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Lesson 1: Physiological & psychological
characteristics of responses to stress
Exposure to stressful situations and events is a common human
experience. From losing your locker key to losing your job –...
Biopsychosocial approach to stress
Responses to Stress
Stress affects different people in different
ways – depending on severity, duration
and the individual...
Physiological (Bodily) Responses to Stress
Eustress and Distress
Eustress is a positive psychological response to a stressor, as indicated by
the presence of positiv...
Yerkes-Dodson Curve
The following is not examinable but
interesting and relevant to your life
Physiological (Bodily) Responses to Stress
•  The$second$model$which$addresses$the$physiological$responses$to$stress$is$$
...
Physiological (Bodily) Responses to Stress
2.#General#Adapta.on#Syndrome#
•  Cannon’s'belief'that'prolonged'stress'is'harm...
Physiological (Bodily) Responses to Stress
2.#General#Adapta.on#Syndrome#(GAS)#
There%are%three%stages%in%the%GAS.%
Stage%...
Physiological (Bodily) Responses to Stress
2.#General#Adapta.on#Syndrome#(GAS)#
There%are%three%stages%in%the%GAS.%
Stage%...
Physiological (Bodily) Responses to Stress
2.#General#Adapta.on#Syndrome#(GAS)#
There%are%three%stages%in%the%GAS.%
Stage%...
Physiological (Bodily) Responses to Stress
2.#General#Adapta.on#Syndrome#(GAS)#
Lesson 1   physiological and psychological charactertistics of responses to stress
Lesson 1   physiological and psychological charactertistics of responses to stress
Lesson 1   physiological and psychological charactertistics of responses to stress
Lesson 1   physiological and psychological charactertistics of responses to stress
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Lesson 1 physiological and psychological charactertistics of responses to stress

Physiological and Psychological responses to stress

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Lesson 1 physiological and psychological charactertistics of responses to stress

  1. 1. Lesson 1: Physiological & psychological characteristics of responses to stress
  2. 2. Exposure to stressful situations and events is a common human experience. From losing your locker key to losing your job – these events can produce stress. Stressor = any person, situation or event that produces stress. Virtually anything can be a stressor and therefore a cause of stress to an individual. Stress and Health Stress =A state of physiological and psychological arousal produced by internal or external stressors that are perceived by the individual as challenging or exceeding their ability to cope.
  3. 3. Biopsychosocial approach to stress
  4. 4. Responses to Stress Stress affects different people in different ways – depending on severity, duration and the individual. A Stress Response = physiological (bodily) and psychological (mental) changes experienced when confronted by a stressor. Stress&can&be&classified&as&MILD,&ACUTE&or& CHRONIC.& Mild&stress&&?&can&be&s@mula@ng&–&low&levels& of&arousal&can&enhance&performance.& Acute&–&sudden&high&arousal&level.& Chronic&–&long&term&–&can&be&damaging.&&
  5. 5. Physiological (Bodily) Responses to Stress
  6. 6. Eustress and Distress Eustress is a positive psychological response to a stressor, as indicated by the presence of positive psychological states such as feeling enthusiastic, excited, active and alert. Distress, on the other hand, is a negative psychological response to a stressor, as indicated by the presence of negative psychological states such as anger, anxiety, nervousness, irritability or tension.
  7. 7. Yerkes-Dodson Curve
  8. 8. The following is not examinable but interesting and relevant to your life
  9. 9. Physiological (Bodily) Responses to Stress •  The$second$model$which$addresses$the$physiological$responses$to$stress$is$$ the$General$Adapta-on$Syndrome.! 2.#General#Adapta.on#Syndrome# General'Adapta,on' Syndrome'='' A"three"stage" physiological"stress" response"that"occurs" regardless"of"the" stressor"that"is" encountered."There" are"three"stages"in"the" GAS"–"Alarm"Reac;on," Resistance"and" Exhaus;on."" Research"by"Hans" Selye.""
  10. 10. Physiological (Bodily) Responses to Stress 2.#General#Adapta.on#Syndrome# •  Cannon’s'belief'that'prolonged'stress'is'harmful'was'confirmed'by'Selye.'' •  Most'of'Selye’s'stress'studies'used'rats'who'were'exposed'to'a'variety'of' stressors.'(eg.'Tail'pulling,'electric'shocks'etc).' •  Regardless'of'the'stressor,'the'results'were'relaDvely'similar'–'enlarged' adrenal'glands,'weight'loss,'stomach'ulcers'and'depleted'immune'system' etc.'' •  He'then'concluded'that'stress'is'nonGspecific.'' •  Humans'reacted'in'much'the'same'way'to'stress.'' •  Based'on'his'studies,'Selye'develop'the'three'stage' •  'GENERAL'ADAPTATION'SYNDROME.''
  11. 11. Physiological (Bodily) Responses to Stress 2.#General#Adapta.on#Syndrome#(GAS)# There%are%three%stages%in%the%GAS.% Stage%One:%Alarm%Reac6on:%! Occurs!when!the!person/animal!is!first!exposed!to!the!stressor.!! •  Body!goes!into!temporary!state!of!‘shock’!–!body!temp!and!blood!pressure! drop.!! •  The!body!then!quickly!rebounds!from!this!during!what!is!called! ‘countershock’.! •  SympatheCc!NS!is!acCvated!and!a!reacCon!like!that!of!the!flightGflight! response!occurs.!Arousal!is!produced!by!the!release!of!hormones!by!the! endocrine!system:!the!pituitary!glands!secrete!ACTH,!which!causes!a! heightened!release!of!adrenaline,!noradrenaline,!and!corCsol!by!the!adrenal! glands!into!the!bloodstream.!! •  Organism!is!alert!and!ready.!% The body cannot stay in this state for long without serious consequences. Some organisms in a continuous state of alarm have died within hours or days
  12. 12. Physiological (Bodily) Responses to Stress 2.#General#Adapta.on#Syndrome#(GAS)# There%are%three%stages%in%the%GAS.% Stage%Two:%Resistance:%% •  If#the#reac*on#con*nues#and#is#not#strong#enough#to#cause#death#the# physiological#reac*on#enters#the#stage#of#resistance.## •  The#body#tries#to#adapt#to#the#stressor.#Physiological#arousal#declines#but# remains#higher#than#normal#and#the#body#replenishes#the#hormones# released#by#the#adrenal#glands.## •  The#organism#may#show#few#outward#signs#of#stress.#However,#the#body# may#not#be#able#to#resist#new#stressors.## •  The#body#becomes#increasingly#vulnerable#to#health#problems.#These#health# problems#include#ulcers,#high#blood#pressure,#asthma,#and#illnesses#that# result#from#impaired#immune#func*on.#
  13. 13. Physiological (Bodily) Responses to Stress 2.#General#Adapta.on#Syndrome#(GAS)# There%are%three%stages%in%the%GAS.% Stage%Three:%Exhaus4on:%% •  Severe%long*term%or%repeated%stress%will%cause%the%organism%to%enter%the% third%stage,%the%stage%of%exhaus9on.%% •  The%immune%system%and%the%body's%energy%reserves%are%weakened%un9l% resistance%is%very%limited.%% •  If%the%stress%con9nues,%disease%and%physiological%damage%become% increasingly%likely%and%death%may%result.%
  14. 14. Physiological (Bodily) Responses to Stress 2.#General#Adapta.on#Syndrome#(GAS)#

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Physiological and Psychological responses to stress

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