The two types of reinforcement are distinguished as being either ‘positive’ or ‘negative’. What do the concepts ‘positive’ and ‘negative’ refer to within these terms?
Within these terms, ‘positive’ refers to theaddition of something good, whereas‘negative’ refers to the ‘removal’ ofsomething bad
Shaping – a strategy in which a reinforcer is given for any response that successively approximates and ultimately leads to the final desired response Used to train behaviours that are unlikely to occur spontaneously
The consistent use of Operant conditioning to alter behaviour over time Use of tokens as rewards that can be ‘cashed in’ for bigger rewards later Schools Prisons
Can effect the relationship – The punisher may be disliked, or stop speaking to the punisher Punishment can be perceived as attention and have the opposite effect Punishment does not teach desirable behaviour
It should be presented immediately following this undesirable behavior. Punishment should be aimed at behaviour and not personality Once the punishment has started the punisher should not back down. Should be combined with positive reinforcement