Unit 1 powerpoint #8 (the gilded age politics and reform)
Politics and Reform
Two sides are even and there is not a way for one side to beat the other
Party of morality Reformers Abolition Temperance
Party of Personal Liberty Dominated the South
1876 and 1888 Presidents Hayes and Harrison win the Electoral College but lose the popular vote Has this happened recently?
The act of giving government jobs to supporters of the winning party in an election Also called the "Spoils System”
Republican reformers who wanted an end to the patronage system
Republicans who supported patronage Government jobs went to family and friends
President James Garfield is assassinated in 1881 in a train station by a supporter who did not receive a job after the election “I am a Stalwart and Arthur is President now!!”
Was passed in reactionto GarfieldsassassinationJobs must be filledaccording to the rulesmade by a bipartisancommittee (Civil ServiceCommission)Candidates must takean examination (CivilService Exam) to qualify
Nationally, some politicians pushed for reform in the hiring system, which had been based on Patronage (giving jobs and favors to those who helped a candidate get elected). ReformersApplicants for pushed for adoption of a merit systemfederal jobs (hiring the most qualified for jobs).are required totake a Civil The Pendleton Civil Service Act of 1883Service Exam authorized a bipartisan commission to make appointments for federal jobs based on performance.
Rise of MonopoliesA monopoly is having exclusive control of a commodity or service in a particular market, or a control that makes possible the manipulation of prices.
Robber Barons The 19th century term for a businessman orbanker who dominated a respective industry and amassed huge personal fortunes, typically by anti-competitive or unfair business practices. Examples: Andrew Carnegie (steel) U.S. Steel Milton S. Hershey (Chocolate) J. P. Morgan (banking, finance, industrial consolidation) John D. Rockefeller (oil) Standard Oil Leland Stanford (railroads) Cornelius Vanderbilt (railroads)
Railroads gave rebates to large corporations because of their volume seemingly gouging smaller volume customers Tariffs increased prices on manufactured goods and made it difficult for farmers to export
The federal government has the power to regulate rates for traffic between states
In response to Wabash v. Illinois, Congress passed a law that rates must be reasonable and just (fair) It also made it illegal to charge higher rates for shorter hauls (prohibited discriminating against small markets) It was ineffective because there was no enforcement of the law