And here you were thinking that you like FCUK because they make qualityclothing!
Explain the difference between developmentalplasticity and adaptive plasticity.
Explanation of the difference should refer todevelopmental plasticity as primarily involving changes inthe brain’s neural structure in response to experience duringits growth and development, and adaptive plasticity asprimarily involving changes occurring in the brain’s neuralstructure to enable adjustment to experience, tocompensate for lost function and/or to maximise remainingfunctions in the event of brain damage.
Describe Pavlov’s original experiments Describe and apply the key elements of classical conditioning (conditioned stimulus, unconditioned stimulus, conditioned response, unconditioned response, and neutral stimulus)
A simple form of learning, which occurs through repeated association of two (or more) different stimuli Learning is said to have occurred when a particular stimulus consistently produces a response that it did not previously elicit Learn to associate two events, stimuli, eventually, one stands for the other in our minds.
How does your dog know its time for a walk? Why do certain songs have meaning to different people? Why do people have phobias? Why cant I ever, ever, ever eat that again? Why do we buy ‘brand name’ products? ALL of these things are learned through classical conditioning! Advertisers are conditioning you to buy their product!
The discovery of CC was an accident Wanted to study digestion and the role of saliva Rerouted saliva ducts to a test tube so measurements could be taken Research ran into trouble when the dogs began to fill their cheek tubes before the food was presented The dogs were learning to anticipate food at the sight of the lab tech guy
The Neutral Stimulus (NS) - the name given to the conditioned stimulus before it becomes conditioned. In Pavlovs experiment NS = Bell or Lab technician etc… The Condoned Stimulus (CS) - the stimulus which is neutral at the start of conditioning. It wouldnt normally produce the Unconditioned response (UCR), but does so eventually because of its association with the Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS). CS = Bell or Lab technician etc… The Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) - Any stimulus that consistently produces a particular response. In Pavlovs Exp. UCS = food. The Unconditioned Response (UCR) - A response which occurs automatically when the Unconditioned Stimulus is presented. In Pavlovs experiment. UCR = Salivation. The Continued Response (CR) - the behaviours which is identical to the UCR but is caused by the CS after conditioning. In Pavlovs expt. CR = Salivation in response to the Bell (CS).
UCS – Walking UCS – Good times with friends UCR – Excitement UCR – Positive mood NS – Lead NS – Song CS – Lead CS – Song CR – Excitement CR – Positive mood The dog has learned to We learn to associate the song associate the dog lead with the good times we had with being taken for a walk
UCS – Good looking people, fun, sexy, cool, happiness UCR – Feeling good / desire to be like this NS – Coke CS – Coke CR – Feeling Good about coke / desire to buy coke We learn to associate coke with positive images. Coke becomes meaningful and we are more likely to purchase it over other drinks
UCS –Images of attractive, fit, cool, famous, successful, tough people UCR – Desire to achieve status of modes NS – Nike CS – Nike CR – Desire to achieve status of models /purchase Nike We learn to associate Nike with being fit, cool, fun, high status, successful thus we are more likely to purchase Nike over Big W brand because we do not associate Big W with any of these ideas
UCS – rebellion, alternative, cool, counter culture UCR – feeling unique and hip NS – FCUK CS – FCUK CR – FCUK making us feel unique and hip We learn to associate FCUK with the image of rebellious cool, we are thus more likely to purchase FCUK over Target clothing.
Because we are conditioned to see tangible value that is not there! Physically the products are often made from the same materials, sometimes even in the same factory (footwear and clothing especially) The value we perceive is emotional! Advertising adds emotional value to a product
Coles-Myer executive quoted in response to an official enquiry – “non-branded footwear often incorporates the same or similar methods of construction, technology and components/materials. Moreover it is often sourced from the same factory as branded footwear. The commercial reality is that without a brand the consumer perceives no value that warrants a premium price.”
Advertising executive – “If you think about what Pavlov did, he actually took a neutral object and, by associating it with a meaningful object, made it a symbol of something else, he imbued it with imagery, he gave it added value, and isn’t that what we try and do in modern advertising” On average people in western countries are exposed to 9000 advertising messages a day
When subjects drank un branded cola only the taste sensing parts of the brain become active When subjects could see coke labelling the hippocampus (memory) and parts of the frontal lobe (emotions etc) also became active Recognition and positive reaction to Coke has been hard wired into the brain
Nearly half of the worlds 8 – 12 year olds say that the clothes and brands they wear describe who they are! Advertising to children aims to create hard wired ‘brand loyalty’ If they get you young enough they can ensure that your brain becomes wired to prefer their product You then continue to purchase their product out of habit
When the UCS is no longer presented along with the CS Eventually the CS becomes meaningless CR stops
Extinction has occurred A rest period take place When CS reintroduced the CR again appears CR is weaker than when first conditioned
The organism will respond by producing a CR to stimuli that are similar to the CS Eg. Dogs in Pavlovs experiment would salivate to a bell, a chime, an alarm clock etc. Eg. A child who was bitten by a dog now fears all dogs not just pit bull terriers
The organism only responds to the CS and no other similar stimuli Eg. Your dog gets excited when you put your Nike runners on, not any other white shoes Eg. Consumers only by coke, not any cola in red and white packaging EG. You only buy billabong, not the rip off surfalong brand
Learning Activity 1Now it is your turn to condition a dog just like Pavlov did all those yearsago. Go to the following site and have a crack atit! http://nobelprize.org/educational_games/medicine/pavlov/pavlov.htmlLearning Activity 2In groups of 3 create a podcast simulating classical conditioning. Thepodcast must include and explain all the key terms. (In red at the start ofthis wiki).