Lesson 7 -   MemoryDecline and theHealthy Ageing     BrainFriday, 13 April 2012
From last Lesson........What role does the hippocampus play in memory?Friday, 13 April 2012
From last Lesson........What role does the hippocampus play in memory?Research suggests that the hippocampus is critical t...
Outcomes (What you need to know and be able to do)• Explain how memory changes over a lifespan• Explain amnesia resulting ...
AmnesiaAmnesia – Loss of memory, partial or complete, temporaryor permanent. Can be caused by either of:Friday, 13 April 2...
AmnesiaAmnesia – Loss of memory, partial or complete, temporaryor permanent. Can be caused by either of:                  ...
AmnesiaAmnesia – Loss of memory, partial or complete, temporaryor permanent. Can be caused by either of:                  ...
Friday, 13 April 2012
Retrograde Amnesia                        Cant remember old information                        Events before the injury lo...
Retrograde Amnesia                             Cant remember old information                             Events before the...
Anterograge AmnesiaFriday, 13 April 2012
Retrograde AmnesiaFriday, 13 April 2012
DementiaLarge group of neurodegenerative diseases that cause adecline in mental functioning.                             D...
Alzheimer’s Disease• The most common form of dementia• Accounts for 50 – 70% of dementia• Neurodegenerative disease that c...
Alzheimer’s Disease•     100,000 Australians effected•     1 in 25 over 60•     1 in 8 over 80•     No simple diagnostic t...
Alzheimer’s DiseaseFriday, 13 April 2012
Alzheimer’s Disease - symptoms  Typical memory loss includes  • Events  • Words and names  • Written and verbal directions...
Alzheimer’s Disease – Post-mortem•    Show high levels of the protein Amyloid•    Highly toxic – causes cell death•    Cau...
Alzheimer’s Disease - a race to the cureFriday, 13 April 2012
Memory decline over the lifespan  Not necessarily inevitable, some natural decline is normal,  amount of decline depends o...
Memory decline over the lifespan Older people Do take longer to learn new info STM – depends on the task, easy one part ta...
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Lesson 7 memory decline and the healthy aging brain 2012

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Lesson 7 memory decline and the healthy aging brain 2012

  1. 1. Lesson 7 - MemoryDecline and theHealthy Ageing BrainFriday, 13 April 2012
  2. 2. From last Lesson........What role does the hippocampus play in memory?Friday, 13 April 2012
  3. 3. From last Lesson........What role does the hippocampus play in memory?Research suggests that the hippocampus is critical to theformation and consolidation of memories, playing part indeciding if information received a by the senses is worthremembering, then organising memories before directingthem to other sections of the brain.Friday, 13 April 2012
  4. 4. Outcomes (What you need to know and be able to do)• Explain how memory changes over a lifespan• Explain amnesia resulting from brain trauma and neurodegenerative diseases including dementia and Alzheimer’s disease• Compare how memory declines over the lifespan with amnesia resulting from brain trauma and neurodegenerative diseases including dementia and Alzheimer’s diseaseFriday, 13 April 2012
  5. 5. AmnesiaAmnesia – Loss of memory, partial or complete, temporaryor permanent. Can be caused by either of:Friday, 13 April 2012
  6. 6. AmnesiaAmnesia – Loss of memory, partial or complete, temporaryor permanent. Can be caused by either of: Brain trauma – damage inflicted through injury interferes with functioning E.g. Brain injury, stroke, drug abuse etcFriday, 13 April 2012
  7. 7. AmnesiaAmnesia – Loss of memory, partial or complete, temporaryor permanent. Can be caused by either of: Brain trauma – damage inflicted through injury interferes with functioning E.g. Brain injury, stroke, drug abuse etc Neurodegenerative disease – decline in structure and function of neurons E.g. Alzheimers diseaseFriday, 13 April 2012
  8. 8. Friday, 13 April 2012
  9. 9. Retrograde Amnesia Cant remember old information Events before the injury lost Usually temporary and caused by a blow to the head Memory of events immediately preceding the injury are permanently lost (interruption or consolidation)Friday, 13 April 2012
  10. 10. Retrograde Amnesia Cant remember old information Events before the injury lost Usually temporary and caused by a blow to the head Memory of events immediately preceding the injury are permanently lost (interruption or consolidation) Anterograge Amnesia Can’t make new Long Term memories of events that occur after the injury – hippocampus damage common Cannot transfer information from STM to LTMFriday, 13 April 2012
  11. 11. Anterograge AmnesiaFriday, 13 April 2012
  12. 12. Retrograde AmnesiaFriday, 13 April 2012
  13. 13. DementiaLarge group of neurodegenerative diseases that cause adecline in mental functioning. Dementia develops progressively with loss of memory an initial onset symptomFriday, 13 April 2012
  14. 14. Alzheimer’s Disease• The most common form of dementia• Accounts for 50 – 70% of dementia• Neurodegenerative disease that causes wide spread cell death• Causes decline in all aspects of cognitive function• Post-mortems reveal deposits of plaque along the damaged synapses• These plaques and tangles effect neural transmissionFriday, 13 April 2012
  15. 15. Alzheimer’s Disease• 100,000 Australians effected• 1 in 25 over 60• 1 in 8 over 80• No simple diagnostic test – really only know for sure when post-mortem conducted• Symptoms are different for each person further complicating diagnosisFriday, 13 April 2012
  16. 16. Alzheimer’s DiseaseFriday, 13 April 2012
  17. 17. Alzheimer’s Disease - symptoms Typical memory loss includes • Events • Words and names • Written and verbal directions • Stories, TV, Movies, Books • Semantic memory decline • Procedural memories Personality changes can also occur..........Friday, 13 April 2012
  18. 18. Alzheimer’s Disease – Post-mortem• Show high levels of the protein Amyloid• Highly toxic – causes cell death• Causes the development of the plaques and tangles• Brains also have a massive lack of acetylcholine (an important neurotransmitter) Why are you in my brain amy loid??? She likes to play twister and tangle things up. Doesn’t brush her teeth and leaves Plaque everywhere! She drinks all the acetylcholine mouthwashFriday, 13 April 2012
  19. 19. Alzheimer’s Disease - a race to the cureFriday, 13 April 2012
  20. 20. Memory decline over the lifespan Not necessarily inevitable, some natural decline is normal, amount of decline depends on, how retention is measured, motivation to remember, self confidence, nervous system slowing are possible explanations for the decline.Friday, 13 April 2012
  21. 21. Memory decline over the lifespan Older people Do take longer to learn new info STM – depends on the task, easy one part tasks ok, tasks that require divided attention not so good. Recall down, Recognition same LTM - Episodic down, Procedural same, Semantic SameFriday, 13 April 2012

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