South Asia And The Indian Subcontinent


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World Geography Unit on Indian Subcontinent

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South Asia And The Indian Subcontinent

  1. 1. Global Studies Unit #6A: The Indian subcontinent
  2. 2. South Asia
  3. 3. Satellite View of South Asia
  4. 4. The Size of South Asia
  5. 5. Countries India Pakistan Bangladesh Nepal Bhutan Sri Lanka Afghanistan China Myanmar Iran
  6. 6. South Asia: Physical Map
  7. 7. The Ganges River System 1,560 miles long
  8. 8. “ Mata Ganga” (Mother Ganges)
  9. 9. The Brahmaputra River System 1,800 miles long
  10. 10. Floods on the Brahmaputra: 2003
  11. 11. Flooding on the Brahmaputra
  12. 12. The Indus River System 1,975 miles long
  13. 13. Elevation Levels
  14. 14. Mountains & Peaks Himalayas Mt. Everest ▲ Karakoran Mts. Hindu Kush Vindhya Hills Eastern Ghats Western Ghats Khyber Pass I I
  15. 15. The Himalayas <ul><li>“ him” [snow] </li></ul><ul><li>“ aalaya” [home] </li></ul><ul><li>Mt. Everest is 29,035 feet. It is the highest mt. peak in the world. </li></ul>
  16. 16. The Himalayas
  17. 17. The Deccan Plateau <ul><li>31,800 square miles in size. </li></ul><ul><li>Elevation range: 2,000 – 8,000 feet high. </li></ul><ul><li>From the Sanskrit word, “dakshina” [“the south”]. </li></ul>
  18. 18. The tibetan Plateau <ul><li>The “Roof of the World.” </li></ul><ul><li>average elevation is 16,400 feet. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Climate of South Asia
  20. 20. Climate Regions of South Asia
  21. 21. Winter Monsoons: Nov.-April
  22. 22. Summer Monsoons: May-Oct.
  23. 23. Vegetation of South Asia
  24. 24. Major Farming Systems of South Asia
  25. 25. Economic Activities & Resources
  26. 26. Demographic Data for South Asia
  27. 27. Population Density
  28. 28. Population Density
  29. 29. Eastern Philosophies Hinduism and Buddhism
  30. 30. Eastern Religious Philosophies Hinduism and Buddhism <ul><li>Hinduism </li></ul><ul><li>Old Indian religion </li></ul><ul><li>Both polytheistic and monotheistic </li></ul><ul><li>All powerful world soul or force in all of us </li></ul><ul><li>Based on reincarnation and the caste system </li></ul><ul><li>All of us are trying to rejoin the world’s soul </li></ul><ul><li>Buddhism </li></ul><ul><li>Siddartha Gautama – first Buddha or “enlightened one” </li></ul><ul><li>Based on understanding relationship between desire and pain </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminate desire to eliminate suffering </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminate desire = achieve Nirvana and break cycle of reincarnation </li></ul>
  31. 31. Hinduism in Detail <ul><li>Oldest surviving major world religion </li></ul><ul><li>Polytheistic and monotheistic at the same time </li></ul><ul><li>Brahman – the world’s soul (monotheistic) </li></ul><ul><li>Different Hindu gods -- really just manifestations of Brahman </li></ul><ul><li>Creation – Brahman shattered – each of us has a piece of Brahman – it’s the “life force” in all living things </li></ul><ul><li>Reincarnation – cycle of rebirth based on Karma (the way you live your life)– we’re all eventually trying to rejoin Brahman – only members of the priest class with good Karma will be able to rejoin Brahman </li></ul><ul><li>Caste system: 14 levels of humans from Brahmin (priest class) to Untouchables (lowest humans) </li></ul>
  32. 32. What do Hindus believe? <ul><li>One impersonal Ultimate Reality – Brahman </li></ul><ul><li>Manifest as many personal deities </li></ul><ul><li>True essence of life – the soul is Brahman trapped in matter </li></ul><ul><li>Reincarnation – Brahman is continually born into this world lifetime after lifetime </li></ul><ul><li>Karma – spiritual impurity due to actions keeps us bound to this world (good and bad) </li></ul><ul><li>Ultimate goal of life – to reunite with the divine, becoming as one with Brahman </li></ul>
  33. 33. Who do Hindus worship? – the major gods of the Hindu Pantheon Brahma , the creator god
  34. 34. All deities are but forms (attributes and functions) of the impersonal Brahman
  35. 35. Buddhism in Detail <ul><li>Siddhartha Gautama – Hindu prince who had a crisis of faith and walked among the people and observed the world </li></ul><ul><li>Four Noble Truths </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Everyone suffers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suffering is caused by desire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To eliminate suffering – eliminate desire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To eliminate desire – follow the Eight fold path to righteousness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Eliminating desire would thus allow a person to become “enlightened” or a Buddha. This was called achieving a state called Nirvana </li></ul><ul><li>Achieve Nirvana and break the cycle of reincarnation and join the world’s soul </li></ul><ul><li>Anyone not achieving Nirvana would ensure their good Karma and would go up on the ladder of reincarnation </li></ul>
  36. 36. Religions of South Asia
  37. 37. Siddhartha Gautama (563-483 BCE) <ul><li>Born in NE India (Nepal). </li></ul><ul><li>Raised in great luxury to be a king. </li></ul><ul><li>At 29 he rejected his luxurious life to seek enlightenment and the source of suffering. </li></ul><ul><li>Lived a strict, ascetic life for 6 yrs. </li></ul><ul><li>Rejecting this extreme, sat in meditation, and found nirvana . </li></ul><ul><li>Became “The Enlightened One,” at 35. </li></ul>
  38. 38. What is the fundamental cause of all suffering? Desire! <ul><li>Therefore, extinguish the self, don’t obsess about oneself. </li></ul>
  39. 39. Four Noble Truths <ul><li>There is suffering in the world. To live is to suffer. ( Dukkha ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Buddha found this out when he was young and experienced suffering and death in others. </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Four Noble Truths <ul><li>The cause of suffering is self-centered desire and attachments. ( Tanha ) </li></ul>
  41. 41. Four Noble Truths <ul><li>The solution is to eliminate desire and attachments. ( Nirvana = “extinction” ) </li></ul>
  42. 42. Four Noble Truths <ul><li>To reach nirvana , one must follow the Eightfold Path. </li></ul>
  43. 43. Eightfold Path Nirvana <ul><li>The union with the ultimate spiritual reality. </li></ul><ul><li>Escape from the cycle of rebirth. </li></ul>