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Pesticides history


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Pesticides history

  1. 1. What is a Pest? A. Latin for plague - refers to any troublesome, destructive or annoying organism        
  2. 2. What is a Pest? i.  Insects - mosquitoes, grasshoppers, boll weevils      ii.  Fungi - Irish potato crop famine      iii. Viruses - microorganisms
  3. 3. B. Not all are Pests i. Only 1 out of 8 insects are classified as pests      ii.  Penicillin, antibiotics, cheese, bread, and wine all come from fungi What is a Pest?
  4. 4. Pesticides Past to Present A.  Pesticides - chemicals that kill insects, fungi, nematodes, and weeds
  5. 5. Pesticides Past to Present       i.  Avicides- bird killers      ii.  Insecticides- insect killers     iii.  Fungicides- fungus killers     iv.  Nematocides- nematodes (round worm) killers v. Herbicides- plant killers
  6. 6. Pesticides Past to Present B.  First pesticides i. Naturally occurring minerals (arsenic, copper, lead mercury, sulfur, and zinc)
  7. 7. Pesticides Past to Present ii.  Natural chemicals produced by plants a. expensive and not effective
  8. 8. Pesticides Past to Present C.  Man Made chemicals were used during WW II i. Insects were used to test chemicals (nerve gases) instead of humans
  9. 9. Pesticides Past to Present D.   Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide (FIFR) Act of 1947
  10. 10. Pesticides Past to Present        i.  Originally tested for short-term effects       ii.   Amended to test for long term effects in 1972 iii. By 1970 most chlorinated hydrocarbons were banned in the US
  11. 11. Pesticides Past to Present E. Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) of 1996  EPA regulates all pesticides based on human health issues and FDA monitors pesticide levels in food.
  12. 12. 2 Major Groups of Pesticides A. Chlorinated Hydrocarbons     i.  Most prevalent insecticide (kills so many different insects)    ii.  Cheap and easy to use   iii. Not very toxic to humans in small amounts
  13. 13. 2 Major Groups of Pesticides iv. Best known: dichloro- diphenyl-trichloro-ethane (DDT)       a. Banned in the US in 1972 - found in human tissue - killing birds     b. Still in production and widely used in other countries to kill insects that cause diseases
  14. 14. 2 Major Groups of Pesticides B.  Organic Phosphates         i.   Mainly used in insecticides ex. Durasban