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Comparative anatomy


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Comparative anatomy

  2. 2. COMPARATIVE ANATOMY  3 KEY CONCEPTS: DIFFUSION: the movement of substances from an area of greater concentration to an area of less concentration STRUCTURE & FUNCTION: the shape (structure) of something affects the work (function) that it can perform SURFACE AREA: increased surface area increases the amount of activity that can take place
  3. 3. STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION  What does the structure of an object have to do with its function?  The work (function) that an object can perform is controlled by its shape (structure). VELCRO COCKLEBUR
  4. 4. DIFFUSION  What body systems use diffusion in order to function properly?  Some of the body systems that use diffusion to perform their functions are digestive (villi), respiratory (alveoli), excretory (kidney) and circulatory (capillaries).
  5. 5. SURFACE AREA  Explain the relationship between the villi and the terry cloth.  The villi and the terry cloth both have projections to increase their surface area. VILLI TERRY CLOTH
  6. 6. SURFACE AREA, DIFFUSION, STRUCTURE & FUNCTION  How do all three of these concepts help the villi function?  The villi are structures (projections) that increase the surface area of the small intestine so they can perform their function of absorption by diffusion.
  7. 7. Body System Functions DIGESTIVE Convert food into smaller molecules RESPIRATORY Exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide CIRCULATORY Move blood through the body EXCRETORY Removes wastes from the blood NERVOUS Responds to internal and external stimuli SKELETAL Supports and protects the body
  8. 8. DIGESTIVE - Cnidarian Cnidarian  One digestive tract opening; mouth and anus are the same
  9. 9. DIGESTIVE - Annelida Annelid  Two digestive openings, long tube; has crop (stores food), gizzard (grinds food), intestine (absorbs food)
  10. 10. DIGESTIVE – Arthropoda Arthropod  Two digestive openings, long tube; has crop (stores food), stomach, intestines, rectum
  11. 11. DIGESTIVE - Mammal Mammal  Two digestive openings, long tube; stomach, intestines (villi), rectum
  12. 12. RESPIRATORY - Cnidarian Cnidarian  Diffusion of gases from water through body cells
  13. 13. RESPIRATORY - Annelida Annelid  Diffusion of gases through the skin
  14. 14. RESPIRATORY - Arthropods  Spiders: book lungs (folds increase surface area)  Crayfish: layers of featherlike gills Spider Book lung Spiracles Tracheal tubes Gills Crayfish •Insects: spiracles (holes in abdomen) and tracheal tubes for breathing
  15. 15. RESPIRATORY - Mammalia  Lungs with alveoli Alveoli Mammal
  16. 16. CIRCULATORY - Cnidaria Cnidarian  No heart, no vessels, no blood; nutrients diffuse from cell to cell
  17. 17. CIRCULATORY - Annelida Annelid Closed  CLOSED SYSTEM (blood never leaves the vessels); aortic arches (5 pair primitive hearts), vessels
  18. 18. CIRCULATORY - Arthropoda Insect Open  OPEN SYSTEM (blood leaves the vessels, heart pumps blood into body cavity)
  19. 19. CIRCULATORY - Mammalia Mammal  CLOSED SYSTEM; heart, complex system of arteries, veins and capillaries
  20. 20. EXCRETORY - Cnidarian Cnidarian  diffusion of waste out of cells into water
  21. 21. EXCRETORY - Annelida Annelid Kidney-like nephridia tubes filter waste from blood
  22. 22. EXCRETORY - Arthropoda Arthropod Sac-like organs remove waste from blood
  23. 23. EXCRETORY - Mammal Mammal Kidneys (with complex tube system) remove wastes from blood
  24. 24. NERVOUS - Cnidarian Cnidarian Nerve net consisting of neurons only, no brain
  25. 25. NERVOUS - Annelida Brain Nerve cord Annelid Primitive brain with two nerve cords, some sensory organs
  26. 26. NERVOUS - Arthropod Arthropod Primitive brain; ventral nerve cord; sense organs
  27. 27. NERVOUS - Mammalia Human well-developed brain with a dorsal nerve cord; nerve network; sense organs
  28. 28. SKELETAL – Cnidaria, Annelida No skeleton Cnidarian Annelid
  29. 29. SKELETAL - Arthropods Exoskeleton (hard body covering made of chitin) Exoskeleton
  30. 30. SKELETAL - Mammalia Endoskeleton (an internal structure made of bone and cartilage) Endoskeleton
  31. 31. SKELETAL Endoskeleton Exoskeleton