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Unit #1 Foundations Of World Cultures And Geography


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Global Studies Unit #1

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Unit #1 Foundations Of World Cultures And Geography

  1. 1. Global Studies Unit #1 Foundations, Tools and Concepts
  2. 2. What is Global Studies? Why do students have to take it? <ul><li>The study of a globe? </li></ul><ul><li>A class for freshmen? </li></ul><ul><li>A boring class with a boring textbook? </li></ul><ul><li>Something STM students have to take so that Coach Flo has a job? </li></ul><ul><li>I have no idea…….. Why is he asking me this? Doesn’t he already know? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Global Studies – A Working Definition <ul><li>Global Studies is an in depth study of major regions around the globe that uses geography, history and current events to help students gain a basic understanding of those regions </li></ul><ul><li>Students are able to see how each region and / or country is similar to others </li></ul><ul><li>Students are able to see how each region and / or country is unique to itself </li></ul>
  4. 4. Our Star: the Sun <ul><li>The Sun provides light and the energy needed for life on Earth </li></ul><ul><li>The Earth is 93 Million miles (150 million KM) away from the Sun </li></ul><ul><li>It takes approximately 8 minutes for sunlight to reach Earth </li></ul><ul><li>The Earth travels around the sun in an oval shaped orbit </li></ul>
  5. 5. Revolutions, Rotations and Seasons <ul><li>Revolution – one orbit around the sun (365 ¼ days) </li></ul><ul><li>Rotation – one complete turn of the earth on its axis (24 hours) </li></ul><ul><li>Seasons – caused by the tilt of the Earth and amount of sunlight different parts of the globe receive at different times of the year </li></ul>
  6. 6. Using Globes and Maps <ul><li>Globes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Show the world in three dimensions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shows the oceans, seas and continents much as they are </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only difference would be the scale, or size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem – can not be both small enough to use and detailed enough to be useful </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Using Globes and Maps <ul><li>Maps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Great for showing details – small pieces can be examined in great detail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem – the Earth is round </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distortion is a problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mercator Projection Map </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Developed in the 16 th century </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ stretches” everything above 70 degrees – makes Greenland huge </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Practically unusable for true distances in northern and southern polar areas </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Longitude and Latitude <ul><li>Longitude – imaginary lines that go around the globe from north to south (from pole to pole) </li></ul><ul><li>Latitude – imaginary lines that go around the globe from east to west </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Equator – latitude line exactly halfway between the north and south poles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tropic of Cancer – latitude line in the Northern Hemisphere where the sun is directly overhead on June 21/22 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tropic of Capricorn – latitude line in the Southern Hemisphere where the sun is directly overhead on Dec 21/22 </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. The Earth Third Rock from the Sun Physical Geography
  10. 10. Inside the Earth – Third Rock from the Sun <ul><li>The Earth is not a solid rock, but instead consists of layers </li></ul><ul><li>Inner Core – solid iron and nickel </li></ul><ul><li>Outer Core – liquid iron and nickel (contains the basis for our magnetic field – that protects us from most forms of solar radiation) </li></ul><ul><li>Mantle – semisoft melted rock </li></ul><ul><li>Crust – thin cooled skin that “floats” on the mantle – contains cracks and moves </li></ul><ul><li>Movement of the crust causes earthquakes and volcanoes </li></ul>
  11. 11. Plate Tectonics <ul><li>The Earth’s crust is broken into plates </li></ul><ul><li>The plates move along the flowing mantle in different directions </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure between the plates builds up until it is released by an earthquake </li></ul><ul><li>Ring of Fire – hundreds of volcanoes around the Pacific Rim where the Pacific plate interacts with other plates </li></ul>
  12. 12. Air and Water – Necessary for Life on Earth <ul><li>Air </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contained with the Earth’s atmosphere – a layer of gasses that surround the planet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Actually composed of many different types of gasses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrogen – about 78% (essential for development of proteins) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oxygen – about 21% (essential for respiration) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Others – about 1% combined </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><ul><li>97% of the water on Earth is found in the Ocean – it’s salty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only 3% of the water on Earth is fresh </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly found in the polar caps and glaciers (huge ice sheets found on mountains, Antarctica and Greenland) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Great deal is underground – sometimes miles deep </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Very little (0.3%) is at the surface (mostly lakes) and therefore useable by living organisms – very important to conserve and keep clean what we have </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Water Cycle
  14. 14. Types of Natural Resources found on Earth <ul><li>Recyclable Resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recycle naturally through the earth itself </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water, carbon, oxygen and nitrogen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can refer to items that can be reused without replacing the resource </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aluminum </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plastic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Paper </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Renewable Resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resources that can be replaced by man </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wood – trees can be replanted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biodiesel and ethanol – crops can be replanted </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nonrenewable Resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can not be replaced </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Important to conserve and use wisely -- they’re no longer being created </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oil, natural gas, coal, minerals </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Climate vs. Weather <ul><li>Climate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Long term average weather in any one place or region </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ the climate in Jamaica is tropical” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Largely affected by wind patterns, water currents and major landforms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes take place over years or even millennia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Weather </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Day to day changes in the air in terms of precipitation and / or temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ It’s 90 degrees today” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affected by the movement of storms around the planet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes rapidly over a few days </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Broad Types of Climate on Earth <ul><li>Tropical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low latitudes around the Equator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generally hot, wet and sunny </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rain forests dominate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Different places around the Earth – generally on the opposite side of mountain ranges from wind flow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Little to rain with sandy soil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sparse to no vegetation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Moderate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Found in the middle latitudes (like Connecticut) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperatures and rainfall are generally moderate enough every year to promote agricultural production </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Continental </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hot summers and bitterly cold winters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generally drier than moderate climates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large grasslands in some areas and forests in others </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Polar </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Found in high latitudes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cold all year round </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vegetation includes low shrubs, mosses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very little life found in these regions </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Wind and Water help keep the earth from overheating <ul><li>Wind </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hot air rises – so air in the tropics rises and is carried towards the polar regions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cold air in the polar regions sinks to the surface and flows towards the tropics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cold air – can not hold much water vapor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Warm air – can hold more water vapor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wind happens when the air flows from the areas where it’s sinking to areas where it’s rising </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Earth’s rotation helps drive wind direction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Warm water is lighter than cold, dense water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water in tropical regions flows slowly towards the polar regions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cold water in the polar regions sinks to the bottom of the ocean and flows south towards the tropical regions, where the cycle begins all over </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Map showing relative positions of the Gulf Stream and Labrador Current
  19. 19. Who lives on the Rock? The Story behind Earth’s Human and Cultural Geography
  20. 20. Population of the Earth <ul><li>Now at 6.6 billion (United Nations Study – June 2007) </li></ul><ul><li>Growing at a rate of about 75 million per year </li></ul><ul><li>Some areas experiencing negative or stagnant growth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Central and Eastern Europe (due to low birth rates and high rates of emigration to other areas) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some regions in Africa (due to the AIDS epidemic) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Western Europe (declining birth rates) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some areas experiencing moderate to high growth rates (declining death rates, high birth rates and / or high immigration rates – often coupled with better medicine, industrialization and job growth) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Middle East </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sub-Saharan Africa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Latin America </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>India </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>United States (now 3 rd largest country in the world with a summer 2007 estimate of just over 300 million people) </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. India and China – Huge population centers <ul><li>China </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Largest population in the world – 1.3 billion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Largely stable with a small amount of growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communist government has a “One Child Policy” which attempts to curb growth, especially among urban citizens </li></ul></ul><ul><li>India </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Second largest population in the world – 1.2 billion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Big rate of growth (almost 25% since 1991), due largely to industrialization, better medicine and high birth rates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Projected to surpass China in the next 20 years </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Together these two countries have approx. 2.3 billion people </li></ul><ul><li>That’s about 1/3 of the world’s population </li></ul><ul><li>combine that with the 235 million from Indonesia – the world’s 4 th largest country, and it means that Asia’s “big 3” have almost 4 billion people (remember – the world itself has about 6.6 billion) </li></ul>
  22. 22. Global Urbanization and Overcrowding of Cities <ul><li>As the overall population has expanded, so has the growth of cities around the world </li></ul><ul><li>Industrialization and Modernization have driven people off the farms </li></ul><ul><li>Problem – overcrowding and extreme poverty has forced people into slums </li></ul><ul><li>Urban sprawl is another issue, as is a lack of suitable infrastructure and sanitation </li></ul><ul><li>Picture is of a slum in Jakarta, Indonesia after a heavy rainstorm </li></ul>
  23. 23. Major Religions of the World <ul><li>Western (Judeo-based) Religions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Judaism (15-18 million) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Christianity (2.1 billion) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Islam (1.3 billion – also the fastest growing religion) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Eastern (philosophical) Religions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hinduism (900 million) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buddhism (400 million) </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Major Economic Systems <ul><li>Traditional Economy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on local customs and laws </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most often involves trading or bartering of some kind </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oldest form of economy – impractical in the large scale economies of the modern age </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Market Economy (Capitalism) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Characterized by private ownership of industries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prices and availability of products are based on supply and demand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High supply + low demand = lower prices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low supply + high demand = higher prices </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Command Economy (Socialism) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Government control of the economy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Government control of society </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most economies are a mix of command and market. It just depends how far a country swings to either side </li></ul><ul><ul><li>USA – mostly capitalism, but some socialism (welfare and minimum wage) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Italy – High amount of capitalism, but nationalized industries such as healthcare, telephone company, airlines and others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>China – Socialism, but with some private ownership – moving towards capitalism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>North Korea – Hard line Socialism -- resisting capitalism </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Major forms of government around the world <ul><li>Monarchy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Old form of government not seen much in the modern world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>noble families -- rule generally passes from father to son </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Democracy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct – citizens vote on laws – mostly seen today in small communities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indirect – citizens vote for representatives – reps vote on laws </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>True democracy (rule by the people) is rare </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Republic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Representatives (mostly elected, but sometimes appointed) vote on the laws for the people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most countries today are republics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>USA – US Congress and the President </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>China – National People’s Congress </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Dictatorship </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where a person rules through fear and/ or force </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly happens when a military general takes over in a coup </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can happen in a republic if the dictator controls the representative body </li></ul></ul>