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1 Bed Bugs 101


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4th Annual Bed Bug Summit sponsored by the Central Ohio Bed Bug Task Force

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1 Bed Bugs 101

  1. 1. Bed Bugs 101 (Biology & Behavior) and Research Update<br />Dr. Susan C. Jones<br />Associate Professor<br />Dept. of Entomology<br />
  2. 2. Bed bugs have plagued humans for thousands of years!<br />Bed bugs are an emerging pest throughout the U.S.!<br />
  3. 3.
  4. 4. SW Ohio<br />Bed Bug Complaints* <br />Cincinnati Health Dept.3<br />Hamilton Co. Public Health Dept.1,2<br />1,101<br />305<br />267<br />266<br />724<br />167<br />84<br />37<br />2<br />~10<br />2003 &<br />reporting system <br />instituted<br />bed bug inspection program suspended<br />* Represents a small fraction of overall bed bug infestations in area.<br /> 1Verified to be bed bugs. 2 Data courtesy of Greg Kesterman. 3Data courtesy of Camille Jones.<br />
  5. 5. Bed Bug Complaints by Zip Code(46 zip codes, Franklin County, Ohio)<br />6,589 complaints<br />2,125 complaints<br />Data from COBBTF members, compiled by Paul Wenning<br />
  6. 6. ©<br />
  7. 7. BED BUG HABITS<br /><ul><li>Cannot fly
  8. 8. Can walk very fast
  9. 9. Typically hide during the day in dark, </li></ul> protected sites (esp. cracks & crevices)<br /><ul><li>Prefer fabric, wood, and paper surfaces
  10. 10. Can cling tightly to surfaces</li></li></ul><li>Host Location by Bed Bugs: Time and Distance Travelled<br />Slightly modified from :<br />Reis, M. D. & D. Miller. 2011. Host searching and aggregation activity of recently fed and unfed bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L. ). Insects vol 2.<br />
  11. 11. Bed bugs are very goodhitchhikers!<br />Bed bugs can be moved from one place to another by hiding in:<br /><ul><li> luggage
  12. 12. furniture
  13. 13. bedding
  14. 14. backpacks, purses, briefcases
  15. 15. clothing
  16. 16. …</li></li></ul><li>Bed Bugs Hiding in Luggage<br />
  17. 17. In multi-family housing, bed bugs readily spread to units that are adjacent, below, and above the infested unit.<br />
  18. 18. Some Reasons For the Resurgence of Bed Bugs<br />International travel and commerce<br />Housing with high tenant turnover<br />Pesticide use has changed<br />Pesticide bans<br />Baits to control ants & cockroaches<br />Insecticide resistance<br />
  19. 19. Bed bug encounters have sharply increased in the past 1 to 5 years compared to >10 years ago in all regions of the world, except for <br />Africa/Middle East and South America.<br />
  20. 20. Some Reasons For the Resurgence of Bed Bugs<br />International travel and commerce<br />Housing with high tenant turnover<br />Pesticide use has changed<br />Pesticide bans<br />Baits to control ants & cockroaches<br />Insecticide resistance<br />
  21. 21. <ul><li>Pesticide-exposed bb
  22. 22. Pesticide-susceptible bb </li></ul> (Harlan strain)<br />Genes involved in insecticide detoxification were at very high levels in field-collected bed bugs from Ohio.<br /><ul><li>Pesticide-exposed bb
  23. 23. Pesticide-susceptible bb </li></ul>Cytochrome P450 (CYP9)<br />Glutathione S-transferase (GST)<br />Xiaodong Bai, Praveen Mamidala, Swapna P. Rajarapu, Susan C. Jones, & Omprakash Mittapalli. Transcriptomics of the bed bug (Cimex lectularius). January 2011. PLoS One 6(1): e16336.<br />
  24. 24. Bed Bugs<br />(Cimex lectularius)<br /><ul><li>Insects (true bugs)
  25. 25. Temporary external parasites
  26. 26. Feed only on blood
  27. 27. Often closely associated with hosts’ sleeping or resting sites (hide in many places)</li></ul> Not caused by bad housekeeping!!<br /> BED BUGS CAN HAPPEN TO ANYONE!<br />
  28. 28. Bed Bug Feeding Habits<br /><ul><li> Typically feed at night
  29. 29. Prefer to feed on humans
  30. 30. May feed on other animals
  31. 31. rodents, bats, birds
  32. 32. pets (cats, dogs, etc.)
  33. 33. Locate their host using cues such as carbon dioxide and heat </li></li></ul><li>During nighttime, <br />the majority of fed males aggregated in the shelter whereas<br />the majority of unfed males remained outside of the shelter. <br />Average percent aggregated in shelter<br />Reis, M. D. & D. Miller. 2011. Host searching and aggregation activity of recently fed and unfed bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L. ). Insects vol 2<br />
  34. 34. If you wake up with itchy, red welts that weren’t there when you went to bed, perhaps its bed bugs.<br />BED BUGS BITES:<br /><ul><li>Initial bite is painless
  35. 35. Resemble bites from other insects & kin
  36. 36. Some clues that it may be bed bug bites:
  37. 37. Typically are on exposed skin
  38. 38. Often in groups or rows</li></ul>Confirmation based on finding bed bug evidence<br />
  39. 39. Survey (spring/summer 2009):<br /><ul><li>474 individuals with verified bed bug infestation in dwellings
  40. 40. Apts (66%), single-family homes (15%), condos/townhomes (9%), shelters (7%), dorms (2%), long-term care (<1%)
  41. 41. Chicago, N.Y., Cincinnati, Louisville, Atlanta, L.A., & Miami
  42. 42. ~70% of people had an allergic reaction to bed bug’s injected saliva; ~30% had no reaction</li></ul> - Swelling <br /> - Welts<br /> - Severe itching (hrs to days)<br /><ul><li>Difference in reactivity due to age</li></ul> - Elderly (>65 years old--42% with no reactions)<br /> - Children (1-10 years old--41% with no reactions [note: very small sample size])<br /><ul><li>No significant difference in reactivity for:</li></ul> - Males vs. females <br /> - Ethnic groups<br />
  43. 43. Injury From Bed Bugs<br /><ul><li>Allergic reaction in ~70% of humans
  44. 44. Welts
  45. 45. Severe itching
  46. 46. Anemia
  47. 47. Asthma
  48. 48. Scratching of bites increases inflammation, can lead to secondary bacterial infections
  49. 49. No conclusive evidence of disease transmission (reviewed by Goddard & deShazo. 2009. JAMA 301(13): 1358-1366)</li></li></ul><li>INJURY FROM BED BUGS<br /><ul><li> Sleeplessness
  50. 50. Agitation
  51. 51. Anxiety
  52. 52. Economic hardship
  53. 53. …</li></li></ul><li>August 2010<br />CDC & EPA Joint Statement<br />Bed bugs are a pest of significant public health importance!<br /><br />
  54. 54. How to recognize if it’s a bed bug<br /><ul><li> Beak-like mouthparts
  55. 55. Oval shaped body
  56. 56. Adults: ~1/4 to 3/8 inch long
  57. 57. Body flattened (unfed)
  58. 58. Body swollen (recently fed)</li></li></ul><li>Egg<br />~0.04 inch (1 mm) long<br />Glued in place<br />1st stage nymph<br />~0.06 inch (1.5 mm) long<br />Takes a blood meal <br />then molts<br />LIFE CYCLE<br />OF THE <br />BED BUG <br />(Cimex lectularius)<br />Adult (male & female)<br />~0.26 inch (6.5 mm) long<br />Takes repeated blood meals;<br /> life span ~1 to 1½ yrs<br />2nd stage nymph<br />~0.08 inch (2 mm) long<br />Takes a blood meal <br />then molts<br />Note: These images depict bugs with a partly digested blood meal.<br />© The Ohio State University<br /> Dr. Susan C. Jones & <br /> Benjamin R. Diehl<br />5th stage nymph<br />~0.18 inch (4.5 mm) long<br />Takes a blood meal<br /> then molts<br />3rd stage nymph<br />~0.1 inch (2.5 mm) long<br />Takes a blood meal<br /> then molts<br />4th stage nymph<br />~0.12 inch (3 mm) long<br />Takes a blood meal then molts<br />
  59. 59. OSU Pest Diagnostic Clinic<br />614-292-5006<br />IDENTIFICATION SERVICES<br />The Ohio Department of Health (ODH) <br />A free service to Ohioans<br />ID insects, spiders or other arthropods of medical or public health significance (e.g., bed bugs, wasps, flies, maggots, ...)<br />Submit the sample via your local health dept. <br />The Ohio State University<br />Fee for identification services ($20 for insect sample)<br />ID wide variety of insects and arthropods and plant diseases<br />OSU submission form available online:<br /> <br />
  60. 60. Life History Characteristics Show That Bed Bug Numbers Can Quickly Skyrocket … (Early Detection and Treatment are Very Important)<br /><ul><li> Eggs
  61. 61. Glued in place
  62. 62. 1 – 12 eggs / day / female
  63. 63. A single female can produce ~150 eggs
  64. 64. Hatch in 6 – 17 days
  65. 65. Nymphs (immature bugs)
  66. 66. Five nymphal stages
  67. 67. Require a blood meal in order to grow
  68. 68. Adults (males & females)
  69. 69. Require repeated blood meals
  70. 70. Can live 12 – 18 months
  71. 71. Can survive months of starvation</li></li></ul><li>All stages (except 1st instars) of a pyrethroid-resistant strain survived starvation for an average of >49 days.<br /> Mean days of survivorship after starvation<br />nymphs<br />adults<br />Resistant strain, 70° F)<br />Polanco, A, D. Miller, & C. C. Brewster. 2011. Survivorship during starvation for Cimex lecturarius L. Insects vol 2<br />
  72. 72. Where do bed bugs hide?<br /><ul><li> Mattresses, box springs
  73. 73. Bed frames
  74. 74. Furniture
  75. 75. Carpets and rugs
  76. 76. Cracks and crevices
  77. 77. Baseboards
  78. 78. Window frames and door frames
  79. 79. Electric outlets and switch plates
  80. 80. Drapery pleats
  81. 81. Peeling wallpaper
  82. 82. Carpet tack strip
  83. 83. Suitcases
  84. 84. …</li></li></ul><li>Bed Bugs Hiding in Mattresses and Box Springs<br />
  85. 85. bed frame<br />Bed Bugs Hiding in Furniture<br />
  86. 86. Bed Bugs Hiding Behind A Hanging Picture<br />
  87. 87. Bed Bug Prevention<br /><ul><li> Recognize the tell tale signs</li></ul> of bed bugs <br /><ul><li> Take measures to reduce the</li></ul> risk of getting bed bugs<br /><ul><li> Prevent bugs from spreading</li></ul> to new sites<br />
  88. 88. BED BUG PREVENTION FOR TRAVELERS<br />Make it STANDARD PRACTICE to check for bed bugs in hotel/motel rooms!<br /><ul><li>Pull back the bedding and look for black fecal spots on mattress & box springs (esp. seams)
  89. 89. Carefully examine the underside of the bed skirt
  90. 90. Look for bb signs along bed frame (especially head board)
  91. 91. Open nightstand drawers and look for bb signs along inner and outer edges
  92. 92. Look for bb signs along baseboards</li></ul>DON’T STAY IN A ROOM THAT HAS BB SIGNS<br />
  93. 93. BED BUG PREVENTION FOR TRAVELERS<br />Reduce the chances of getting bed bugs from hotel/motel rooms!<br /><ul><li>Keep clothes in your zipped suitcase
  94. 94. Don’t keep clothes in hotel chest-of-drawers
  95. 95. OK to hang clothes in closet
  96. 96. Keep your suitcase on the luggage rack</li></ul> (after first inspecting it for bb signs)<br /><ul><li> Don’t store your suitcase on the bed, floor, </li></ul> or upholstered furniture<br /><ul><li>The bathroom (tub) is the best place to store your items!</li></li></ul><li>Self-Protection Measures<br />While Working In An Infested Home<br /><ul><li>Minimize items to be carried inside
  97. 97. Don’t sit on beds, upholstered furniture, or the floor
  98. 98. Do a self-inspection immediately after </li></ul> departing (remove shoes and thoroughly inspect them)<br /><ul><li>Change into fresh clothing ASAP
  99. 99. Bag used items (seal the bag)
  100. 100. Disinfect clothing by laundering & drying</li></ul>Tyvek boot covers<br />Tyvek coveralls<br />
  101. 101. Guidelines for Reducing the Risk of Transporting Bed Bugs<br /><br />
  102. 102. OH Dept. of Agriculture<br />Pesticide Regulation Section<br />614-728-6987; 800-282-1955<br /><br />Contact a professional pest control company to treat for bed bugs<br /><ul><li>Make sure properly licensed to apply pesticides
  103. 103. ODA web site lists licensed pest mgt. companies and applicators</li></li></ul><li>Contact a professional pest control company to treat for bed bugs<br />Once you’ve made sure they are properly licensed to apply pesticides:<br /><ul><li>It’s advisable to obtain at least 3 estimates
  104. 104. Check for satisfied customer references that relate to bed bug control
  105. 105. Recognize that bed bug control typically takes several insecticide treatments</li></li></ul><li>DO NOT use “bug bombs” against bed bugs!<br /> - ”Bug Bombs” (“foggers”) don’t work<br /> - Few bugs will be killed!<br /> - “Bug Bombs” may cause bed bugs to scatter!!!<br />“Bug Bombs” will worsen the <br />bed bug problem!!<br />
  106. 106. Thank You!<br />Sleep tight, <br />and don’t let the … <br />… well, you know the rest<br />