE BUILDINGS ● Is that the foundation for your theory? ● The theory needs more support. ● The argument is shaky. ● We need some more facts or the argument will fall apart. ● We need to construct a strong argument for that. - Lakoff and Johnson (1980)
  8. 8. A (very brief) history of scholarly publishing
  9. 9. Science blogging: UsefulChem To clear up confusion, I will use the term Open Notebook Science, which has not yet suffered meme mutation. By this I mean that there is a URL to a laboratory notebook that is freely available and indexed on common search engines. It does not necessarily have to look like a paper notebook but it is essential that all of the information available to the researchers to make their conclusions is equally available to the rest of the world. Basically, no insider information. - Bradley 2006
  10. 10. Lab wikis: OpenWetWare OpenWetWare is an effort to promote the sharing of information, know-how, and wisdom among researchers and groups who are working in biology & biological engineering. - OpenWetWare.org
  11. 11. arXiv and Twitter mashups: Tweprints Tweprints aims to collect and organise the arXiv papers mentioned on Twitter. - orbitingfrog.com/arxiv
  12. 12. Video abstracts: Journal of Number Theory “The WWW allows us to personalize our papers in ways never before possible... you can present the motivational history of the research contained in your article.” - David Goss, editor
  13. 13. Visualizing and embedding data: ManyEyes/Wordle Rather than representing the end result of the experiment, the data from my experiments inspired more sharply focused readings of the texts. A visualization like the Wordle image of under- and overrepresented words should not, and really cannot, stand as evidence in proving a hypothesis. The visualization is simply not empirical in nature. In a way, word clouds, as visual representations of criticism, can be seen as art useful in representing other modes of art. And, as with any instance of artistic representation, they remain open to interpretation. - Steger (2009)
  14. 14. How can we characterize what is happening? In comparison to paper-based scholarship, digital scholarly information is... ● disseminated more rapidly and in smaller chunks (e.g. Twitter) ● more strongly personalized (e.g. blogs) ● more strongly contextualized (when/by whom is smth. created?) ● more likely to be non-textual (audio, video, interactive models, ...)
  15. 15. From the Object Web to the Social Web 1990s 2009
  16. 16. Object Web metaphors vs. Social Web metaphors Object Web metaphors Social Web metaphors ● page ● profile ● site ● friend ● browse ● follow ● “on” the Internet ● poke ● “go to” a website ● “X says in her blog...” ● … ● … = Web is a physical space filled with = Web is a socio-communicative objects interaction between people
  17. 17. What has motivated the shift of metaphors? Object Web Social Web ● bound to specific devices and ● Internet no longer bound to PC and limited contexts work settings ● limited Internet connectivity ● Internet connectivity is ubiquitous ● communication is asynchronous ● communication is synchronous ● “conveyer-belt interpretation” ● content is created and lives online ● Net speeds up existing practices, ● new practices arise doesn't change them
  18. 18. Speaking vs. writing “speaking” “writing” spontaneous planned discursive monologic qualified constative transient persistent contextual non-contextual
  19. 19. Frequencies words in academic papers and blogs Academic papers in linguistics: the, of, and, in, a, to, is, that, universal, this, for, implicatures, inferences, not, read, scalar, as, are, choice, free Academic blog entries: the, to, a, and, of, is, in, that, I, it, are, on, as, be, but, for, not, with, you, this (both registers are much more diverse than this simple example can show, but:) ● lexis in academic papers is complex and abstract ● blogs assign discourse roles (“I”, “you”)
  20. 20. At the heart of scholarship: authority ● scholarly communication is dependent on authority ● paper-based scholarly communication supports authoritative voice, because ● traditional publishing is mandated by institutions ● printed texts are permanent and immutable ● long, uninterrupted monologues naturally create authority ● author can be linguistically distant from his writing (no first person, no personal verbs etc) ● writing fosters specific conventions and code (formulaic language, jargon) that are exclusive to a group ● control, permanence, objectivity, exclusivity are so far crucial to scholarly authority
  21. 21. Issues ● especially those disciplines where “the data does not speak” (=Humanities) are potentially challenged in their authority ● impact on research and publishing practices likely to be significant in those disciplines ● more collaboration ● more stringent methodology ● more empiricism, data ● new ways and skills needed to establish authority
  22. 22. Likely future forms ● less uninterrupted monologue ● pastiches of media and voices ● meta-information likely to be encoded and exploited (who/when/where) because it simplifies writing and reading ● permanent, “interpersonal-style” narrative? ● Google Wave?
  23. 23. Thanks for listening! Thanks for listening!
  24. 24. Discourse or Document? Issues of adopting Emerging Digital Genres for Scholarly Communication Dr. des. Cornelius Puschmann, M.A. Heinrich-Heine University Düsseldorf cornelius.puschmann@uni-duesseldorf.de Scientific Writing and New Patterns of Scientific Communication 5th International Conference on e-Social Science Maternushaus, Cologne 24 June 2009

×