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What were the living
conditions like for the
poor in the 19th century?
The
development
of factories
Led to poor
conditions

The new factories
were like magnets.
Made small towns
overcrowded cit...
As the Industrial Revolution gathered pace, housing
was needed for more and more workers. Some
landlords seized the opport...
What were Slum houses like
inside?
There was no toilet, no running
water – sometimes not even
windows or a fireplace! Room...
Many of the houses built in the
time of the Industrial
Revolution had no sewerage
system. Instead, each court or
street sh...
Problems with
Slum housing
Poor ventilation
Poor ventilation

Sewage

Rubbish

Hygiene

Damp

Dirty drinking water
Dirty d...
Slum housing
Types of housing
Cellar dwellings

Back to back housing

• Built in a court grid system.
• One-room cellars below
ground l...
Diseases
Cholera

Influenza

Typhoid

Diseases &
killer
conditions

Tuberculosis

Pneumonia
Dirty drinking water; poor cra...
Source A: A sketch of Silvester Court, Liverpool, 1843.
Source B
A cross-section of back-to-back houses, Emily Place, Liverpool.

‘In Emily Place there are two rows of houses wit...
Source C

A sketch of the interior of a house in Chorley Court, Liverpool.

D

E

‘There is one outside privy (toilet) for...
Source F
‘We saw drains and sewers emptying into a stream. Also in this
stream had been thrown dead dogs and cats and othe...
What was life like in industrial towns?
• Robert Southey wrote:
• Friedrich Engels wrote:
• "The dwellings of the laboring...
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  1. 1. What were the living conditions like for the poor in the 19th century?
  2. 2. The development of factories Led to poor conditions The new factories were like magnets. Made small towns overcrowded cities due to the knock on effect.
  3. 3. As the Industrial Revolution gathered pace, housing was needed for more and more workers. Some landlords seized the opportunity to exploit this situation. They made their profits by cramming as many poorly-built houses into as small a space as possible. Such cramped, squalid living conditions proved the perfect breeding ground for disease.
  4. 4. What were Slum houses like inside? There was no toilet, no running water – sometimes not even windows or a fireplace! Rooms were cold, badly ventilated and running with damp. Worst of all were the cellar and attic dwellings in which the poorest families lived. Cellar rooms flooded in bad weather and might be an inch or so deep in stagnant water the whole year round. Attic rooms were cramped and stuffy, with no way of escaping if the building caught fire.
  5. 5. Many of the houses built in the time of the Industrial Revolution had no sewerage system. Instead, each court or street shared a communal privy. The waste from the privy was tipped into a cesspit – and many landlords would not pay for the cesspits to be emptied until they were overflowing. This meant that human waste could filter through into the water supply that people drank from. Some houses only had a bucket in the corner as a toilet.
  6. 6. Problems with Slum housing Poor ventilation Poor ventilation Sewage Rubbish Hygiene Damp Dirty drinking water Dirty drinking water
  7. 7. Slum housing
  8. 8. Types of housing Cellar dwellings Back to back housing • Built in a court grid system. • One-room cellars below ground level. • As a result the small rooms • The rows of houses were were damp and poorly literally built 'back to back' ventilated one room deep.
  9. 9. Diseases Cholera Influenza Typhoid Diseases & killer conditions Tuberculosis Pneumonia Dirty drinking water; poor cramped housing; lack of toilets; damp rooms, rubbish and filth lining the streets resulted in diseases.
  10. 10. Source A: A sketch of Silvester Court, Liverpool, 1843.
  11. 11. Source B A cross-section of back-to-back houses, Emily Place, Liverpool. ‘In Emily Place there are two rows of houses with a street 15 feet wide between them. The houses are built back-to-back. Each room in the house is about 3 feet wide and 5 feet long.’
  12. 12. Source C A sketch of the interior of a house in Chorley Court, Liverpool. D E ‘There is one outside privy (toilet) for a whole street. Filth builds up at the back of the privy and is often not removed for up to 6 months. Men from the council are sent round with a horse and cart and a couple of shovels to remove it.’ ‘There are 39,000 people living in 7860 cellars which were dark, damp, dirty and unventilated. In one cellar there was a large hole in the floor. This hole was above a sewer. The mother who lived there feared for her baby as rats came up in the night, sometimes up to 20 at a time.’
  13. 13. Source F ‘We saw drains and sewers emptying into a stream. Also in this stream had been thrown dead dogs and cats and other offensive articles. Downstream women filled buckets to use as drinking water, for cooking, washing and cleaning their clothes’ Source G ‘Few back streets are paved at all. Dungheaps are found in several parts of the streets, and sewage is seen running down the gutter in the middle of the street.’ Source H ‘The homes of 3000 families were visited. In 773 of them the families slept 3 and 4 to a bed, in 209 families 4 and 5 slept in a bed and in 15 families 6 and 7 slept in a bed. In one cellar we found a mother and her two grown up daughters sleeping on a bed of straw in one corner and 3 sailors slept in the other corner’
  14. 14. What was life like in industrial towns? • Robert Southey wrote: • Friedrich Engels wrote: • "The dwellings of the laboring • ‘The irregular cramming manufacturers are in narrow together of dwellings in ways streets, blocked up from light which defy all rational plan. and air, crowded together They are crowded literally because every inch of land is one upon the other. of such value that room for • At the end of the court light and air cannot be passage is a privy without a afforded them. door, so dirty that the • Here in Manchester, a great inhabitants can pass into and proportion of the poor lodge in out of the court only by cellars, damp and dark, where passing through foul pools of every kind of filth is left to stagnant urine and accumulate.” excrement.”

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