Plants Without Seeds


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Plants Without Seeds

  1. 1. Plants Without Seeds Life Science Mr. McKay
  2. 2. Multicellular Algae <ul><li>Algae- Any Simple plantlike autotroph that uses sunlight to produce food </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scientists do not agree on the classification of algae </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some think algae should be classified as protists </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Others think should be with plants </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Multicellular Algae <ul><li>Algae were the first type of plants on Earth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oldest fossils are around 900 million years old </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Algae lack the special tubes that transport water and minerals that land plants have </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No true roots, stems, or leaves </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Algae do not have seeds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must live in or near water </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Algae Phyla <ul><li>Algae are divided into three different phylum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brown Algae </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Red Algae </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Green Algae </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They get their names from the Pigments found within their cells </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Pigments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Green Algae has a noticeable pigment that is the green chlorophyll </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This captures light energy for food making processes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Energy </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brown and red algae </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They both have chlorophyll but it is masked by other accessory pigments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>These pigments absorb light and transfer it to chlorophyll </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>These other pigments include: pink, red, reddish purple, and reddish black </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>Algae Phyla Continued
  6. 6. Brown Algae <ul><li>Sargassum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Found in tropics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Perfect environment is calm winds and gentle waves </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Floats on surface by use of tiny air filed sacs that act as life preservers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Needs sunlight to produce food </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Sargasso Sea </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is a favorite hot spot for eels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Snake like fishes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eels lay eggs in Brown algae </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Travel thousands of miles to do so </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Brown algae has long been used as food for humans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In China, Japan, Canada, Ireland, and New Zealand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Seaweed </li></ul></ul></ul>Brown Algae
  8. 8. Red Algae <ul><li>Like brown algae, red algae is multicellular and live in the ocean. </li></ul><ul><li>Red algae can grow to be several meters long </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Never reach the size of brown algae though </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some grow as clumps of delicate, branching red threads </li></ul><ul><li>Others produce hard stiff branches that are rich in calcium carbonate </li></ul>
  9. 9. Red Algae <ul><li>Red algae usually grow attached to rocks on the ocean floor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can grow at depths of 170 meters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Far deeper than any other algae </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>How does red algae make food? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accessory pigments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They Absorb little light and convert it to chlorophyll </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Red Algae <ul><li>Uses include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Food </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ice cream </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dressing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chocolate milk </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Frosting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A substance that is jellylike and used in growing cultures of nutrient bacteria </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Green Algae <ul><li>Green Algae </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar to land plants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Life cycles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pigments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stored food supplies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Earliest forms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unicellular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Then colonies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Finally Multicellular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bio-fuel </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Green Algae <ul><li>Green algae and our environment </li></ul><ul><li>Some May live in unusual places </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Symbiotic with fungi and lichens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assignment Earth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Green Algae </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Green Algae <ul><li>After 450 Million Years </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Land plants evolved </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mosses and relatives </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ferns and complex plants </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Land Plants <ul><li>Land plants need to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>support the leaves and other parts of the body so they do not collapse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>obtain water and minerals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>transport food, water, minerals from one part the structure to another </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>prevent excess water loss to the environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Get sperm cells and egg cells together so that reproduction can occur </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Mosses, Liverworts, & Hornworts <ul><li>Mosses, liverworts, and hornworts are tiny plants that live in moist places </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Found on </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wet rocks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Damp tree bark </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Muddy banks of ponds and streams </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In some cases they may cover the ground like fuzzy green carpet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mosses, liverworts, and hornworts </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Mosses, Liverworts, & Hornworts <ul><li>Size means: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No need for special transport system as in other land plants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They simply transport nutrients from one cell to the next </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No need for stems or other supporting structures </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Mosses, Liverworts, & Hornworts <ul><li>Size means: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They do not need a special adaption to prevent water loss </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Such as a waxy covering </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>However the reproduction cells have a thick water-tight coat </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Uses of Mosses <ul><li>Dried Sphagnum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mixed with soil to aide in water retention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also aides in changing the chemical balance of the soil to improve plant growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevents certain disease causing bacteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In past, used to cover wounds to aide in preventing disease causing bacteria to grow </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Uses of Mosses <ul><li>Sphagnum moss </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Under correct conditions Peat may form </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This substance can allow for decay to be slowed greatly </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ancient times used it to slow decay of bodies </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Peat Moss Mummies </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Vascular Plants <ul><li>Ferns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They have vascular tissue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plants that lack this tissue are nonvascular </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Such as algae </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unlike other seedless plants they do have special adaptations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Waxy covering </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Roots that enable water gathering </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>System of tubes that transport nutrients </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This is what is known as a vascular system </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Vascular Plants <ul><li>Vascular plants are much more adapted to the land due to the vascular system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The stem is strengthened with cells that are extremely thick and strong </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This allows ferns to grow in great size compared to the mosses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Range in height from a few cm to about a meter </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Vascular Plants <ul><li>Ferns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Although they are better adapted to the land than nonvascular they still are not fully adapted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They require standing water in order to reproduce </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The water needs to be in abundance for this to occur </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tiny pockets in the fern’s leaves provide a home for special blue-green bacteria that produce a natural fertilizer </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Vascular Plants <ul><li>Ferns as food </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In spring fern fiddleheads are sold in specialty food stores </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When properly cooked they are delicious </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>You should not gather fiddleheads for food unless you are certain they are edible </li></ul></ul></ul>