Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
The Kinetic Theory ofThe Kinetic Theory of
MatterMatter
The TheoryThe Theory
1.1. Matter is composed of particles that areMatter is composed of particles that are
in constant mot...
Is there ever a time when thereIs there ever a time when there
is NO motion?is NO motion?
 This is called absolute zero a...
Kelvin Vs CelsiusKelvin Vs Celsius
Remember!!!Remember!!!
 Heat is Molecular motion… NotHeat is Molecular motion… Not
temperature.temperature.
 Temperature...
Why do we have this Theory?Why do we have this Theory?
1.1. Helps us predictHelps us predict
1.1. Heat transferHeat transf...
MotionMotion
1.1. These particles have spaces in betweenThese particles have spaces in between
themthem
1.1. They move aro...
What kinds of motion are there?What kinds of motion are there?
 Vibrational:Vibrational:
 Rotational:Rotational:
 Trans...
PlasmaPlasma
GasesGases
1.1. In gases, the spaces are far apart:In gases, the spaces are far apart:
Vibrational, Rotational Translation...
LiquidsLiquids
1.1. In liquids, the spaces are smaller:In liquids, the spaces are smaller:
Vibrational, RotationalVibratio...
SolidsSolids
1.1. Even in solids, the particles are moving:Even in solids, the particles are moving:
VibrationalVibrationa...
ResonanceResonance
 Everything that vibrates has a specificEverything that vibrates has a specific
frequency of resonance...
Effects of EnergyEffects of Energy
1.1. If heat is increased, the particles moveIf heat is increased, the particles move
f...
Enthalpy, EntropyEnthalpy, Entropy
 Enthalpy: Quantity of heat energyEnthalpy: Quantity of heat energy
 Entropy: Degree ...
In NatureIn Nature
 As enthalpy is released (exothermic),As enthalpy is released (exothermic),
entropy increases because ...
BasicallyBasically
1.1. The higher the temperature, the fasterThe higher the temperature, the faster
the particles movethe...
How these Theories ConnectHow these Theories Connect
1.1. The more thermal energy, the faster theThe more thermal energy, ...
Phase changesPhase changes
 Melting (fusion): solidMelting (fusion): solid liquidliquid
 Boiling (vaporization): liqui...
Vapo(u)r pressureVapo(u)r pressure
 The pressure exerted by a vapor inThe pressure exerted by a vapor in
equilibrium with...
What is gas pressureWhat is gas pressure
 The smashing, bashing, and crashing ofThe smashing, bashing, and crashing of
ai...
Water vapor pressureWater vapor pressure
Phase diagramPhase diagram
 Substances make transitions from oneSubstances make transitions from one
phase to another bas...
Kinetictheoryofmatter 090507212550-phpapp02
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Kinetictheoryofmatter 090507212550-phpapp02

592 views

Published on

Kinetics, Enthalpy, Entropy,Phase diagrams, molecular motion, temperature

Published in: Technology, Business
  • Be the first to comment

Kinetictheoryofmatter 090507212550-phpapp02

  1. 1. The Kinetic Theory ofThe Kinetic Theory of MatterMatter
  2. 2. The TheoryThe Theory 1.1. Matter is composed of particles that areMatter is composed of particles that are in constant motionin constant motion
  3. 3. Is there ever a time when thereIs there ever a time when there is NO motion?is NO motion?  This is called absolute zero and is whatThis is called absolute zero and is what the Kelvin temperature scale is based onthe Kelvin temperature scale is based on  The point at which all motion ceases isThe point at which all motion ceases is absolute zero on the Kelvin scale… This isabsolute zero on the Kelvin scale… This is only theoreticalonly theoretical  To convert from Kelvin to Celsius justTo convert from Kelvin to Celsius just subtract 273.15, and add to go fromsubtract 273.15, and add to go from Celsius to KelvinCelsius to Kelvin
  4. 4. Kelvin Vs CelsiusKelvin Vs Celsius
  5. 5. Remember!!!Remember!!!  Heat is Molecular motion… NotHeat is Molecular motion… Not temperature.temperature.  Temperature is a measure of the effect ofTemperature is a measure of the effect of heat: The kinetic energy of a systemheat: The kinetic energy of a system
  6. 6. Why do we have this Theory?Why do we have this Theory? 1.1. Helps us predictHelps us predict 1.1. Heat transferHeat transfer 2.2. PressurePressure 3.3. TemperatureTemperature 4.4. Properties of matterProperties of matter
  7. 7. MotionMotion 1.1. These particles have spaces in betweenThese particles have spaces in between themthem 1.1. They move around in these spacesThey move around in these spaces
  8. 8. What kinds of motion are there?What kinds of motion are there?  Vibrational:Vibrational:  Rotational:Rotational:  Translational:Translational:
  9. 9. PlasmaPlasma
  10. 10. GasesGases 1.1. In gases, the spaces are far apart:In gases, the spaces are far apart: Vibrational, Rotational TranslationalVibrational, Rotational Translational
  11. 11. LiquidsLiquids 1.1. In liquids, the spaces are smaller:In liquids, the spaces are smaller: Vibrational, RotationalVibrational, Rotational 1.1. Now there is a fixed volumeNow there is a fixed volume
  12. 12. SolidsSolids 1.1. Even in solids, the particles are moving:Even in solids, the particles are moving: VibrationalVibrational 1.1. Now there is a fixed shape, tooNow there is a fixed shape, too
  13. 13. ResonanceResonance  Everything that vibrates has a specificEverything that vibrates has a specific frequency of resonance very specific tofrequency of resonance very specific to it… JUST LIKE ENERGY doesit… JUST LIKE ENERGY does
  14. 14. Effects of EnergyEffects of Energy 1.1. If heat is increased, the particles moveIf heat is increased, the particles move fasterfaster 1.1. And visa versaAnd visa versa
  15. 15. Enthalpy, EntropyEnthalpy, Entropy  Enthalpy: Quantity of heat energyEnthalpy: Quantity of heat energy  Entropy: Degree of dosorderEntropy: Degree of dosorder  As Enthalpy increases, entropy alsoAs Enthalpy increases, entropy also increases, except in natureincreases, except in nature
  16. 16. In NatureIn Nature  As enthalpy is released (exothermic),As enthalpy is released (exothermic), entropy increases because it takes energyentropy increases because it takes energy to hold bonds in nature togetherto hold bonds in nature together  As enthalpy is required (endothermic)As enthalpy is required (endothermic) entropy decreases because naturalentropy decreases because natural systems require energy to bondsystems require energy to bond
  17. 17. BasicallyBasically 1.1. The higher the temperature, the fasterThe higher the temperature, the faster the particles movethe particles move Solids-Solids- Liquids-Liquids-
  18. 18. How these Theories ConnectHow these Theories Connect 1.1. The more thermal energy, the faster theThe more thermal energy, the faster the particles moveparticles move
  19. 19. Phase changesPhase changes  Melting (fusion): solidMelting (fusion): solid liquidliquid  Boiling (vaporization): liquidBoiling (vaporization): liquid gasgas  Condensation: GasCondensation: Gas liquidliquid  Freezing (solidification): liquidFreezing (solidification): liquid solidsolid  Sublimation: SolidSublimation: Solid  gasgas  Deposition: gasDeposition: gas solidsolid  Each of these occur at specific temperaturesEach of these occur at specific temperatures and pressures based on the substanceand pressures based on the substance
  20. 20. Vapo(u)r pressureVapo(u)r pressure  The pressure exerted by a vapor inThe pressure exerted by a vapor in equilibrium with its solid or liquid phaseequilibrium with its solid or liquid phase  Enclosed system usually: even ourEnclosed system usually: even our atmosphereatmosphere
  21. 21. What is gas pressureWhat is gas pressure  The smashing, bashing, and crashing ofThe smashing, bashing, and crashing of air molecules:air molecules:  Check it outCheck it out
  22. 22. Water vapor pressureWater vapor pressure
  23. 23. Phase diagramPhase diagram  Substances make transitions from oneSubstances make transitions from one phase to another based on temperaturephase to another based on temperature and vapor pressureand vapor pressure  Graph plotting the phase changes at aGraph plotting the phase changes at a specific combination of vapor pressurespecific combination of vapor pressure and temperature: Phase diagramand temperature: Phase diagram

×