Unit #7  Exploration and Discovery
Reconquista <ul><li>Retaking of the Iberian Peninsula by Christian soldiers after 732 AD (Battle of Tours) </li></ul><ul><...
Reconquista Image
Spices <ul><li>Key to wealth in the Renaissance world </li></ul><ul><li>Highly desired by Europeans in an  age before refr...
Modern Spice Market in Turkey
 
Prince Henry the Navigator <ul><li>Portuguese prince – Son of King John I (first king of Portugal) </li></ul><ul><li>Start...
Portuguese Explorations <ul><li>Series of explorations sent down the coast of Africa – looking for the route around it to ...
Map showing Spanish and Portuguese Explorations of Africa and the New World
Kingdom of Ghana <ul><li>Powerful and wealthy African coastal kingdom found in the Bight of Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Accid...
Slavery out of Africa <ul><li>12 million slaves taken: 1450-1880 </li></ul><ul><li>Portuguese ran the trade  </li></ul><ul...
Portugal and the Search for Spices <ul><li>After finding Ghana the Portuguese continued down the coast of Africa </li></ul...
Christopho Columbo <ul><li>From a common family in Genoa, Italy (a sea trading city with connections to the Spice trade) <...
World map from the 1490s
1492 – Two Worlds Collide <ul><li>Jan 1492 – Granada surrenders – Reconquista is over and the Spanish crown agrees to fund...
Christopher Columbus: a critical assessment <ul><li>Crazy?  He saw Asians in the Caribbean </li></ul><ul><li>Visionary?  H...
Nueva Espaňa <ul><li>Super colony – stretched from today’s Utah to the end of South America </li></ul><ul><li>Capital: Mex...
Spanish Missions <ul><li>The Spanish used a series of missions to link the parts of New Spain together </li></ul><ul><li>M...
Alamo (San Antonio)
Map of New Spain
North American Colonization <ul><li>Six European Countries colonized North America – 3 were minor settlements  </li></ul><...
European Colonization of North America
Major European Settlements in North America <ul><li>Spanish  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nueva Espana – stretched to Utah  </li>...
Map of New France
English Settlements <ul><li>Most were founded for religious choice </li></ul><ul><li>Puritans – wanted to clear the Anglic...
<ul><li>Map of the English Colonies before 1763 </li></ul>
What purpose did the colonies serve?  Why did they exist? <ul><li>Mercantilism – economic system whereby colonies exist so...
Mercantilism and Triangle Trade
The Columbian Exchange <ul><li>Old World to New World </li></ul><ul><li>New World to Old World </li></ul><ul><li>People – ...
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World History Unit7 Exploration And Discovery

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World History Unit7 Exploration And Discovery

  1. 1. Unit #7 Exploration and Discovery
  2. 2. Reconquista <ul><li>Retaking of the Iberian Peninsula by Christian soldiers after 732 AD (Battle of Tours) </li></ul><ul><li>Completed by Portugal – early 1400s </li></ul><ul><li>Completed by Spain – 1492 </li></ul><ul><li>Iberian Muslims – called “Moors” </li></ul><ul><li>Christian Soldiers: Conquistadores </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used by Spain and Portugal to explore Africa and the New World for the “Glory of God” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kings also needed to get them off the Iberian peninsula – they could cause trouble with no one left to fight </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Reconquista Image
  4. 4. Spices <ul><li>Key to wealth in the Renaissance world </li></ul><ul><li>Highly desired by Europeans in an age before refrigeration </li></ul><ul><li>Grown in what is today Indonesia </li></ul><ul><li>Spice Trade was controlled by Muslims (remember – Mecca had been a trading center before Islam came to Arabia – the trade flowed through Arabia and Egypt and into the Northern Italian City States) </li></ul><ul><li>Pepper – worth its weight in gold by 1492 </li></ul><ul><li>Cloves and Cinnamon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>both very expensive – used for “medicine” </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Modern Spice Market in Turkey
  6. 7. Prince Henry the Navigator <ul><li>Portuguese prince – Son of King John I (first king of Portugal) </li></ul><ul><li>Started a school of navigation in Portugal </li></ul><ul><li>Wanted to bring the Renaissance to Portugal – needed money to do so </li></ul><ul><li>spices = money </li></ul><ul><li>Dreamed of sailing around Africa and reaching the Spice Islands of the Indies </li></ul>
  7. 8. Portuguese Explorations <ul><li>Series of explorations sent down the coast of Africa – looking for the route around it to India </li></ul><ul><li>Invented the Caravel to travel into the wind (tacking) </li></ul><ul><li>Ran into islands off the coast of Africa (Madeira and Azores) </li></ul><ul><li>Found the bight of Africa in the 1450s (before Henry’s death) </li></ul>
  8. 9. Map showing Spanish and Portuguese Explorations of Africa and the New World
  9. 10. Kingdom of Ghana <ul><li>Powerful and wealthy African coastal kingdom found in the Bight of Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Accidently found by the Portuguese in the 1450s </li></ul><ul><li>Three major trading items </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Salt (used for preserving meat and milk) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gold (will fund Portuguese exploration) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slaves (minor trading item in the 1450s – not really important until the discovery of the New World and the establishment of sugar plantations) </li></ul></ul>
  10. 11. Slavery out of Africa <ul><li>12 million slaves taken: 1450-1880 </li></ul><ul><li>Portuguese ran the trade </li></ul><ul><li>Middle Passage – from Africa to Havana, Cuba </li></ul><ul><li>Where did they all go? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 million never reached land </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 million to Brazil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2.5 million to Caribbean </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 million to New Spain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 million to Europe (various places – many as domestic servants , coachmen and other house laborers) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>500,000 to what is today the US South </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. Portugal and the Search for Spices <ul><li>After finding Ghana the Portuguese continued down the coast of Africa </li></ul><ul><li>1498 – Vasco Da Gama rounds the Cape of Good Hope and establishes trade with India and Indonesia </li></ul><ul><li>Portugal quickly became Europe’s spice traders </li></ul><ul><li>Huge money to be made by Portugal in trade (salt, slaves and spices) </li></ul>
  12. 13. Christopho Columbo <ul><li>From a common family in Genoa, Italy (a sea trading city with connections to the Spice trade) </li></ul><ul><li>went to Portugal early in the 1470s </li></ul><ul><li>Worked for the Portuguese sailing from Lisbon to Iceland – hears tale of the Vikings and western settlements </li></ul><ul><li>Believed that the Vikings had actually settled north of Japan on the east coast of Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Heavily influenced by the Journal of Marco Polo, an Italian who traveled overland to China in the 13 th century </li></ul><ul><li>Developed a plan to sail west to reach the Indies </li></ul><ul><li>Pitched his plan to the Portuguese crown – turned him down (Portugal is already going around Africa and dealing with Ghana </li></ul><ul><li>1486 – Arrives in Spain – Reconquista is not finished – has to wait – Queen Isabella liked the idea, but would not fund it until the end of the Reconquista </li></ul>
  13. 14. World map from the 1490s
  14. 15. 1492 – Two Worlds Collide <ul><li>Jan 1492 – Granada surrenders – Reconquista is over and the Spanish crown agrees to fund Columbus’ venture </li></ul><ul><li>Columbus was given three ships: Nina, Pinta and Santa Maria </li></ul><ul><li>October 12, 1492 – land sighted </li></ul><ul><li>Columbus named the island “Hispaniola” and claimed it for Spain (most experts believe he’s somewhere in the modern Bahamas) </li></ul><ul><li>He’s convinced that he’s somewhere off the east coast of China </li></ul><ul><li>Called the natives “Indians” – named after the Indies (where he believes he is) </li></ul>
  15. 16. Christopher Columbus: a critical assessment <ul><li>Crazy? He saw Asians in the Caribbean </li></ul><ul><li>Visionary? He opened the way to the West </li></ul><ul><li>Heartbroken? He sailed 4 times to the New World, yet always believed that he was just off the coast of Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Died Penniless in Spain </li></ul><ul><li>Did he really “discover” anything? </li></ul><ul><li>Why is he so important? </li></ul>
  16. 17. Nueva Espaňa <ul><li>Super colony – stretched from today’s Utah to the end of South America </li></ul><ul><li>Capital: Mexico City </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish really focused on the gold and silver mines of central and south America </li></ul><ul><li>Three reasons to come to the new world </li></ul><ul><ul><li>God : Christianize the American Indians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gold : gold found in Central Mexico (Aztecs) and silver found in Peru (Incas) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glory : glory for the Conquistadores </li></ul></ul>
  17. 18. Spanish Missions <ul><li>The Spanish used a series of missions to link the parts of New Spain together </li></ul><ul><li>Many of the cities of the American southwest were originally missions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>San Diego, San Antonio, Santa Fe, Los Angeles, Santa Barbara, San Francisco </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Missions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1/3 Church </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1/3 fort </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1/3 school </li></ul></ul>
  18. 19. Alamo (San Antonio)
  19. 20. Map of New Spain
  20. 21. North American Colonization <ul><li>Six European Countries colonized North America – 3 were minor settlements </li></ul><ul><li>Russia – Alaska – fishing and whaling </li></ul><ul><li>Sweden – New Sweden (along the Delaware River) – now southern parts of New Jersey </li></ul><ul><li>Netherlands (Dutch) – New Amsterdam – becomes New York in 1664 </li></ul>
  21. 22. European Colonization of North America
  22. 23. Major European Settlements in North America <ul><li>Spanish </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nueva Espana – stretched to Utah </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>included Florida (has oldest city in the US) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This territory was not where Spain concentrated its resources </li></ul></ul><ul><li>French </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New France (along the St. Lawrence Seaway) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Louisiana (along the Mississippi River) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly settled for trade with the Indians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>French saw the Indians as allies and partners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colonies run by Absolutism – governors had complete control </li></ul></ul>
  23. 24. Map of New France
  24. 25. English Settlements <ul><li>Most were founded for religious choice </li></ul><ul><li>Puritans – wanted to clear the Anglican Church of its Catholicism </li></ul><ul><li>Quakers – went to Pennsylvania </li></ul><ul><li>Only Rhode Island founded for religious freedom </li></ul><ul><li>Gives America the idea of the “city on a hill” – we’re God’s chosen people </li></ul><ul><li>Generally founded for economic reasons </li></ul><ul><li>Cash crops </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tobacco </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indigo (blue dye) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cotton (after 1793) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Heavily dependent on labor </li></ul><ul><li>Will turn to slavery by 1640 – it makes economic sense </li></ul><ul><li>Home of the “American Dream” </li></ul><ul><li>Northern Colonies </li></ul><ul><li>(Massachusetts) </li></ul><ul><li>Southern Colonies </li></ul><ul><li>(Virginia) </li></ul>
  25. 26. <ul><li>Map of the English Colonies before 1763 </li></ul>
  26. 27. What purpose did the colonies serve? Why did they exist? <ul><li>Mercantilism – economic system whereby colonies exist solely to serve the mother country in terms of providing raw materials and as a market for finished goods. The “needs” of the colony were secondary to the needs of the mother country. </li></ul>
  27. 28. Mercantilism and Triangle Trade
  28. 29. The Columbian Exchange <ul><li>Old World to New World </li></ul><ul><li>New World to Old World </li></ul><ul><li>People – colonists / slaves </li></ul><ul><li>Horses and other draft animals </li></ul><ul><li>Agricultural products – wheat </li></ul><ul><li>Religion – Christianity </li></ul><ul><li>Diseases – especially smallpox </li></ul><ul><li>Ideas behind government and culture </li></ul><ul><li>Agricultural products -- corn, beans, squash, tomatoes, potatoes </li></ul><ul><li>Diseases – syphilis </li></ul>

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