World History Unit4 Byzantium And Islam

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World History Unit4 Byzantium And Islam

  1. 1. Rome’s Successors in Eastern Europe and the Middle East: Byzantium Islam
  2. 2. Byzantium and the Expansion of Islam
  3. 3. The Byzantine Empire <ul><li>Framework Established by Constantine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Emperor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Held absolute civil power </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wanted control of the religious institutions as well </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Caesaro-papism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Continuation of Roman Authority </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commerce centered at Constantinople </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Great Schism of 1054 splits the Christian Church into Orthodox and Catholic </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Hagia Sophia Church in Constantinople (Istanbul) – construction started in the 6 th century – largest church in Christendom for over 1000 years
  5. 5. Russian and Ukrainian Patriarchs today
  6. 6. Byzantium and the Slavs <ul><ul><ul><li>Cyrillic Alphabet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trade relations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Moscow absorbs Roman Culture </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Christianity flows north </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Art and Architecture (Russian architecture is often centered around the “onion domes”, similar to those found in the Middle East) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Cyrillic Alphabet (Russian Version)
  8. 8. ISLAM SUBMISSION TO ALLAH
  9. 9. The Rise of Islam <ul><li>Muhammad (570-632) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Caravan trader living in Mecca </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>First teachings of the Koran revealed, 610 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flees with followers to Medina, 622 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The hejira </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mecca conquered in the first Jihad (632) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Koran – the Islamic holy book </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><ul><li>One god, Allah and Mohammad is the Prophet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prayer – 5X/day facing Mecca </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alms to the poor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fasting during Ramadan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Hajj – pilgrimage to Mecca </li></ul></ul>The Five Pillars (obligatory duties)
  11. 11. The Kaba in Mecca
  12. 12. Map of the Spread of Islam
  13. 13. Expansion of Islam (West) <ul><li>Largely through military conquest </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jihad (holy war) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Within 100 years, Muslims conquer territory from Holy Land to the Iberian Peninsula </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Displays weakness of Byzantine Empire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stopped in the West at the Battle of Tours (732) </li></ul></ul>The Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem <ul><ul><li>To the West (North Africa and Europe) </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Expansion of Islam (East) <ul><li>Largely through trade </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attraction as a religion of salvation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arab traders control trade throughout the Indian Ocean </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Largest Islamic country is Indonesia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>India is 25% Muslim </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spices and tea trade will be important for later units </li></ul></ul>TheTaj Mahal <ul><ul><li>To the East (Asia and India) </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Expansion of Islam (Africa) <ul><ul><li>Attraction as a religion of salvation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Berber traders cross the Sahara Desert </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Timbuktu in Mali becomes a center of Islamic learning with a great library </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Islamic proverb states that &quot;Salt comes from the north, gold from the south, but the word of God and the treasures of wisdom come from Timbuktu.“ </li></ul></ul>Mosque in Timbuktu
  16. 16. Map of the Spread of Islam to Africa
  17. 17. <ul><ul><li>Draws on Greek, Persian, and Indian sources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mathematics, astronomy and medicine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Idea that learning is a gift from Allah </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Algebra, the Zero and Surgery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed the first hospitals where the sick could be treated by professionals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advances become important components of later western culture, although it will take Christian loses in the Crusades to bring many Arab cultural ideas to Europe </li></ul></ul>Islamic Science and Medicine
  18. 18. Islamic Medicine

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