Due to current events, the main perception of Islam is defined by its extreme elements. Although a minority of the Muslim population, the extreme elements of Islam have been thrust to the forefront of public perception by different violent acts of terror. In light of these events, and the global war on terror, it is important to understand more about this group of Islam. For the next two hours, I am going to take you inside the Islamic terrorist mindset, so you have a better idea of what our GWOT adversaries think and why they think that way. *It is impossible to successfully defeat a violent ideological movement without understanding the ideology motivating it.
The Global War On Terrorism (GWOT) is expected to be a long-term conflict; as such, it is important that we in the US Military Services know and understand our adversaries. An enduring challenge for operators and intelligence analysts is “getting inside your enemy’s head” so you can attempt to predict what he will do in future situations. This briefing is designed to increase understanding of conditions in the Muslim world that promote political violence, and the underlying ideology that drives such groups; introduce the major radical Islamic philosophers whose ideas continue to drive terrorist groups; and describe how and why the Islamic world perceives us the way they do, and the nature of this new threat. I would like to emphasize that although many Muslims are sympathetic with the language that Muslim extremists use, most do not agree with their violent methods. Most importantly, this presentation may help to protect the lives of Americans who are having to deal with these groups.
The environment from which Islamic extremist groups grow includes conditions inside Muslim societies and perceived threats from outside of the ummah, or Islamic community. Within these states, governments that are overwhelmingly authoritarian are seen as corrupt and illegitimate by their populations, particularly by the increasingly educated youth who have little opportunity for meaningful employment. Many Muslim governments are attempting to cope with persistent economic failure by repressing even mild forms of dissent and by not allowing any legitimate means of political participation or addressing of grievances by other than elites. Combined with the perception that these governments are promoting impure forms of Islamic beliefs and practices, these regimes are seen by the radicals as apostate (unbelieving) and not worthy to rule, let alone lead the struggle against the continued political, economic and cultural assault from the West and Israel. Thus, Muslim radicals see violence as the only way to effect real societal change in such an atmosphere of hopelessness. From outside their community, Islamic extremists see a “crusade” (in the medieval, negative sense) by the Jews and the West to continue their domination of Muslim states, and to maintain these states’ dependence on the West as well as to ensure a reliable flow of oil to feed Western economies. Alien concepts such as secularism, nationalism and human rights that have been imported from/imposed by the West have not worked in Muslim societies, and are seen as a primary reason for the disadvantaged condition of the ummah. Even worse, Western regimes continue to support Israel’s “terrorism” against the Arabs (and all Muslims) while propping up unpopular regional governments. Islamic reform movements acquired a sense of urgency with the arrival of European imperialism in the Middle East in the latter part of the 19 th century. The loss of Muslim political, legal and economic control made the region vulnerable to foreign commercial interests, and facilitated an invasion of alien ideas and cultural values. The end of colonialism and achievement of independence by most Muslim countries in the Middle East after WWII accelerated this drive. However, the massive social changes that accompanied these reforms, and the introduction of incompatible ideas such as democracy and human rights disrupted traditional ways of life and caused traumatic dislocations in these societies. Disillusionment with with the path Muslim societies have taken in the modern period reached its height in the 1970s. A desire to restore power and dignity to the community has been accompanied by widespread rejection of Western civilization as a model for Muslim societies. The last 30 years have witnessed the rise of militant, religiously-based political groups whose ideologies focus on the demands for jihad to forcefully create a society governed solely by the shari’a and the recreation of a unified Islamic realm, and the elimination of un-Islamic and unjust rulers. Militant Islam is rooted in religio-cultural, political, and socio-economic causes related to unrepresentative, authoritarian regimes which are seen as corrupt and unable to provide meaningful employment or needed social services. Extremist groups have blamed these ills on outside influences such as modernity (Westernization and secularism) which are threatening regional religious and cultural identities.
Medieval Muslim legal philosopher Ibn Taymiyya contested this consensus view of jihad as defensive, restricted warfare and declared that a leader who doesn’t enforce the shari’a rigorously in all aspects, including the conduct of active jihad against invaders (the ummah was occupied at that time by both the Crusaders from the west and the Mongols from the east), forfeits his legitimacy and right to rule. Ibn Taymiyya also broke with mainstream Islam by asserting that a professing Muslim who does not live by the faith is an apostate (unbeliever). By going well beyond most jurists, Ibn Taymiyya laid much of the ground work for the intellectual arguments of contemporary radical Islamists (such as al-Banna, Qutb, and Azzam). A third pre-modern view of jihad came from the Sufis, Islam’s mystical adherents, who understood the greater jihad as an inner struggle to avoid corruption and lead a good life, and as a necessary part of the process of gaining spiritual insight. This is why most Muslims today see jihad more as a personal than a political struggle.
Muhammad Ibn ‘Abd al-Wahhab, a co-founder of the state we know today as Saudi Arabia, was a reformer who sought to cleanse 18 th century Islam of all unauthorized deviations from correct practice. He was influenced both by the Hanbali school of law (the smallest and strictest of the four schools), and the ideas of Ibn Taymiyya, which he adapted and expanded upon. Al-Wahhab modified the concept of jahiliyya and reintroduced the concept of takfir, the practice of declaring that an individual or a group previously considered Muslims are in fact kafir(s) (non-believers in God). to justify his campaign against Muslims of his time who had in his view become sinful and gone astray. Wahhabis are known outside of Saudi Arabia as Salafists (referring to the “pioneers” or the first three generations of Muslims whose behavior should be studies and emulated), who interpret the Qur’an literally but usually disagree with the use of terrorism, and who, at their most extreme, reject nation-states and all man-made laws. Many Sunni radicals, such as Usama bin Laden, are products of this movement. Interpret the Qur’an literally, but most disagree with radicals on the permissibility of armed jihad as a religious duty, and with specific tactics in warfare such as terrorism and suicide attacks
The Muslim Brotherhood cites the collapse of the Ottoman Empire as a great “calamity” because it was the end of the “Khilafa” or unity of Islamic states. Their creed is “Allah is our objective. The messenger is our leader. Quran is our law. Jihad is our way. Dying in the way of Allah is our highest hope”. The theology of the Muslim Brotherhood is based upon Ibn Taymiyyah and Al-Wahab with stress placed upon the Quran and the Sunnah. The Brotherhood is explicitly opposed to Sufism, but not antagonistic towards Shi’a. The main objective of the Brotherhood is to establish “true” Islamic states by taking smaller steps. The initial focus is on building “true” Muslims and families that come together to form “true” Islamic societies. This is accomplished through humanitarian works such as building schools, community organizations, national associations, and special interest groups. The focus is not only on Muslim countries but also non-Muslim societies such as Western Europe and North America. Once Islamic nations are established the Khilafa can be restored and from there the entire world can be converted. Besides Al-Banna and Qutb, some notable members of the Brotherhood include Abdullah Azzam the spiritual co-founder of Al Qaida and the mentor of Osama bin Laden, and Shaikh Ahmad Yassen the spiritual leader of HAMAS. HAMAS: Largest Palestinian Militant Islamic organization, formed in 1987 at the beginning of the 1 st intifada (Palestinian uprising) against Israel’s occupation of the West Bank and Gaza. Current leader-Khaled Meshaal. HAMAS has two spheres of operations: social and military.
The Egyptian Hassan Al-Banna (1906-1949) established the Muslim Brotherhood in 1928 to counter what he saw as threats from both outside and within the Muslim world. Interestingly, al-Banna differed from Mawdudi and Qutb in his views on the nature and methods of Islamic reform. First, he believed that direct political action was not the way to go, and he held that a gradual, bottom-up approach to reform would be more successful. Although some of his other views don’t appear to be as radical, al-Banna’s thoughts on jihad are significant in that they helped to influence future Islamist radicals such as Qutb and Azzam. He redefined jihad as a God-ordained defensive requirement for all Muslims, as long as unbelievers still rule any Islamic lands. Al-Banna also forcefully denied that the greater jihad was the internal spiritual struggle, but rather that it was the armed physical struggle against injustice and disbelief. His concept of jihad combined the Qur’anic definition of fighting with a struggle against not only all infidels but even People of the Book (mainly Jews and Christians as co-religionists who also have been given the revealed words of God). It was the first modern Islamic political movement. Al-Banna sought to unite and mobilize Muslims against the cultural and political domination of the West. The Muslim Brotherhood would evolve to become an umbrella organization that would branch out into terrorist groups to include Egyptian Islamic Jihad and HAMAS.
(in Five Tracts of Hasan al-Banna , trans. by Charles Wendell (Berkeley, 1978), pp. 142, 150, 154, al-Banna writes: “ In this Tradition, there is a clear indication of the obligation to fight the People of the Book, and of the fact that God doubles the reward of those who fight them. Jihad is not against polytheists alone, but against all who do not embrace Islam...Today the Muslims, as you know, are compelled to humble themselves before non-Muslims, and are ruled by unbelievers. Their lands have been trampled over, and their honor besmirched. Their adversaries are in charge of their affairs, and the rites of their religion have fallen into abeyance within their own domains, to say nothing of their impotence to broadcast the summons [to embrace Islam]. Hence it has become an individual obligation, which there is no evading, on every Muslim to prepare his equipment, to make up his mind to engage in jihad, and to get ready for it until the opportunity is ripe and God decrees a matter which is sure to be accomplished...Know then that death is inevitable, and that it can only happen once. If you suffer it in the way of God, it will be your profit in this world, and your reward in the next.”
As mentioned earlier, Mawdudi was a prolific writer whose ideas reached the Arabic speaking world in the 1950s, and are known to have inspired Sayyid Qutb. Mawdudi advocated top-down reform: this was enabled by the entry of a core group of activists into the political process where they capture control by penetrating key institutions, and then maintain control through vetting and indoctrination of the membership. Mawdudi is also significant because he was the first Islamist writer to take a systematic approach to the topic of jihad: warfare is not conducted only to expand Islamic political dominance, but also to establish just rule. For him, jihad was akin to war of liberation that seeks to establish politically independent states. This view changed the Muslim view of jihad and began its association with anticolonialism, national liberation movements, and paved the way for Arab resistance (as jihad) to Zionism and the creation of Israel. Prolific writer on issues of religious faith, the proper relationship between Islam and the political structure, law, and practices of the state; writings became available in Arabic in 1950s Entry into the political process is necessary to revive Islamic society; small group of dedicated activists (saliah Jamaat) captures political leadership by penetrating key societal institutions: top-down reform
This slide provides an illustrative excerpt from Mawdudi’s classic 1939 work Jihad in Islam , which analyzed what the concept of jihad really meant for Muslims who were attempting to reform their societies, and insists that jihad must continue until the whole world is the abode of Islam or belief (Dar al-Iman).
Qutb (1906-1966), the next bearer of the revolutionary Islamist flame, was an educator and member of the Muslim Brotherhood. Qutb warned against the Westernizing influences that continued to permeate the Muslim world during the 1940s and 1950s. He had no formal theological training, but, believed it the duty of the ordinary believer to seek out pure Islam. Expanding on Ibn Taymiyya’s teaching on jihad against apostate rulers, Qutb argued for struggle against the secular regimes of the Muslim world, even if this meant killing Muslims. His writings on pan-Islamism brought him into conflict with the Nasser regime and he was imprisoned from 1954 to 1964. While imprisoned he was tortured and witnessed a massacre of 25 Brotherhood members. He was released, but published Milestones which called for the establishment of an Islamic government in Egypt. Qutb was then arrested, tried, and executed on August 24, 1966, becoming the martyr in the eyes of many young Islamists such as Ayman Zawahiri, the future deputy commander of Al Qaeda. Like Mawdudi, Qutb advocated top-down reform in his writings, and along with al-Banna, Qutb used Mawdudi’s secular and nationalistic conception of jihad and its role in establishing a truly Islamic government. Qutb also incorporated Ibn Taymiyya’s idea of jihad that includes the overthrow of regimes that fail to enforce the shari’a. This idea of revolution focuses first on dealing with the radicals’ own un-Islamic rulers (such as Sadat) who cannot lead jihad because they are not true Muslims, before legitimate external targets such as Israel or the US can be attacked.
Sayyid Qutb has probably had a greater and more enduring effect on contemporary radical Islamist groups than any of the other men profiled in this briefing. He not only spent a large portion of his life in prison (where he wrote his popular exegesis (analysis) of the Qur’an, from which parts of Milestones were excerpted), but the fact that he was executed for his views means that he is seen as a martyr in the eyes of Arab and Muslim revivalists. Milestones is reportedly one of the most widely read books in the Muslim world besides the Qur’an, and has become the ideological cornerstone of many of these reform movements. In the book, Qutb criticized not only Western society (which the quote above alludes to as morally bankrupt) but also all Muslim societies where there is a similar loss of direction because they are willfully ignorant of, and are not following, true Islam. As mentioned earlier, Qutb urged that Islamic societies be judged by how closely they are adhering to the shari’a , and those that are branded jahili (this process is also known as takfir , or pronouncement of individuals or communities as apostate, thus making them legitimate targets for jihad; this reapplication of takfir is one of al-Wahhab’s legacies) must be forcefully replaced.
Operation AJAX was an Anglo-American covert operation to overthrow the democratically chosen government of Iran and Prime Minister Mohammed Mossadegh and restore the exiled Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi to the throne as a dictator. Rationale for the intervention included Mossadegh's socialist rhetoric and his nationalization, without compensation, of the oil industry which was previously operated by the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company under contracts disputed by the nationalists as unfair. A particular point of contention being the refusal of the Anglo-Iranian Oil company to allow an audit of the accounts to determine whether the Iranian government received the royalties it was due. Intransigence on the part of the Anglo-Iranian Oil company led the nationalist government to escalate its demands, requiring an equal share in the oil revenues. The final crisis was precipitated when the Anglo-Iranian oil company ceased operations rather than accepting the nationalists' demands. The newly state-owned oil companies saw a dramatic drop in productivity and, consequently, exports; this resulted in the Abadan Crisis, a situation that was further aggravated by its export markets being closed. Even so royalties to the Iranian government were significantly higher than before nationalization. Without its own distribution network it was denied access to markets by an international blockade intended to coerce Mossadegh into reprivatization. In addition, the appropriation of the companies resulted in Western allegations that Mossadegh was a Communist and suspicions that Iran was in danger of falling under the influences of the neighboring Soviet Union. But Mossadegh refused to back down under international pressure. For the U.S., an important factor to consider was Iran's border with the Soviet Union. A pro-American Iran under the Shah would give the U.S. a double strategic advantage in the ensuing Cold War, as a NATO alliance was already in effect with the government of Turkey, also bordering the USSR. Operation Ajax was the first time the Central Intelligence Agency orchestrated a plot to overthrow a democratically-elected government. The Shah had been in power since 1941, with a brief interruption in 1953; through the 1960s and 1970s he faced continued opposition from a diverse array of Iranians. The Shah enforced a strict dictatorship, imprisoning hundreds of political activists, and enforcing censorship laws. At the same time, however, living conditions for the people improved significantly, and many basic human and democratic rights were established (e.g. extending suffrage to women). Many prominent religious figures and Mullahs felt many of these reforms indicated the Shah's regime was overtly secular, and thus anti-Islamic. Such opponents also characterized him as a &quot;puppet&quot; of the West, especially the US and Israel. Ayatollah Khomeini was one of the leaders of the religious opposition, who opposed the Shah's close diplomatic relationship with Israel, universal suffrage (voting rights for women), changes in the election laws that allowed election of religious minorities to office, and changes in the civil code which granted women legal equality in marital issues. Following the arrest of Khomeini, and his subsequent exile from Iran in 1964, rioting among the cleric's followers increased. The Shah frequently chose to answer the riots with violence, arresting and killing demonstrators. Widespread dissatisfaction with the oppressive regime of the reinstalled Shah led to the 1979 Islamic Revolution in Iran and the occupation of the U.S. embassy. The role that the U.S. embassy had played in the 1953 coup led the revolutionary guards to suspect that it might be used to play a similar role in suppressing the revolution. The new constitution created the powerful post of Supreme Leader for Khomeini, who would control the military and security services, and could veto candidates running for office. A less powerful president was to be elected every four years, but only those candidates approved indirectly by the Supreme Leader (through a Council of Guardians) were permitted to run for the office. Khomeini himself became Head of State for life, as &quot;Leader of the Revolution&quot;, and later when the constitution was approved, &quot;Supreme Spiritual Leader&quot;. There was then a focus on creating a world of justice and peace. This was to be done by the exportation of the Islamic revolution. There were a few thousand Revolutionary Guard troops as well as emissaries sent to Lebanon. The goal was to establish an Islamic state there.
This is the best example of the desire to export the Iranian revolution. Hezbollah has major ties to Iran. They have received significant support from the republican guard in Iran and a large majority of their finances come from Iran. At first arrival the US was welcomed with kisses by all factions of Lebanon. The Lebanese believed that the US was going to be able to bring stability to the country and end the civil war. The US established its Marine barracks next to the airport. The airport was in the middle of the strongest Hezbollah region in Beirut. The Marines were warmly welcomed by this community upon arrival. The US decided that the best way to end the war was to prop up the Lebanese government and empower them to control the country. This was ideologically a very solid policy that conceptually would allow the US not to take sides. The problem was that the President of the government was also the leader of the Christian Militia. This led to a change in public opinion. The US was now seen as supporting the Christian militia against the Muslim majority. Understanding the oppressed mindset of the Shiite people this flipped them into a defensive mindset quickly. This resulted in 2 major events: US Embassy bombing: On 18 April 1983, a delivery van driven by a suicide bomber and carrying about 400 pounds of explosives drove up to the United States Embassy in Beirut and exploded. The front section of the embassy collapsed, killing 63 people. Seventeen of these people were Americans, and eight of them worked for the C.I.A. More than a hundred others were wounded. Marine barracks bombing: On 23 October 1983 at 6:22 a.m., a large delivery truck drove to the Beirut International Airport where the Marine Barracks was located. This was the largest conventional weapon ever deployed at the time of detonation. After turning onto an access road leading to the compound, the driver rushed through a barbed-wire fence, passed between two sentry posts, crashed through the gate, and slammed into the lobby of the barracks. The driver detonated explosives with the power equal to more than 12,000 pounds of TNT. The explosion crumbled the four-story building, crushing service members to death while they were sleeping. The death toll was 241: 220 Marines, 18 Navy Personnel, and 3 Army soldiers. 60 Americans were injured. The attack caused the deadliest single-day death toll for the American military since World War II. It remains the deadliest terrorist attack on Americans overseas, and today it is the fourth-deadliest terrorist attack ever. With the negotiated success of the arms for hostages between Iran and the US Hezbollah decided to implement this tactic. Hezbollah took hostages from various nations to assist in its goals. This is where the US developed its rule to never negotiate with terrorist. A lesson learned the hard way.
Source: General Structure of Hezbollah Source: Based on the various activities that were reported by Al-Ahed between 1988 and 1992 This is the organizational chart for Hezbollah. There are 3 major points to gleam from this. Groups are not a bunch of unorganized fools. Almost all have some kind of structure. The upper left is the combat organ. Hezbollah ran about 950 missions a year. That is 2.6 missions a day. They are well trained and experienced against a very good army. The combat organ is a relatively small part of the organization. The way that most extremists organizations fight is what you see on the bottom half of the chart. They fight by winning the hearts and minds of the general population.
Al-Qaeda has its origins in the uprising against the USSR occupation of Afghanistan. Thousands of volunteers from around the Middle East came to Afghanistan as mujahideen , warriors fighting to defend fellow Muslims. In the mid-1980s, Osama bin Laden became the prime financier for an organization that recruited Muslims from mosques around the world. These &quot;Afghan Arab&quot; mujahideen , which numbered in the thousands, were crucial in defeating Soviet forces. The success of the fighters against the USSR was significantly aided by the USA. We provided tremendous training and supplies. After the Soviets withdrew from Afghanistan, bin Laden returned to his native Saudi Arabia. Bin Laden organized al-Qaeda to help veterans of the Afghan war, many of whom went on to fight elsewhere (including Bosnia). Bin Laden focused on the study of Extreme Islam at this time. When Iraq invaded Kuwait in 1990 Bin Laden was outraged when the government allowed U.S. troops to be stationed in Saudi Arabia. This was considered by Bin Laden as a major affront to the birthplace of Islam. This was the seed to Bin Laden’s anti American/anti Saudi stance.
Abdullah Azzam has been called the “Godfather of Jihad” because he tirelessly promoted Muslim global resistance to the Soviet Union’s invasion and occupation of Aghanistan. As illustrated by the quotes above from his writings, Azzam was influenced by al-Banna’s notion of jihad as required for all and immediately, in light of the poor state of Muslims’ struggle against the anti-Islam campaign being allegedly conducted by the Soviet Union, Israel and the West. Notice how these definitions of jihad differ from the view held by most Muslims of it as the internal, individual spiritual struggle. He believed that jihad was a vital but forgotten duty, which he expressed in his trademark slogan, &quot;Jihad and the rifle alone: no negotiations, no conferences and no dialogues.&quot;
When the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan, Azzam produced a fatwa (religious proclamation), Defense of the Muslim Lands, and had it confirmed by high-ranking clerics including Saudi Arabia's Grand Mufti (highest religious scholar), Abd al-Aziz Bin Bazz. The fatwa declared both the Afghan and Palestinian struggles to be jihads and that killing unbelievers in those countries was a personal obligation for all Muslims. He founded the Services Office, working closely with Osama bin Laden. Azzam is credited with establishing the training and support network for the foreign fighters in Pakistan which eventually became al-Qaida. While he didn’t create the idea of an Islamic militant movement, Azzam gave the Afghan conflict a religious justification and changed the character of the Palestinian struggle. He traveled widely to promote Muslim participation in the Afghan jihad and helped to organize the Afghan resistance effort. Azzam justified the jihad by claiming that all Muslim land which fell under infidel control had to be reclaimed. He is thought to have recruited a large amount of Islamic mujahidin who went on to other jihads, but didn’t live long enough to mobilize them to free Palestine from Israel’s grip; Azzam was assassinated (probably over differences with bin Laden on the post-Afghan goals of the movement) in Pakistan in 1989. It is not known who planted the bomb. The Godfather of Jihad. Dr Abdullah Azzam was a scholar who obtained a PhD in fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence) at al-Azhar University, Egypt, in 1973. Osama bin Laden was a student at the University and some believe this is where he was first influenced by Azzam. Many elements in bin Laden's pronouncements duplicate Azzam’s ideas.
In the 1980s, the Services Office—run by bin Laden and the Palestinian religious scholar Abdullah Azzam—recruited, trained, and financed thousands of foreign mujahedeen , or holy warriors, from more than 50 countries. Bin Laden wanted these fighters to continue the “Holy War” beyond Afghanistan. He formed Al-Qaeda around 1988. Al-Qaeda is an international terrorist network led by Osama bin Laden and seeks to rid Muslim countries of what it sees as the profane influence of the West and replace their governments with fundamentalist Islamic regimes. “Al-Qaeda” is Arabic for “the base.” At the top is bin Laden. Ayman al-Zawahiri, the head of Egyptian Islamic Jihad, is thought to be bin Laden’s top lieutenant and Al-Qaeda’s ideological adviser. We don’t know if it has a headquarters anymore. From 1991 to 1996, Al-Qaeda worked out of Sudan. From 1996 until the collapse of the Taliban in 2001, Al-Qaeda operated out of Afghanistan and maintained its training camps there. U.S. intelligence officials now think al-Qaeda’s senior leadership is trying to regroup in lawless tribal regions just inside Pakistan, near the Afghan border, or inside Pakistani cities. Al-Qaeda has autonomous underground cells in some 100 countries, including the US, UK, Italy, France, Spain, Germany, Albania, Uganda, and elsewhere. Al-Qaeda connection to other terrorist organizations: Egyptian Islamic Jihad, Jamaat Islamiyya (Egypt), The Libyan Islamic Fighting Group, Islamic Army of Aden (Yemen), Lashkar-e-Taiba and Jaish-e-Muhammad (Kashmir), Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan, Salafist Group for Call and Combat and the Armed Islamic Group (Algeria), Abu Sayyaf Group (Malaysia, Philippines)
Before the 9/11 attacks, Usama bin Laden described al-Qaida’s goals, grievances, and tactics in detail in a series of statements and interviews. These statements provide insights into an ideology that may seem crazy to Americans, but it has been carefully crafted to appeal to the disgruntled and dispossessed of the Islamic world, and it is really more political than religious. At the heart of bin Laden’s philosophy are two declarations of war against the US. The first, his “Epistle” from 1996, was directed at Americans occupying bin Laden’s native Saudi Arabia; here he calls upon Muslims all over the world to expel the infidels from his homeland. In his 1998 fatwa en titled “Declaration of the World Islamic Front for Jihad Against the Jews and the Crusaders,” he asserted, along with the leaders of extremist groups in Egypt, Pakistan and Bangladesh, that the only appropriate response against the “crimes and sins” perpetrated by the US against God and Muslims is a defensive struggle to repulse the aggressor; therefore, because it is defensive, such a war is a moral obligation incumbent upon all true Muslims. Although bin Laden’s initial attacks against US interests occurred in the Arabian Peninsula and East Africa, he had made it clear he would bring the war to the American homeland. Bin Laden told an ABC News reporter in May 1998 that the battle would inevitably move to American soil; however, al-Qaida’s targets have not been offending religious and cultural institutions, but symbolically important political, military and economic targets. Al-Qaida and other Islamic militant groups in the Middle East and South Asia are able to draw on large numbers of enthusiastic and willing recruits for their violent campaigns – impressionable youths who are ready to die simply for the idea of jihad. An estimated one million young men attend madrassas (or private Islamic religious schools) every year mostly in Pakistan, but also in Central Asia and the Persian Gulf. These students spend most of their waking day in rote memorization of the Qur’an (this is usually not their native language, so few understand what they are reading) and interpreting the hadith. Only theology is taught; there is not yet any math, science, computer training or secular history, although the Pakistani government is attempting to broaden these schools’ curricula. The young men at these schools come from the dire poor of their societies, are kept isolated in self-contained environments, and indoctrinated with a powerful message: their highest honor and duty is to wage jihad to defend Islam, and the US is the chief enemy of their faith. The graduates of these schools have turned up in other jihads such as Bosnia, Chechnya and Kashmir, and their battle experience is then directed against their own un-Islamic societies. Ayman al-Zawahiri suggests where the transnational Islamic extremist movement should go in his book Knights Under the Prophet’s Banner , which was smuggled out of Afghanistan in late 2001. He asserts that the worldwide jihad should focus on small teams conducting suicide operations, declares that a fundamentalist “base of operations” must be established in the Middle East to support and coordinate this campaign, and the “far enemy” must be hit first because the great oppressive powers will not allow the mujahidin to achieve power in their own societies.
The Sharia (Islamic law) provides the blueprint for an ideal Islamic society. When the government is based upon the Sharia and the citizens are devout Muslims, then a utopia will exist with social justice and material well being for all. When Muslim nations depart from Sharia and allow materialism and moral decline set in, Allah sends His righteous judgment; usually in the form of a foreign conquest. Therefore, to the radicals, technology should not be abandoned but harnessed and used for the good of the society without allowing for social corruption. This is where Islamist Extremists believe also in overthrowing governments in the Middle East that are un-Islamic in their eyes. When comparing the writings of radicals such as Hassan Al-Bana (Egypt) and Mawlana Madudi (Pakistan) on the role of Islam in everyday life it becomes clear that certain tenets are shared despite different geographical origins. To the radicals Islam is a way of life and not just a religion. Islam is all encompassing and should guide every decision made in a person’s life. The Qur’an and the Sunnah are the foundations of Islam. Islamist extremists also believe in a pure form of Islam and believe that the Shia, Sufis, and other Muslims that reject their ideology are infidels and should be eradicated if they do not accept their ideology. For example, Zarqawi’s proclamation to kill all Shia is in line with this way of thinking. Finally, Jihad is the means to bring about global Islam. Persuasion and democracy have failed in their eyes, and Jihad is the only recourse left.
Since the 9/11 attacks, Americans have struggled to understand the reasons why Muslim militants are targeting the US and its Western allies for attack. While they may not always appear to be logical, the case against us is based on perceptions of our culture and activities. As represented here, hatred and and resentment derives from a web of Western foreign policies, dire conditions in much of the lesser developed world with little hope for improvement, religious fundamentalism, and Western naivete. Westerners are seen as arrogant and insensitive to other cultures, and there is a lack of fairness and balance in the US’s lopsided commitment to and support for Israel at the expanse of the Arabs and Muslims. The West is resented for its wealth and economic, military and political power, and while it is envied for its commercial successes, it is disliked for its exploitive style of capitalism. Muslims express disgust over lax Western morals, such consumption of alcohol (which is prohibited in Islam), the aggressiveness and “suggestive” dress of women, and the use of sex to sell everything from shampoo to cigarettes. The US continues to enforce economic sanctions against Iran (and previously did so against Iraq, Libya and Afghanistan); and although US troops have been withdrawn from Saudi Arabia, they remained long after the end of the first Gulf War against Iraq. Another sticking point is that the West continues to support corrupt and repressive Middle East regimes, and this is seen to be driven by our greed for resources such as oil (while we ignore many human rights abuses). The greater detail and reach of the media can send powerful messages about the West to disadvantaged peoples who in some cases can be convinced by our adversaries to inflict pain on us.
The Seven Phases of The Base The Word Unheard points us to an article in Spiegel Online by a Jordanian journalist Fouad Hussein, who is believed to be a reliable source of information on al Qaeda. His main source for this article on al Qaeda strategy is none other than Saif al-Adel, al Qaeda's military commander who is currently operating from Iran. Al Qaeda's purported strategy can be broken down into seven &quot;phases&quot; which span from 2000 until 2020, at which time they believe the global Islamist Caliphate will be established and they will achieve &quot;definitive victory.&quot; The First Phase Known as &quot;the Awakening&quot; -- has already been carried out and was supposed to have lasted from 2000 to 2003, or more precisely from the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 in New York and Washington to the fall of Baghdad in 2003. The aim of the attacks of 9/11 was to provoke the US into declaring war on the Islamic world and thereby &quot;awakening&quot; Muslims. &quot;The first phase was judged by the strategists and masterminds behind al-Qaida as very successful,&quot; writes Hussein. &quot;The battle field was opened up and the Americans and their allies became a closer and easier target.&quot; The terrorist network is also reported as being satisfied that its message can now be heard &quot;everywhere.&quot; al Qaeda can claim some success in the First Phase, as the organization is now the preeminent terrorist organization on the planet. The attacks of September 11 were cheered throughout the Islamic world. The global media disseminates Al Qaeda commander's speeches. Each and every terrorist attack is followed by suspicious of al Qaeda involvement. And the US did indeed bring the war to the Islamic world in Afghanistan and Iraq, however not against Islam itself. But this came at a price, as Islamist Afghanistan and friendly Saddam-governed Iraq were lost. The Second Phase &quot;Opening Eyes&quot; is the period we are now in and should last until 2006. Hussein says the terrorists hope to make the western conspiracy aware of the &quot;Islamic community.&quot; Hussein believes this is a phase in which al-Qaeda wants an organization to develop into a movement. The network is banking on recruiting young men during this period. Iraq should become the center for all global operations, with an &quot;army&quot; set up there and bases established in other Arabic states. So far, the Second Phase has been a failure. The Arab and greater Islamic States have been essentially silent in its support of al Qaeda. The perception that al Qaeda's cause is popular as hundreds of Islamists enter Iraq monthly is overshadowed by the tens of thousands of Islamic fighters who enter Afghanistan during the war with the Soviet Union. al Qaeda has generated new recruits, but not nearly enough to replace the experienced operators and managers that have been lost under the American onslaught in Iraq, Afghanistan and elsewhere. Winning the Second Phase is important from a ideological standpoint. Defeat in Iraq would seriously harm the credibility of al Qaeda and weaken their mystique. They would possess a losing ideology that could not stand up to the Great Satan. Allah would have abandoned them to the privations of the infidel.
The Third Phase- &quot;Arising and Standing Up&quot; should last from 2007 to 2010. &quot;There will be a focus on Syria,&quot; prophesies Hussein, based on what his sources told him. The fighting cadres are supposedly already prepared and some are in Iraq. Attacks on Turkey and -- even more explosive -- in Israel are predicted. Al-Qaeda's masterminds hope that attacks on Israel will help the terrorist group become a recognized organization. The author also believes that countries neighboring Iraq, such as Jordan, are also in danger. The Fourth Phase Between 2010 and 2013, Hussein writes that al-Qaida will aim to bring about the collapse of the hated Arabic governments. The estimate is that &quot;the creeping loss of the regimes' power will lead to a steady growth in strength within al-Qaida.&quot; At the same time attacks will be carried out against oil suppliers and the US economy will be targeted using cyber terrorism. The Third and Fourth Phases can essentially be condensed. The potential spread of jihad and instability to Iraq's neighbors of Turkey, Syria, (and while not mentioned, Saudi Arabia, Jordan and Kuwait) as well as Israel highlights the importance of an American victory in Iraq. Iraq, as a failed state, would provide al Qaeda a base to create instability in bordering countries, setting the stage for overthrow by the Islamists. It should be noted that Syria is playing a dangerous game by allowing al Qaeda to use its soil to conduct operations in Iraq. The jihadis are developing contacts, networks and obtaining recruits, which can eventually by turned against the Asad regime. For the record, it seems al Qaeda has already laid the groundwork for the Third and Fourth Phases. There are reports al Qaeda seeks to establish itself in Gaza to strike Israel, and Turkish vacation spots, including cruise ships are believed to have been the target of a just-foiled al Qaeda plot. Islamic countries have been the target of numerous al Qaeda attacks, and Saudi Arabia and Pakistan have been in open war with al Qaeda for several years. Saudi oil facilities have been a target throughout. The United States will not allow another Islamic state to fall to al Qaeda's ideologues. The lesson of September 11 serves as a reminder of what happened when Afghanistan became a sanctuary and de facto al Qaeda state.
The Fifth Phase This will be the point at which an Islamic state, or caliphate, can be declared. The plan is that by this time, between 2013 and 2016, Western influence in the Islamic world will be so reduced and Israel weakened so much, that resistance will not be feared. Al-Qaeda hopes that by then the Islamic state will be able to bring about a new world order. The Sixth Phase Hussein believes that from 2016 onwards there will a period of &quot;total confrontation.&quot; As soon as the caliphate has been declared the &quot;Islamic army&quot; it will instigate the &quot;fight between the believers and the non-believers&quot; which has so often been predicted by Osama bin Laden. The Seventh Phase This final stage is described as &quot;definitive victory.&quot; Hussein writes that in the terrorists' eyes, because the rest of the world will be so beaten down by the &quot;one-and-a-half million Muslims,&quot; the caliphate will undoubtedly succeed. This phase should be completed by 2020, although the war shouldn't last longer than two years. Phases Five, Six and Seven are merely the dreams of al Qaeda, as the prospects for al Qaeda's success in phases One thru Fourth are looking grim at the moment. Despite media portrayal of defeat in Iraq, the Iraqi people are fighting the insurgency and the Anbar region is set to be reduced as an al Qaeda rear area. The jewel of al Qaeda, Afghanistan, fell almost four years ago, and al Qaeda and its Taliban allies have not come even close to retaining control. There are rumors of a serious rift between al Qaeda and the Taliban, as the Taliban believes its woes were created by closely allying themselves with Osama's cause. However, in the event of the United State loses its political will and pursues a policy of isolation from the Muslim world, an inevitable showdown with al Qaeda would ensue. Open confrontation with the West, as well as the possibility of a nuclear armed Caliphate, would bring the full military might of the Western World (those who value their freedom). The current operations in Iraq, Afghanistan, the Horn of Africa, Southeast and Central Asia and within the borders of Western nations would be tame in comparison to what would come. The Japanese, Germans and Italians discovered in World War II the price of wakening the American military psyche. The West would basically have two options: (1) blitzkrieg 21st Century style - the full mobilization of its military and an accompanying sweep of the Islamic crescent, without regards for Politically Correct warfare; (2) nuclear war. Both campaigns would be designed to fully eliminate the Islamist threat, and the Muslim infrastructure, which allowed for the rise of al Qaeda's ideology.
Source: Lecture Dr. James Jacob Dynamics of International Terrorism 08-12 May 06. Numbers cited from Marc Sageman PHD University of Penn. Dr. Marc Sageman is a former CIA case officer who, in the late 1980’s, ran the U.S. unilateral programs with the Afghan mujahadin during the Afghan-Soviet War. He is a forensic psychiatrist and has collected over 400 biographies of al Qaeda terrorists. His book, Understanding Terror Networks (University of Pennsylvania Press, 2004) which challenges the conventional wisdom on terrorism, is the outstanding work on that subject. Dr. Sageman studied 400 terrorists and came to the conclusion that there are no discernable personality type, psychosis, or neurosis. Moreover, he found out that the majority of the individuals were motivated by shame injustice or dishonor. (Not poverty, desperation, or ignorance)
Burger King withdrew its ice-cream cones after the lid of the dessert offended a Muslim business development manager Rashad Akhtar, 27, of High Wycombe (England). He claimed the design resembled the Arabic inscription for Allah, and branded it sacrilegious, threatening a “jihad”. He said: “This is my jihad. How can you say it is a spinning swirl? If you spin it one way to the right you are offending Muslims.” The chain spent thousands of pounds redesigning the lid with backing from The Muslim Council of Britain. It apologized and said: “The design simply represented a spinning ice-cream cone.” He was not satisfied by the decision to withdraw the cones and has called on Muslims to boycott Burger King. In 1997 Nike recalled 38,000 shoes, which offended Muslims because of a logo design on the shoe that resembled the written Arabic word for &quot;Allah,&quot; or God. Nike said the logo was meant to look like flames for a line of shoes to be sold with the names Air Bakin', Air Melt, Air Grill and Air B-Que, according to the Associated Press. After meeting with CAIR representatives, Nike not only recalled the shoes and adopted sensitivity training for its designers, but also agreed to sponsor a community development project that would construct playground facilities at several Islamic centers and schools nationwide; the first at Dar Al-Hijrah Islamic Center in Falls Church, Va., according to CAIR. Nike also agreed to donate Nike products to Islamic charitable groups chosen by CAIR, to sponsor events in the Muslim community, and to produce educational CDs and videos.
Source: Lecture Dr. James Jacob Dynamics of International Terrorism 08-12 May 06. Numbers cited from Marc Sageman PHD University of Penn. Mr. Sageman also determined that 70% are married, 60% have college Degrees, 75% are middle/upper class and 87% come from a secular backgrounds. A common scenario for many of the terrorists that were studied was that they traveled abroad. While there they found that they did not fit into the society and became unhappy/lonely. They turned to the known. They became separated from traditional bonds/culture and drifted to mosques more for companionship than religion. There, extremists offered all encompassing explanations for their feelings: “the corruption of the west”.
The Qur’an forbids killing other Muslims, women, children and People of The Book but the Extremist do so. Extremists have justified the validity of branding Muslims as apostates and making them targets for killing. Shahadat (martyrdom) historically meant death in conventional combat against armed foes; the radicals, however, have twisted this concept so that suicide operations (forbidden in Islam) that are directed against innocent non-combatants are permissible as martyrdom operations. The giving of alms which is intended for the poor and needy is sometimes misused by the Extremist for supporting their organizations. Fatwa's are another major way that they are able to justify what they do. A fatwa is a legal pronouncement in Islam, issued by a religious law specialist on a specific issue. Usually a fatwa is issued at the request of an individual or a judge to settle a question where fiqh, Islamic jurisprudence, is unclear. A scholar capable of issuing fataawa is known as a Mufti. Because there is no central Sunni-Islamic priesthood, there is also no unanimously accepted method to determine who can issue a fatwa and who cannot, leading some Islamic scholars to complain that too many people feel qualified to issue fatwas.
This verse provides justification for the extremists to go on Jihad. [9:5] And when the forbidden months have passed, slay the idolaters wherever you find them and take them captive, and beleaguer them, and lie in wait for them at every place of ambush. But if they repent and observe Prayer and pay the Zakaat, then leave their way free. Surely, Allah is Most Forgiving, Merciful. Establishing &quot;regular worship&quot; and paying the &quot;poor-due&quot; (zakat) means essentially that they will become Muslim, as these are two of the central responsibilities of every Muslim. Violent jihad is a constant of Islamic history. The passages quoted above and many others like them form a major element of the motivation of militant, radical Muslims worldwide today. No major Muslim group has ever repudiated the doctrines of armed jihad, yet some have done so with terrorist groups’ interpretation of the concept. The theology of jihad, with all its assumptions about unbelievers‚ lack of human rights and dignity, is available today as a justification for anyone with the will and the means to bring it to life.
Getting into an extremist group is a very difficult thing to do. Most of them do not take volunteers. You cant just walk in and be accepted. In most cases you need to prove your loyalty by fighting for the group. Keenly sensitive to the risk of penetration agents being planted in their midst, al-Qaeda selects prospects from Islamic centers, schools and mosques around the world. A first step might be to encourage the prospect to enroll in a more conservative or militant mosque. While there, al-Qaeda would conduct background checks through employers, religious leaders, relatives and friends. And as in the Mafia, there is a signed, sworn oath of allegiance and secrecy, examples of which have been obtained by U.S. intelligence. In al-Qaeda it's called a &quot;bayat,&quot; a signed promise to follow al-Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden, even to martyrdom. The penalty for breaking the oath is death. Some of the characteristics al-Qaeda recruiters look for: A Muslim man from late teens to early 30s. Willingness to die. Ability to follow orders. Patience and discipline; not a hothead.
One of the gravest concerns of Extreme Islam today is the home grown terrorist. The July 2005 bombing in the London subway are an example. There are very active movements all over the world that are building Extreme movements with indigenous populations. This is a major problem for many obvious reasons. It is much more difficult to identify potential threats as they are no longer foreign nationals. The indigenous personnel have a much better understanding of how things work and are able to better maneuver through the society. Another potential problem lies in the normalization of violence. Many things that are considered normal for today were considered depraved 50 years ago. With enough work our society could become accustom to violence as part of normal activity thus almost accepting Islamic Extremism. Part of the plan for “converting” indigenous personal has been the movement of Extreme Islam in prison. Federal officials have arrested three men in Southern California since early July in a plot that allegedly targeted National Guard facilities, the Israeli Consulate in Los Angeles and several synagogues. Authorities said they believe the plan originated among a shadowy group known as Jamiyyat- Al-Islam Is Saheeh inside California State Prison, Sacramento.
Extreme Islam is expanding rapidly in South America and Africa. Groups like Hezbollah and Al Qaeda have been actively establishing Islamic schools and Aid Organizations (for example orphanages) throughout the region .
It is very hard to combat an ideology. There are a few programs that are having success. Public statements by some Muslim religious authorities over the last two and a half years that Islamic extremists are corrupting a peaceful religious faith for their own ends are encouraging, as is the growing recognition in the Muslim world that terrorist leaders like bin Laden lack the proper religious qualifications to issue binding religious edicts. Some of these authorities have also declared Muslim death-seeking attackers to be “suicides,” not martyrs; this is important, since Islam forbids suicide (those who do so are sent not to Paradise but to hell where they are condemned to repeat their suicidal acts for eternity). The US military, for its part, needs to better understand and respect Muslim cultures that are unique yet diverse, and how extremists can use these environments against us; convince people in the Muslim world that America is not un-Islamic in its policies and actions; and recognize that we are facing committed and patient adversaries who are adaptable and resilient. In Yemen they have had a 90% reduction in terror attacks since they have started reeducation/deprogramming centers. The UAE has just redone their entire youth education system to put an emphasis on highlighting the positive aspects of Islam and fight the fundamental view of Islam. This has been so successful that other places in the gulf have adopted the same idea. Source: May 15 2006 Lecture by Imam Yahya Hendi BBC White City201 Wood LaneLondonW12 7TS Broadcast Date: 21 July 2005Repeat Date: 24 July 2005Tape Number: PLN529/05VT1029Duration: 27’43” “ANALYSIS THE THEOLOGY OF TERRORISM”
Extreme Islam It is impossible to successfully defeat a violent ideological movement without understanding the ideology motivating it
Objective <ul><li>Action: Identify Key Aspects Of Extreme Islam </li></ul><ul><li>Conditions: Given Student Notes </li></ul><ul><li>Standard: Successfully Identified 6 Key Aspects Of Extreme Islam </li></ul>
Administrative <ul><li>Safety Requirements: None </li></ul><ul><li>Risk Assessment Level: Low </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Considerations: None </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation: In class discussion </li></ul>
Agenda <ul><li>Increase post 9/11 understanding of: </li></ul><ul><li>Conditions that promote Islamic extremism </li></ul><ul><li>Extremist Mindset (what they see and why) </li></ul><ul><li>Extremist Ideology </li></ul><ul><li>Major radical philosophers, their enduring works, and their reinterpretations of mainstream Islamic thought </li></ul><ul><li>How Muslim world perceives us, and why many hate us </li></ul><ul><li>*May help to save American lives, prevent future attacks </li></ul>
Origins of Discontent <ul><li>Internal conditions in the Arab/Muslim world: </li></ul><ul><li>- Corrupt, authoritarian, unrepresentative regimes </li></ul><ul><li>- Repression, economic failure and disenfranchisement </li></ul><ul><li>- Continuing lack of opportunities and hope </li></ul><ul><li>Threats from outside of the Islamic “nation”: </li></ul><ul><li>- Arrival of European colonialism, economic exploitation, </li></ul><ul><li>- Political and economic domination </li></ul><ul><li>- Invasion of alien ideas: secularism, nationalism, democracy and “human rights” </li></ul><ul><li>- Continued Western support to Israel and to unpopular Middle `Eastern governments </li></ul><ul><li>*US perceived as leader of the West </li></ul>
Roots of Extreme Islam Ibn Taymiyya (d. 1328) <ul><li>In Ibn Taymiyyah’s time, Mongols had conquered Baghdad and converted to Islam. </li></ul><ul><li>Because Mongols ruled by Mongol tribal law, Ibn Taymiyyah branded them disbelievers ( kafir ) and argued legitimacy of waging jihad against them. </li></ul><ul><li>Stirred Mamluks in 1303 to fight against the Mongols. </li></ul><ul><li>Ibn Taymiyyah also asserted the supremacy of outer jihad over inner jihad . Inner jihad : training for outer jihad. </li></ul>
Muhammad Ibn ‘Abd al-Wahhab and Salafism <ul><li>Founded movement to cleanse Islam of innovations (bid’ah), deviances, heresies; based on Hanbali school of law; inspired by the ideas of Ibn Taymiyya </li></ul><ul><li>Advocated strict return to fundamentals of the faith, rejected any behavior not conducted or supported by the Prophet Muhammad, and referred to themselves as Muwahhidun – “Unitarians”, not Wahhabis </li></ul><ul><li>Expanded the concept of jahiliyya to include Muslim societies of the 18 th century that had diverted from pure Islamic practice to sin (idolatry, veneration of saints by the Sufis) </li></ul><ul><li>Labeled “sinful Muslims” as apostates, thus allowing for jihad against them </li></ul><ul><li>Known outside Saudi Arabia as Salafis (“Forefathers”): At the most extreme, Salafis reject nation states and all manmade laws; many Sunni radicals are products of this sect’s teachings </li></ul>
Muslim Brotherhood Al-Ikhwan Al-Muslimoon <ul><li>“ Allah is our objective. The messenger is our leader. Qur’an is our law. Jihad is our way. Dying in the way of Allah is our highest hope.” </li></ul><ul><li>Active in over 70 nations </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Muslim individuals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muslim families </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muslim societies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muslim states </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mastering the world with Islam </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Notable members with connections to terrorism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abdullah Azzam (co-founder of Al Qaida, mentor to Osama bin Laden) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sheik Ahmad Yaseen (spiritual leader of HAMAS) </li></ul></ul>
Al-Banna’s Islamic State <ul><li>Founded to counter threats from Western colonialism, Arab nationalism and secularism </li></ul><ul><li>Primary means to restore Islamic character to society is vigorous preaching and teaching (da’wa) campaign; direct political action not appropriate or effective </li></ul><ul><li>Gradualist approach to build a strong Muslim state governed by shari’a : </li></ul><ul><li>Influenced radicals by redefining jihad : God-ordained defensive requirement for all Muslims, as long as unbelievers rule any Islamic lands; greater jihad is armed physical struggle against injustice and unbelief, not the internal spiritual struggle </li></ul><ul><li>Extended jihad to include, not only against infidels, but People of the Book: Christians and Jews </li></ul>
Hasan al-Banna <ul><li>“ Jihad is not against polytheists alone, but against all who do not embrace Islam…Today the Muslims…are compelled to humble themselves before non-Muslims, and are ruled by unbelievers…Their adversaries are in charge of their affairs, and the rites of their religion have fallen into abeyance within their own domains, to say nothing of their impotence to broadcast the summons [to embrace Islam]. Hence it has become an individual obligation, which there is no evading, on every Muslim to prepare his equipment, to make up his mind to engage in jihad, and to get ready for it…Know then that death is inevitable, and that it can only happen once. If you suffer it in the way of God, it will be your profit in this world, and your reward in the next.” “On Jihad” </li></ul>
<ul><li>Indian journalist who founded the Islamic Society ( Jama‘at -i Islami ) in 1948. </li></ul><ul><li>Shared al-Banna’s critique of the West and the imperative to Islamiize society. </li></ul><ul><li>Islamic Revivalism: Islam as a comprehensive system of government, economics, family life </li></ul><ul><li>First Islamist writer to approach jihad systematically: </li></ul><ul><li>- Warfare not just for political control, but to establish just rule </li></ul><ul><li>- Jihad becomes war of liberation: links concept to anti-colonialism, “national liberation movements,” and Arab resistance to Israel </li></ul>Mawlana Abu’l ‘Ala Mawdudi
Sayyid Abu’l A’la Mawdudi <ul><li>“ Islam is a revolutionary doctrine and program that overturns governments. It seeks to overturn the whole universal social order...It is not satisfied by a piece of land but demands the whole planet...Islamic Jihad is at the same time offensive and defensive...The Islamic party does not hesitate to utilize the means of war to implement its goal.” </li></ul><ul><li>Jihad In Islam , 1939 </li></ul>
Sayyid Qutb <ul><li>Joined Muslim Brotherhood (1951) </li></ul><ul><li>Imprisoned Following Failed Assassination Of Nasser (1954-1964) </li></ul><ul><li>Incarcerated and Tortured, Wrote Milestones </li></ul><ul><li>- Revitalization Of Islam </li></ul><ul><li>- Egyptian government repressive and un-Islamic </li></ul><ul><li>- Egyptian society still Jahiliyya </li></ul><ul><li>- Jihad as armed struggle necessary to fight oppressive regimes </li></ul><ul><li>- Called For Islamic Government In Egypt </li></ul><ul><li>Executed August 24, 1966 </li></ul>
Sayyid Qutb <ul><li>“ Mankind today…is devoid of those vital values which are necessary not only for its healthy development but also for its real progress…If we look at the sources and foundations of modern ways of living, it becomes clear that the whole world is steeped in Jahiliyya (pagan ignorance of divine guidance), [which] takes the form of claiming that the right to create values, to legislate rules of collective behavior, and to choose any way of life rests with men, without regard to what God has prescribed. The result of this rebellion against the authority of God is the oppression of His creatures…” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Western civilization is unable to present any healthy values for the guidance of mankind…Islam is the only system which possesses these values and this way of life.” </li></ul><ul><li>Milestones , 1964 </li></ul>
Revolution ! <ul><li>Operation Ajax 1953 </li></ul><ul><li>Shah Fled Iran Jan 16,1979 </li></ul><ul><li>Khomeini Returned Feb 1, 1979 </li></ul><ul><li>Islamic Republic Of Iran Est. April 1, 1979 </li></ul><ul><li>Hostage Crisis Lasts 444 Days </li></ul>
Hezbollah <ul><li>Welcomed USA </li></ul><ul><li>Turned On Civil War </li></ul><ul><li>US Embassy </li></ul><ul><li>Marine Barracks </li></ul><ul><li>Hostages </li></ul>
Islamic Resistance Islamic Holy War Combat Organ Operational Security Central Security Party Security Security Organ Reconstruction Committee Environmental Committee Financial Committee Power Resources Committee Agricultural Committee Islamic Health Committee Technical Admin Committee Holy Reconstruction Organ Mosque Preachers Hawzat Circles of Learning Mass Media Enforcement Recruitment and Propaganda organ Politburo 15 members (appointed by the Shura Council) Executive Committee 9 Members (5 appointed by the Shura Council General Secretary And Deputy Secretary (appointed by the Shura Council) Supreme Shura Council 17 members (highest leadership authority)
Afghanistan <ul><li>Soviets Occupy Afghanistan 1979 </li></ul><ul><li>Mujahideen Defeat Soviets </li></ul><ul><li>Birthplace of Al Qaeda </li></ul>
Abdullah Azzam <ul><li>"…Every Muslim on earth should unsheath his sword and fight to liberate Palestine. The Jihad is not limited to Afghanistan…There will be no solution to the Palestinian problem except through jihad…“ </li></ul><ul><li>“ Jihad means fighting. You must fight in any place you can get. Whenever Jihad is mentioned in the Holy Book, it means the obligation to fight. It does not mean to fight with the pen or to write books or articles in the press or to fight by holding lectures… Jihad and the rifle alone: no negotiations, no conferences, no dialogues.“ </li></ul><ul><li>“ The Jihad in Afghanistan will broaden until the entire world will be conquered because Allah has promised the victory to Islam." </li></ul>
Azzam Expands the Struggle <ul><li>Founded the Mujahidin Services Bureau (MAK) in Peshawar to train Muslim volunteers </li></ul><ul><li>Developed religious ideology for the Afghan conflict, then put it into practice globally; also redefined the Palestinian struggle from a nationalist/secular conflict to a religious one </li></ul><ul><li>Proclaimed that any land that was once part of the caliphate must be recaptured if it falls into infidel hands </li></ul><ul><li>Disagreement over network’s long-term goals: ‘Azzam wanted to aim jihad at Israel; bin Laden wanted to topple non-muslim governments and establish a caliphate by jihad. </li></ul>
Al Qaeda <ul><li>An Umbrella Organization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>International Islamic Front For Jihad Against The Jews And Crusaders </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Training And Doctrine For Terrorists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Central Training Camps In Afghanistan (1996-2001) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New Direction: rather than attempt jihad against “near enemy” (Israel or corrupt Muslim rulers) al-Qaeda rallied Muslims to go after the source of these two enemies. </li></ul>
Global Jihad: A New Twist <ul><li>Osama bin Laden: </li></ul><ul><li>- August 1996 Declaration of War (“Ladinese Epistle”): Muslims must expel infidels from “land of the two holy places” </li></ul><ul><li>- February 1998 Fatwa: America “stormed” the Arabian Peninsula and is using it to launch attacks against Muslims; is hurting Iraqis; and is supporting Israeli occupation of Jerusalem and its aggression against Muslims – so all Americans must be killed anywhere </li></ul><ul><li>- “Defensive struggle” that is morally required for all true Muslims </li></ul><ul><li>- May 1998 ABC Interview: Bring the battle to American soil; focus on political, economic and military targets (not offensive religious or cultural institutions) </li></ul>
Current Ideology <ul><li>No Separation of Church And State </li></ul><ul><li>Islam Is A Way of Life Not Just A Religion </li></ul><ul><li>Eradicate Those Opposed To Their Ideology </li></ul><ul><li>Jihad Is The Means To Bring About Global Islam </li></ul>
The Case Against the West <ul><li>Arrogance, insensitivity toward other cultures </li></ul><ul><li>Unbalanced foreign policies, favoritism toward Israel </li></ul><ul><li>Resentment over economic success, political and military power, commercial exploitation </li></ul><ul><li>Disgust over lax morals: alcohol consumption, suggestive dress of women, commercialization of sex </li></ul><ul><li>Economic sanctions against Muslim countries </li></ul><ul><li>Lengthy stationing of US troops in Saudi Arabia </li></ul><ul><li>Support of repressive, corrupt regimes due to Western greed (oil) </li></ul>
A Seven-Step Plan? Saif al-Adel-sourced article (Der Spiegel) <ul><li>1) Awakening </li></ul><ul><ul><li>9/11 to Fall of Baghdad </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase US presence in region </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost Afghanistan and Saddam </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2) Opening Eyes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Present to 2006 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Group turns into a movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Massive Recruitment Drive (Iraq-Centric) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Failure to date </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Numbers v. those in anti-Soviet Afghanistan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Silent response of the Arab Street </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What does defeat in IQ mean to al Qaeda? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Harm Credibility/ Mystique </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Possession of Losing Ideology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abandoned by God </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Definitive Victory”= Global Islamic Caliphate </li></ul>
<ul><li>3) Arising and Standing Up </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2007 to 2010 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on Syria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cadre already in place </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attacks on Israel & Turkey </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increase Legitimacy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All nations bordering Iraq in danger </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4) 2010 to 2013 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collapse of Arab Gov’ts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Iraq as Al-Qaeda base </li></ul></ul><ul><li>U.S. Attacks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oil Infrastructure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cyber-Terrorism of Economy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Condensation of 3 & 4 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Groundwork already in place </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased speed of movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regional Instability </li></ul></ul>A Seven-Step Plan?
<ul><li>5) Declaration of Caliphate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2013-2016 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weakened West can’t/won’t resist </li></ul></ul><ul><li>6) Total Confrontation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2016-on </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Islamic Army will instigate fight world wide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Believers v. non-believers” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>7) Definitive Victory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Approx 2020 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>War of 2016 only lasts two years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unrivaled Islamic State </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Current state of affairs? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Media Characterization v. Reality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rift w/ Taliban </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Western Options? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blitz? Nukes? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>American Military Psyche Awoken? </li></ul></ul>Seven-Step Plan: Al Qaeda Dreams
Psychological Outline <ul><li>No Personality Type </li></ul><ul><li>No Discernable Psychosis or Neurosis </li></ul><ul><li>Motivated by Shame, Injustice and Dishonor </li></ul>
Psychological Outline 1997-98: the Council on American-Islamic Relations pounded Nike into recalling 800,000 shoes because the English word "Air" in its logo allegedly resembled the Arabic lettering for "Allah." September 2005 : Response to Burger King Ad: “This is my jihad. I'm not going to rest until I find the person who is responsible. I'm going to bring this country [Britain] down."
Psychological Outline <ul><li>70% Married </li></ul><ul><li>60% College Degree </li></ul><ul><li>75% Middle/Upper Class </li></ul><ul><li>87% Secular Background </li></ul>
Justifications for Use of Violence <ul><li>Divine Sovereignty must be upheld </li></ul><ul><li>Jihad permitted or required against apostate Muslim rulers </li></ul><ul><li>Military jihad supercedes inner jihad </li></ul><ul><li>Dualism: Party of God vs. Party of Satan. Jihad, an armed struggle against oppressive regimes, requires military action. </li></ul>
Misuse Of Islam <ul><li>Killing Other Muslims </li></ul><ul><li>Paradise (72 Virgins) </li></ul><ul><li>The Giving Of Alms </li></ul><ul><li>Committing Suicide </li></ul><ul><li>Fatwa's </li></ul>
“ The Sword Verse” <ul><li>[9:5] And when the forbidden months have passed, slay the idolaters wherever you find them and take them captive, and beleaguer them, and lie in wait for them at every place of ambush. But if they repent and observe Prayer and pay the Zakaat, then leave their way free. Surely, Allah is Most Forgiving, Merciful. </li></ul>
Recruitment <ul><li>Very Hard </li></ul><ul><li>No “Volunteers” </li></ul><ul><li>Proven fighters </li></ul><ul><li>Not easy to penetrate </li></ul>
Current Events <ul><li>London And Other Home Grown </li></ul><ul><li>Islam In The Prisoner Population </li></ul>
Future Concerns <ul><li>Islamic Expansion In South America </li></ul><ul><li>Africa </li></ul>
What Is To Be Done? <ul><li>Some Muslim authorities have denounced distortion of the faith; promoted increased recognition in the Islamic world that terrorist leaders don’t have the religious authority to declare jihad ; and declared that martyrdom-seeking attackers are really “suicides” </li></ul><ul><li>In Yemen they have had a 90% reduction in terror attacks since they have started reeducation/deprogramming centers. </li></ul><ul><li>The UAE has just redone their entire youth education system to put an emphasis on highlighting the positive aspects of Islam and fight the fundamental view of Islam. </li></ul><ul><li>United States military must: better understand and respect other cultures -- particularly how other people see themselves and their situations, how they can be expected to act, and how extremists manipulate their environments; convince Muslims we come in contact with that the US is not un-Islamic; and recognize this is a long-term process against a persistent and resilient adversary </li></ul>
Summary <ul><li>Conditions that promote Islamic extremism </li></ul><ul><li>Extremist Mindset </li></ul><ul><li>Extremist Ideology </li></ul><ul><li>Major radical philosophers, their enduring works, and their reinterpretations of mainstream Islamic thought </li></ul><ul><li>How Muslim world perceives us, and why many hate us </li></ul>