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Extreme Islam It is impossible to successfully defeat a violent ideological movement without understanding the ideology mo...
Unclassified This Presentation Is
Objective <ul><li>Action:   Identify Key Aspects Of   Extreme Islam </li></ul><ul><li>Conditions: Given Student Notes </li...
Administrative <ul><li>Safety Requirements:  None </li></ul><ul><li>Risk Assessment Level:  Low </li></ul><ul><li>Environm...
Agenda <ul><li>Increase post 9/11 understanding of: </li></ul><ul><li>Conditions that promote Islamic extremism </li></ul>...
Origins of Discontent <ul><li>Internal conditions in the Arab/Muslim world: </li></ul><ul><li>-  Corrupt, authoritarian, u...
Roots of Extreme Islam Ibn Taymiyya (d. 1328) <ul><li>In Ibn Taymiyyah’s time, Mongols had conquered Baghdad and converted...
Muhammad Ibn ‘Abd al-Wahhab  and Salafism <ul><li>Founded movement to cleanse Islam of innovations  (bid’ah),  deviances, ...
Muslim Brotherhood Al-Ikhwan Al-Muslimoon <ul><li>“ Allah is our objective. The messenger is our leader. Qur’an is our law...
Al-Banna’s Islamic State <ul><li>Founded to counter threats from Western colonialism, Arab nationalism and secularism </li...
Hasan al-Banna <ul><li>“ Jihad is not against polytheists alone, but against all who do not embrace Islam…Today the Muslim...
<ul><li>Indian journalist who founded the Islamic Society ( Jama‘at -i Islami  ) in 1948. </li></ul><ul><li>Shared al-Bann...
Sayyid Abu’l A’la Mawdudi <ul><li>“ Islam is a revolutionary   doctrine and program that overturns governments. It seeks t...
Sayyid Qutb <ul><li>Joined Muslim Brotherhood (1951) </li></ul><ul><li>Imprisoned Following Failed Assassination Of Nasser...
Sayyid Qutb <ul><li>“ Mankind today…is devoid of those vital values which are necessary not only for its healthy developme...
Revolution ! <ul><li>Operation Ajax 1953 </li></ul><ul><li>Shah Fled Iran Jan 16,1979 </li></ul><ul><li>Khomeini Returned ...
Hezbollah <ul><li>Welcomed USA </li></ul><ul><li>Turned On Civil War </li></ul><ul><li>US Embassy </li></ul><ul><li>Marine...
Islamic Resistance Islamic Holy War Combat Organ Operational  Security Central  Security Party  Security Security Organ Re...
Afghanistan <ul><li>Soviets Occupy Afghanistan 1979 </li></ul><ul><li>Mujahideen Defeat Soviets </li></ul><ul><li>Birthpla...
Abdullah Azzam <ul><li>&quot;…Every Muslim on earth should unsheath his sword and fight to liberate Palestine.  The Jihad ...
Azzam Expands the Struggle <ul><li>Founded the Mujahidin Services Bureau (MAK) in Peshawar to train Muslim volunteers </li...
Al Qaeda <ul><li>An Umbrella Organization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>International Islamic Front For Jihad Against The Jews And...
 
Global Jihad:  A New Twist <ul><li>Osama bin Laden: </li></ul><ul><li>-  August 1996 Declaration of War (“Ladinese Epistle...
Current Ideology <ul><li>No Separation of Church And State </li></ul><ul><li>Islam Is A Way of Life Not Just A Religion </...
The Case Against the West <ul><li>Arrogance, insensitivity toward other cultures </li></ul><ul><li>Unbalanced foreign poli...
A Seven-Step Plan? Saif al-Adel-sourced article (Der Spiegel) <ul><li>1)  Awakening </li></ul><ul><ul><li>9/11 to Fall of ...
<ul><li>3)  Arising and Standing Up </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2007 to 2010 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on Syria </li></ul...
<ul><li>5) Declaration of Caliphate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2013-2016 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weakened West can’t/won’t r...
Psychological Outline <ul><li>No Personality Type </li></ul><ul><li>No Discernable Psychosis or Neurosis </li></ul><ul><li...
Psychological Outline 1997-98: the Council on American-Islamic Relations pounded Nike into recalling 800,000 shoes because...
Psychological Outline <ul><li>70% Married </li></ul><ul><li>60% College Degree </li></ul><ul><li>75% Middle/Upper Class </...
Justifications for Use of Violence   <ul><li>Divine Sovereignty must be upheld </li></ul><ul><li>Jihad permitted or requir...
Misuse Of Islam <ul><li>Killing Other Muslims </li></ul><ul><li>Paradise (72 Virgins)  </li></ul><ul><li>The Giving Of Alm...
“ The Sword Verse” <ul><li>[9:5] And when the forbidden months have passed, slay the idolaters wherever you find them and ...
Recruitment <ul><li>Very Hard </li></ul><ul><li>No “Volunteers” </li></ul><ul><li>Proven fighters </li></ul><ul><li>Not ea...
Current Events <ul><li>London And Other Home Grown </li></ul><ul><li>Islam In The Prisoner Population  </li></ul>
Future Concerns   <ul><li>Islamic Expansion In South America  </li></ul><ul><li>Africa  </li></ul>
What Is To Be Done? <ul><li>Some Muslim authorities have denounced distortion of the faith; promoted increased recognition...
Summary <ul><li>Conditions that promote Islamic extremism </li></ul><ul><li>Extremist Mindset </li></ul><ul><li>Extremist ...
QUESTIONS?
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Extreme islam

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Extreme islam

  1. 1. Extreme Islam It is impossible to successfully defeat a violent ideological movement without understanding the ideology motivating it
  2. 2. Unclassified This Presentation Is
  3. 3. Objective <ul><li>Action: Identify Key Aspects Of Extreme Islam </li></ul><ul><li>Conditions: Given Student Notes </li></ul><ul><li>Standard: Successfully Identified 6 Key Aspects Of Extreme Islam </li></ul>
  4. 4. Administrative <ul><li>Safety Requirements: None </li></ul><ul><li>Risk Assessment Level: Low </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Considerations: None </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation: In class discussion </li></ul>
  5. 5. Agenda <ul><li>Increase post 9/11 understanding of: </li></ul><ul><li>Conditions that promote Islamic extremism </li></ul><ul><li>Extremist Mindset (what they see and why) </li></ul><ul><li>Extremist Ideology </li></ul><ul><li>Major radical philosophers, their enduring works, and their reinterpretations of mainstream Islamic thought </li></ul><ul><li>How Muslim world perceives us, and why many hate us </li></ul><ul><li>*May help to save American lives, prevent future attacks </li></ul>
  6. 6. Origins of Discontent <ul><li>Internal conditions in the Arab/Muslim world: </li></ul><ul><li>- Corrupt, authoritarian, unrepresentative regimes </li></ul><ul><li>- Repression, economic failure and disenfranchisement </li></ul><ul><li>- Continuing lack of opportunities and hope </li></ul><ul><li>Threats from outside of the Islamic “nation”: </li></ul><ul><li>- Arrival of European colonialism, economic exploitation, </li></ul><ul><li>- Political and economic domination </li></ul><ul><li>- Invasion of alien ideas: secularism, nationalism, democracy and “human rights” </li></ul><ul><li>- Continued Western support to Israel and to unpopular Middle `Eastern governments </li></ul><ul><li>*US perceived as leader of the West </li></ul>
  7. 7. Roots of Extreme Islam Ibn Taymiyya (d. 1328) <ul><li>In Ibn Taymiyyah’s time, Mongols had conquered Baghdad and converted to Islam. </li></ul><ul><li>Because Mongols ruled by Mongol tribal law, Ibn Taymiyyah branded them disbelievers ( kafir ) and argued legitimacy of waging jihad against them. </li></ul><ul><li>Stirred Mamluks in 1303 to fight against the Mongols. </li></ul><ul><li>Ibn Taymiyyah also asserted the supremacy of outer jihad over inner jihad . Inner jihad : training for outer jihad. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Muhammad Ibn ‘Abd al-Wahhab and Salafism <ul><li>Founded movement to cleanse Islam of innovations (bid’ah), deviances, heresies; based on Hanbali school of law; inspired by the ideas of Ibn Taymiyya </li></ul><ul><li>Advocated strict return to fundamentals of the faith, rejected any behavior not conducted or supported by the Prophet Muhammad, and referred to themselves as Muwahhidun – “Unitarians”, not Wahhabis </li></ul><ul><li>Expanded the concept of jahiliyya to include Muslim societies of the 18 th century that had diverted from pure Islamic practice to sin (idolatry, veneration of saints by the Sufis) </li></ul><ul><li>Labeled “sinful Muslims” as apostates, thus allowing for jihad against them </li></ul><ul><li>Known outside Saudi Arabia as Salafis (“Forefathers”): At the most extreme, Salafis reject nation states and all manmade laws; many Sunni radicals are products of this sect’s teachings </li></ul>
  9. 9. Muslim Brotherhood Al-Ikhwan Al-Muslimoon <ul><li>“ Allah is our objective. The messenger is our leader. Qur’an is our law. Jihad is our way. Dying in the way of Allah is our highest hope.” </li></ul><ul><li>Active in over 70 nations </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Muslim individuals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muslim families </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muslim societies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muslim states </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mastering the world with Islam </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Notable members with connections to terrorism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abdullah Azzam (co-founder of Al Qaida, mentor to Osama bin Laden) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sheik Ahmad Yaseen (spiritual leader of HAMAS) </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Al-Banna’s Islamic State <ul><li>Founded to counter threats from Western colonialism, Arab nationalism and secularism </li></ul><ul><li>Primary means to restore Islamic character to society is vigorous preaching and teaching (da’wa) campaign; direct political action not appropriate or effective </li></ul><ul><li>Gradualist approach to build a strong Muslim state governed by shari’a : </li></ul><ul><li>Influenced radicals by redefining jihad : God-ordained defensive requirement for all Muslims, as long as unbelievers rule any Islamic lands; greater jihad is armed physical struggle against injustice and unbelief, not the internal spiritual struggle </li></ul><ul><li>Extended jihad to include, not only against infidels, but People of the Book: Christians and Jews </li></ul>
  11. 11. Hasan al-Banna <ul><li>“ Jihad is not against polytheists alone, but against all who do not embrace Islam…Today the Muslims…are compelled to humble themselves before non-Muslims, and are ruled by unbelievers…Their adversaries are in charge of their affairs, and the rites of their religion have fallen into abeyance within their own domains, to say nothing of their impotence to broadcast the summons [to embrace Islam]. Hence it has become an individual obligation, which there is no evading, on every Muslim to prepare his equipment, to make up his mind to engage in jihad, and to get ready for it…Know then that death is inevitable, and that it can only happen once. If you suffer it in the way of God, it will be your profit in this world, and your reward in the next.” “On Jihad” </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Indian journalist who founded the Islamic Society ( Jama‘at -i Islami ) in 1948. </li></ul><ul><li>Shared al-Banna’s critique of the West and the imperative to Islamiize society. </li></ul><ul><li>Islamic Revivalism: Islam as a comprehensive system of government, economics, family life </li></ul><ul><li>First Islamist writer to approach jihad systematically: </li></ul><ul><li>- Warfare not just for political control, but to establish just rule </li></ul><ul><li>- Jihad becomes war of liberation: links concept to anti-colonialism, “national liberation movements,” and Arab resistance to Israel </li></ul>Mawlana Abu’l ‘Ala Mawdudi
  13. 13. Sayyid Abu’l A’la Mawdudi <ul><li>“ Islam is a revolutionary doctrine and program that overturns governments. It seeks to overturn the whole universal social order...It is not satisfied by a piece of land but demands the whole planet...Islamic Jihad is at the same time offensive and defensive...The Islamic party does not hesitate to utilize the means of war to implement its goal.” </li></ul><ul><li>Jihad In Islam , 1939 </li></ul>
  14. 14. Sayyid Qutb <ul><li>Joined Muslim Brotherhood (1951) </li></ul><ul><li>Imprisoned Following Failed Assassination Of Nasser (1954-1964) </li></ul><ul><li>Incarcerated and Tortured, Wrote Milestones </li></ul><ul><li>- Revitalization Of Islam </li></ul><ul><li>- Egyptian government repressive and un-Islamic </li></ul><ul><li>- Egyptian society still Jahiliyya </li></ul><ul><li>- Jihad as armed struggle necessary to fight oppressive regimes </li></ul><ul><li>- Called For Islamic Government In Egypt </li></ul><ul><li>Executed August 24, 1966 </li></ul>
  15. 15. Sayyid Qutb <ul><li>“ Mankind today…is devoid of those vital values which are necessary not only for its healthy development but also for its real progress…If we look at the sources and foundations of modern ways of living, it becomes clear that the whole world is steeped in Jahiliyya (pagan ignorance of divine guidance), [which] takes the form of claiming that the right to create values, to legislate rules of collective behavior, and to choose any way of life rests with men, without regard to what God has prescribed. The result of this rebellion against the authority of God is the oppression of His creatures…” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Western civilization is unable to present any healthy values for the guidance of mankind…Islam is the only system which possesses these values and this way of life.” </li></ul><ul><li>Milestones , 1964 </li></ul>
  16. 16. Revolution ! <ul><li>Operation Ajax 1953 </li></ul><ul><li>Shah Fled Iran Jan 16,1979 </li></ul><ul><li>Khomeini Returned Feb 1, 1979 </li></ul><ul><li>Islamic Republic Of Iran Est. April 1, 1979 </li></ul><ul><li>Hostage Crisis Lasts 444 Days </li></ul>
  17. 17. Hezbollah <ul><li>Welcomed USA </li></ul><ul><li>Turned On Civil War </li></ul><ul><li>US Embassy </li></ul><ul><li>Marine Barracks </li></ul><ul><li>Hostages </li></ul>
  18. 18. Islamic Resistance Islamic Holy War Combat Organ Operational Security Central Security Party Security Security Organ Reconstruction Committee Environmental Committee Financial Committee Power Resources Committee Agricultural Committee Islamic Health Committee Technical Admin Committee Holy Reconstruction Organ Mosque Preachers Hawzat Circles of Learning Mass Media Enforcement Recruitment and Propaganda organ Politburo 15 members (appointed by the Shura Council) Executive Committee 9 Members (5 appointed by the Shura Council General Secretary And Deputy Secretary (appointed by the Shura Council) Supreme Shura Council 17 members (highest leadership authority)
  19. 19. Afghanistan <ul><li>Soviets Occupy Afghanistan 1979 </li></ul><ul><li>Mujahideen Defeat Soviets </li></ul><ul><li>Birthplace of Al Qaeda </li></ul>
  20. 20. Abdullah Azzam <ul><li>&quot;…Every Muslim on earth should unsheath his sword and fight to liberate Palestine.  The Jihad is not limited to Afghanistan…There will be no solution to the Palestinian problem except through jihad…“ </li></ul><ul><li>“ Jihad means fighting.  You must fight in any place you can get.  Whenever Jihad is mentioned in the Holy Book, it means the obligation to fight.  It does not mean to fight with the pen or to write books or articles in the press or to fight by holding lectures… Jihad and the rifle alone: no negotiations, no conferences, no dialogues.“ </li></ul><ul><li>“ The Jihad in Afghanistan will broaden until the entire world will be conquered because Allah has promised the victory to Islam.&quot; </li></ul>
  21. 21. Azzam Expands the Struggle <ul><li>Founded the Mujahidin Services Bureau (MAK) in Peshawar to train Muslim volunteers </li></ul><ul><li>Developed religious ideology for the Afghan conflict, then put it into practice globally; also redefined the Palestinian struggle from a nationalist/secular conflict to a religious one </li></ul><ul><li>Proclaimed that any land that was once part of the caliphate must be recaptured if it falls into infidel hands </li></ul><ul><li>Disagreement over network’s long-term goals: ‘Azzam wanted to aim jihad at Israel; bin Laden wanted to topple non-muslim governments and establish a caliphate by jihad. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Al Qaeda <ul><li>An Umbrella Organization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>International Islamic Front For Jihad Against The Jews And Crusaders </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Training And Doctrine For Terrorists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Central Training Camps In Afghanistan (1996-2001) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New Direction: rather than attempt jihad against “near enemy” (Israel or corrupt Muslim rulers) al-Qaeda rallied Muslims to go after the source of these two enemies. </li></ul>
  23. 24. Global Jihad: A New Twist <ul><li>Osama bin Laden: </li></ul><ul><li>- August 1996 Declaration of War (“Ladinese Epistle”): Muslims must expel infidels from “land of the two holy places” </li></ul><ul><li>- February 1998 Fatwa: America “stormed” the Arabian Peninsula and is using it to launch attacks against Muslims; is hurting Iraqis; and is supporting Israeli occupation of Jerusalem and its aggression against Muslims – so all Americans must be killed anywhere </li></ul><ul><li>- “Defensive struggle” that is morally required for all true Muslims </li></ul><ul><li>- May 1998 ABC Interview: Bring the battle to American soil; focus on political, economic and military targets (not offensive religious or cultural institutions) </li></ul>
  24. 25. Current Ideology <ul><li>No Separation of Church And State </li></ul><ul><li>Islam Is A Way of Life Not Just A Religion </li></ul><ul><li>Eradicate Those Opposed To Their Ideology </li></ul><ul><li>Jihad Is The Means To Bring About Global Islam </li></ul>
  25. 26. The Case Against the West <ul><li>Arrogance, insensitivity toward other cultures </li></ul><ul><li>Unbalanced foreign policies, favoritism toward Israel </li></ul><ul><li>Resentment over economic success, political and military power, commercial exploitation </li></ul><ul><li>Disgust over lax morals: alcohol consumption, suggestive dress of women, commercialization of sex </li></ul><ul><li>Economic sanctions against Muslim countries </li></ul><ul><li>Lengthy stationing of US troops in Saudi Arabia </li></ul><ul><li>Support of repressive, corrupt regimes due to Western greed (oil) </li></ul>
  26. 27. A Seven-Step Plan? Saif al-Adel-sourced article (Der Spiegel) <ul><li>1) Awakening </li></ul><ul><ul><li>9/11 to Fall of Baghdad </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase US presence in region </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost Afghanistan and Saddam </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2) Opening Eyes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Present to 2006 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Group turns into a movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Massive Recruitment Drive (Iraq-Centric) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Failure to date </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Numbers v. those in anti-Soviet Afghanistan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Silent response of the Arab Street </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What does defeat in IQ mean to al Qaeda? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Harm Credibility/ Mystique </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Possession of Losing Ideology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abandoned by God </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Definitive Victory”= Global Islamic Caliphate </li></ul>
  27. 28. <ul><li>3) Arising and Standing Up </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2007 to 2010 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on Syria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cadre already in place </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attacks on Israel & Turkey </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increase Legitimacy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All nations bordering Iraq in danger </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4) 2010 to 2013 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collapse of Arab Gov’ts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Iraq as Al-Qaeda base </li></ul></ul><ul><li>U.S. Attacks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oil Infrastructure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cyber-Terrorism of Economy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Condensation of 3 & 4 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Groundwork already in place </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased speed of movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regional Instability </li></ul></ul>A Seven-Step Plan?
  28. 29. <ul><li>5) Declaration of Caliphate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2013-2016 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weakened West can’t/won’t resist </li></ul></ul><ul><li>6) Total Confrontation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2016-on </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Islamic Army will instigate fight world wide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Believers v. non-believers” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>7) Definitive Victory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Approx 2020 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>War of 2016 only lasts two years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unrivaled Islamic State </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Current state of affairs? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Media Characterization v. Reality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rift w/ Taliban </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Western Options? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blitz? Nukes? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>American Military Psyche Awoken? </li></ul></ul>Seven-Step Plan: Al Qaeda Dreams
  29. 30. Psychological Outline <ul><li>No Personality Type </li></ul><ul><li>No Discernable Psychosis or Neurosis </li></ul><ul><li>Motivated by Shame, Injustice and Dishonor </li></ul>
  30. 31. Psychological Outline 1997-98: the Council on American-Islamic Relations pounded Nike into recalling 800,000 shoes because the English word &quot;Air&quot; in its logo allegedly resembled the Arabic lettering for &quot;Allah.&quot; September 2005 : Response to Burger King Ad: “This is my jihad. I'm not going to rest until I find the person who is responsible. I'm going to bring this country [Britain] down.&quot;
  31. 32. Psychological Outline <ul><li>70% Married </li></ul><ul><li>60% College Degree </li></ul><ul><li>75% Middle/Upper Class </li></ul><ul><li>87% Secular Background </li></ul>
  32. 33. Justifications for Use of Violence <ul><li>Divine Sovereignty must be upheld </li></ul><ul><li>Jihad permitted or required against apostate Muslim rulers </li></ul><ul><li>Military jihad supercedes inner jihad </li></ul><ul><li>Dualism: Party of God vs. Party of Satan. Jihad, an armed struggle against oppressive regimes, requires military action. </li></ul>
  33. 34. Misuse Of Islam <ul><li>Killing Other Muslims </li></ul><ul><li>Paradise (72 Virgins) </li></ul><ul><li>The Giving Of Alms </li></ul><ul><li>Committing Suicide </li></ul><ul><li>Fatwa's </li></ul>
  34. 35. “ The Sword Verse” <ul><li>[9:5] And when the forbidden months have passed, slay the idolaters wherever you find them and take them captive, and beleaguer them, and lie in wait for them at every place of ambush. But if they repent and observe Prayer and pay the Zakaat, then leave their way free. Surely, Allah is Most Forgiving, Merciful. </li></ul>
  35. 36. Recruitment <ul><li>Very Hard </li></ul><ul><li>No “Volunteers” </li></ul><ul><li>Proven fighters </li></ul><ul><li>Not easy to penetrate </li></ul>
  36. 37. Current Events <ul><li>London And Other Home Grown </li></ul><ul><li>Islam In The Prisoner Population </li></ul>
  37. 38. Future Concerns <ul><li>Islamic Expansion In South America </li></ul><ul><li>Africa </li></ul>
  38. 39. What Is To Be Done? <ul><li>Some Muslim authorities have denounced distortion of the faith; promoted increased recognition in the Islamic world that terrorist leaders don’t have the religious authority to declare jihad ; and declared that martyrdom-seeking attackers are really “suicides” </li></ul><ul><li>In Yemen they have had a 90% reduction in terror attacks since they have started reeducation/deprogramming centers. </li></ul><ul><li>The UAE has just redone their entire youth education system to put an emphasis on highlighting the positive aspects of Islam and fight the fundamental view of Islam. </li></ul><ul><li>United States military must: better understand and respect other cultures -- particularly how other people see themselves and their situations, how they can be expected to act, and how extremists manipulate their environments; convince Muslims we come in contact with that the US is not un-Islamic; and recognize this is a long-term process against a persistent and resilient adversary </li></ul>
  39. 40. Summary <ul><li>Conditions that promote Islamic extremism </li></ul><ul><li>Extremist Mindset </li></ul><ul><li>Extremist Ideology </li></ul><ul><li>Major radical philosophers, their enduring works, and their reinterpretations of mainstream Islamic thought </li></ul><ul><li>How Muslim world perceives us, and why many hate us </li></ul>
  40. 41. QUESTIONS?

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