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Lecture 5

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Lecture 5

  1. 1. IBM 208
  2. 2. <ul><li>Methodology: The Framework associated with a particular set of paradigmatic assumptions that you will use to conduct your research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scientific Method, Ethnography, or Action Research </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Methods: The techniques you will use to collect data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interviewing, surveying, or participative observation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tools: The devices you will use to help you collect data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Questionnaires, observation checklists, interview schedules </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Methodological Design: The plan for conducting your study that includes all of the above </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Assuming you are happy with your research question. The next step is figuring out how to best go about getting the answers, in other words, defining the element of your methodological design. </li></ul><ul><li>Your methodological design needs to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Address the research question </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be within your capacity and interest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be practical and doable </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Before conducting data collection process you need to consider what are your skills and interests? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are you a people person? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are you comfortable having intimate chats with strangers ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do you like working with words or would you rather play with numbers? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can you be objective or will you struggle to keep your opinion? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Have a good think about where your skills and interest lies. It would be kind of silly to go down the path of large scale surveys if you know you hate stats. </li></ul><ul><li>If you do not have the right communication skills it might be a torturous route that ends up not doing justice to you research process. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus, you need to know your skills, therefore this might affect the quality of the data you collect. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Ethics approval </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acknowledge responsibility for integrity in the production of knowledge and ensure that the mental, emotional, and physical welfare of respondents is protected. If your study is unethical or does not have ethic approval, it should not be considered doable. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do you have enough money to actually invest in this research? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ambitious is good but ambitious yet realistic is better. If you have no given yourself time to do what your methodological design demands, you are likely to be headed down a very frustrating and stressful path. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Access </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A major challenge for any researcher is gaining access to data. If you cant find a way to access people, places, and records, the methodological plan is pretty much useless </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Methodological design is all about </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Being able to answer the basic questions of who, where, when, how, and what. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Being able to assess your answers in relation to the prerequisites above. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Who: Who do you want to be able to speak about? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is you “population” or the realm of applicability for your results? Are your findings limited to only those you spoke to, or do you want to be able to speak for a broader group? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Who do you plan to speak to / observe? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is quite rare to be able to speak to every single person you wish to speak about. If who you wish to speak about is your population then you will actually speak to is your “Sample”. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The key is that your sample is either intrinsically interesting or representative of a broader population. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>What is the physical domain of your sample? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Working out how far a field you need to go in order to carry out your methods. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Will you need to travel to different geographic areas? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Are settings relevant to the credibility of your methods? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Considering how place can impact method. If you wanted to conduct an interview with teachers, you would need to consider if an informal chat at the Friday night in the café will generate data distinct from that gathered through informal on-site interview. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>How do your methods fit into your time frame? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There are plenty of students who underestimate just how long it takes to collect data, let alone analysing it, draw conclusion from it, and finally produce a finished product. The question of “When” needs to be framed in relation to your overall timeline. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Is timing relevant to the credibility of your methods? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If you were to conduct a survey or interview when it is most convenient to you, without considering how ‘when’ can affect your data, you can put your study’s credibility at risk. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>There are numerous ways to collect data (look at chapter 8) eg. Observation, interviews, surveys, and document analysis. </li></ul><ul><li>You will need to consider two key questions in relation to how </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How will I collect my data? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This involves deciding on the methods and tools you will use to collect, gather, and/or generate your data </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How will I conduct my methods? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Once you decide on your method, you will need to consider whether what tools would you use to help your method. Eg. Tape record or take notes or whether your observation will involve living in a community for a year or making a defined number of visits. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>What will you look for and what will you ask? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Depending on your methods, this might involve developing questionnaires, observation checklists, and frameworks for document analysis. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not do this alone: Make sure you get advice and support </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Credibility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transferability, which highlights that lessons learned might be applicable in alternative settings. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generalizability: to be able to show that findings are directly applicable to a larger population. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>The first step in understanding and representing a population is to be able to name that population. Now populations are commonly made up of individuals but depending on the nature of the research question. </li></ul><ul><li>The unit of analysis might be households, workplaces, or events </li></ul><ul><li>Once you have identified the unit of analysis, you need to consider further defining characteristics. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You will need to consider if your population is restricted to all the people, events, or workplaces in a particular community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In populations made up of individuals, characteristics might include age, class, gender, marital status, and race. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Populations made up of organizations might be defined by number of employees, year of operation, type of business. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>How many people do I need in my sample? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The nature of your research. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You need to know your goals (transferability or generalizability) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Type of data you plan to collect. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Qualitative researcher does not interest in looking for representativeness, the goal is often rich understanding that may come from the few, rather than the many </li></ul><ul><li>Quantitative on the other hand, is to attempt to get as large a sample as possible within time and expense constraints. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The logic is that the larger the sample, the more likely it can be representative and therefore generalizable. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Simple random sampling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Every person has an equal chance of begin chosen as the subject. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Systematic sampling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Involves selecting every case within a defined population. It may involve going to every 10 th house or selecting every 20 th person on a list </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cluster sampling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Select a group of people. Clusters might be schools, churches, or even geographic regions. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Handpicked Sampling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The selection of a sample with a particular purpose in mind. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Snowball Sampling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Often used when working with populations that are not easily identified or accessed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>You begin by identifying someone from your population who is willing to be in your study. You then ask them to identify others who meet the study criteria. Each of those individuals is then asked for further recommendations. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Volunteer Sampling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Selecting a sample by asking for volunteers </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Further Develop your Literature Review (1000 words) to narrow down your research question. </li></ul><ul><li>Write up your methodology, method, tools, and methodological design (1000-1200 words) . </li></ul><ul><li>The following information should be in your research design: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is your purpose of the study and why </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explain who, where, when, how, and what </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Type of investigation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Study settings and extent of researcher interference </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unit of analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sampling Design (Random or non-random) and why </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Any ethical issues that needed to be discussed? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Qualitative data collection (How will you collect data? What is your method and tools eg. Interview, observation, or focus group) and whether all these will help you to answer the research questions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How would you analyze your data (grounded theory, content analysis, theme coding system) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lastly, you need to present your questionnaires, survey questions or observation techniques in details that will answer your research question (Separate page). </li></ul><ul><li>Due on the 8 th January 2011 worth 20% (Happy New Year  ) </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Main question “What are the challenges and difficulties in a family business succession” </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>To understand the background of family members </li></ul><ul><li>What is your involvement in this business? </li></ul><ul><li>Why do you work for the family business? </li></ul><ul><li>What is your future expectation? </li></ul><ul><li>What is your goal working for the family? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you see youself working somewhere else? Why and why not? </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>What type of research would you consider unethical? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the advantages and disadvantages of structured and non structured interviews? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the advantages and disadvantages of open-ended versus closed questions? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the differences between nonparticipant-observer and participant observer? </li></ul><ul><li>Next week I would like to see your questionnaires, survey questions, or observation technique. Please submit it to me </li></ul>