Successfully reported this slideshow.
Upcoming SlideShare
×

# Kinetictheoryofmatter 090507212550-phpapp02

590 views

Published on

Kinetics, Enthalpy, Entropy,Phase diagrams, molecular motion, temperature

• Full Name
Comment goes here.

Are you sure you want to Yes No
• Be the first to comment

### Kinetictheoryofmatter 090507212550-phpapp02

1. 1. The Kinetic Theory ofThe Kinetic Theory of MatterMatter
2. 2. The TheoryThe Theory 1.1. Matter is composed of particles that areMatter is composed of particles that are in constant motionin constant motion
3. 3. Is there ever a time when thereIs there ever a time when there is NO motion?is NO motion?  This is called absolute zero and is whatThis is called absolute zero and is what the Kelvin temperature scale is based onthe Kelvin temperature scale is based on  The point at which all motion ceases isThe point at which all motion ceases is absolute zero on the Kelvin scale… This isabsolute zero on the Kelvin scale… This is only theoreticalonly theoretical  To convert from Kelvin to Celsius justTo convert from Kelvin to Celsius just subtract 273.15, and add to go fromsubtract 273.15, and add to go from Celsius to KelvinCelsius to Kelvin
4. 4. Kelvin Vs CelsiusKelvin Vs Celsius
5. 5. Remember!!!Remember!!!  Heat is Molecular motion… NotHeat is Molecular motion… Not temperature.temperature.  Temperature is a measure of the effect ofTemperature is a measure of the effect of heat: The kinetic energy of a systemheat: The kinetic energy of a system
6. 6. Why do we have this Theory?Why do we have this Theory? 1.1. Helps us predictHelps us predict 1.1. Heat transferHeat transfer 2.2. PressurePressure 3.3. TemperatureTemperature 4.4. Properties of matterProperties of matter
7. 7. MotionMotion 1.1. These particles have spaces in betweenThese particles have spaces in between themthem 1.1. They move around in these spacesThey move around in these spaces
8. 8. What kinds of motion are there?What kinds of motion are there?  Vibrational:Vibrational:  Rotational:Rotational:  Translational:Translational:
9. 9. PlasmaPlasma
10. 10. GasesGases 1.1. In gases, the spaces are far apart:In gases, the spaces are far apart: Vibrational, Rotational TranslationalVibrational, Rotational Translational
11. 11. LiquidsLiquids 1.1. In liquids, the spaces are smaller:In liquids, the spaces are smaller: Vibrational, RotationalVibrational, Rotational 1.1. Now there is a fixed volumeNow there is a fixed volume
12. 12. SolidsSolids 1.1. Even in solids, the particles are moving:Even in solids, the particles are moving: VibrationalVibrational 1.1. Now there is a fixed shape, tooNow there is a fixed shape, too
13. 13. ResonanceResonance  Everything that vibrates has a specificEverything that vibrates has a specific frequency of resonance very specific tofrequency of resonance very specific to it… JUST LIKE ENERGY doesit… JUST LIKE ENERGY does
14. 14. Effects of EnergyEffects of Energy 1.1. If heat is increased, the particles moveIf heat is increased, the particles move fasterfaster 1.1. And visa versaAnd visa versa
15. 15. Enthalpy, EntropyEnthalpy, Entropy  Enthalpy: Quantity of heat energyEnthalpy: Quantity of heat energy  Entropy: Degree of dosorderEntropy: Degree of dosorder  As Enthalpy increases, entropy alsoAs Enthalpy increases, entropy also increases, except in natureincreases, except in nature
16. 16. In NatureIn Nature  As enthalpy is released (exothermic),As enthalpy is released (exothermic), entropy increases because it takes energyentropy increases because it takes energy to hold bonds in nature togetherto hold bonds in nature together  As enthalpy is required (endothermic)As enthalpy is required (endothermic) entropy decreases because naturalentropy decreases because natural systems require energy to bondsystems require energy to bond
17. 17. BasicallyBasically 1.1. The higher the temperature, the fasterThe higher the temperature, the faster the particles movethe particles move Solids-Solids- Liquids-Liquids-
18. 18. How these Theories ConnectHow these Theories Connect 1.1. The more thermal energy, the faster theThe more thermal energy, the faster the particles moveparticles move
19. 19. Phase changesPhase changes  Melting (fusion): solidMelting (fusion): solid liquidliquid  Boiling (vaporization): liquidBoiling (vaporization): liquid gasgas  Condensation: GasCondensation: Gas liquidliquid  Freezing (solidification): liquidFreezing (solidification): liquid solidsolid  Sublimation: SolidSublimation: Solid  gasgas  Deposition: gasDeposition: gas solidsolid  Each of these occur at specific temperaturesEach of these occur at specific temperatures and pressures based on the substanceand pressures based on the substance
20. 20. Vapo(u)r pressureVapo(u)r pressure  The pressure exerted by a vapor inThe pressure exerted by a vapor in equilibrium with its solid or liquid phaseequilibrium with its solid or liquid phase  Enclosed system usually: even ourEnclosed system usually: even our atmosphereatmosphere
21. 21. What is gas pressureWhat is gas pressure  The smashing, bashing, and crashing ofThe smashing, bashing, and crashing of air molecules:air molecules:  Check it outCheck it out
22. 22. Water vapor pressureWater vapor pressure
23. 23. Phase diagramPhase diagram  Substances make transitions from oneSubstances make transitions from one phase to another based on temperaturephase to another based on temperature and vapor pressureand vapor pressure  Graph plotting the phase changes at aGraph plotting the phase changes at a specific combination of vapor pressurespecific combination of vapor pressure and temperature: Phase diagramand temperature: Phase diagram