Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Warm Up and Flexibility

2,942 views

Published on

Essentials of Strength Training and Conditioning
Ch 13
Baechle

Published in: Education
  • Login to see the comments

Warm Up and Flexibility

  1. 1. Warm-Up and Stretching Ian Jeffreys, MS; CSCS,*D; NSCA-CPT,*D chapter 13 Warm-Up and Stretching
  2. 2. Chapter Objectives • Identify the benefits and components of a preexercise warm-up. • Assess the suitability of performing stretch- ing exercises for a warm-up. • Identify factors that affect flexibility. (continued)
  3. 3. Chapter Objectives (continued) • Describe flexibility exercises that take advantage of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation. • Explain the mechanisms that cause the muscular inhibition that improves the stretch. • Select and apply appropriate static and dynamic stretching methods.
  4. 4. Section Outline • Warm-Up – Stretching During Warm-Up – Components of a Warm-Up
  5. 5. Warm-Up • Warming up can have the following positive impacts on performance: – Faster muscle contraction and relaxation of both agonist and antagonist muscles – Improvements in the rate of force development and reaction time – Improvements in muscle strength and power – Lowered viscous resistance in muscles (continued)
  6. 6. Warm-Up • Warming up can have the following positive impacts on performance (continued): – Improved oxygen delivery due to the Bohr effect whereby higher temperatures facilitate oxygen release from hemoglobin and myoglobin – Increased blood flow to active muscles – Enhanced metabolic reactions
  7. 7. Warm-Up • Stretching During Warm-Up – Research suggests dynamic stretching is the preferred option for stretching during warm-up. – Consider the range of motion and stretch-shortening cycle requirements of the sport when designing a warm-up.
  8. 8. Warm-Up • Components of a Warm-Up – A general warm-up period may consist of 5 to 10 minutes of slow activity such as jogging or skipping. – A specific warm-up period incorporates movements similar to the movements of the athlete’s sport. It involves 8 to 12 minutes of dynamic stretching focusing on movements that work through the range of motion required for the sport.
  9. 9. Section Outline • Flexibility – Flexibility and Performance – Factors Affecting Flexibility • Joint Structure • Age and Sex • Connective Tissue • Resistance Training With Limited Range of Motion • Muscle Bulk • Activity Level – Frequency, Duration, and Intensity of Stretching – When Should an Athlete Stretch? – Proprioceptors and Stretching
  10. 10. Flexibility • Flexibility is a measure of range of motion (ROM) and has static and dynamic compo- nents. • Static flexibility is the range of possible movement about a joint and its surrounding muscles during a passive movement. • Dynamic flexibility refers to the available ROM during active movements and therefore requires voluntary muscular actions.
  11. 11. Flexibility • Flexibility and Performance – Optimal levels of flexibility exist for each activity. – Injury risk may increase outside this range.
  12. 12. Flexibility • Factors Affecting Flexibility – Joint Structure • Structure determines the joint’s range of motion. – Age and Sex • Older people tend to be less flexible than younger people; females tend to be more flexible than males. – Connective Tissue • Elasticity and plasticity of connective tissues affect ROM. (continued)
  13. 13. Flexibility • Factors Affecting Flexibility (continued) – Resistance Training With Limited Range of Motion • Exercise through a full ROM and develop both agonist and antagonist muscles to prevent loss of ROM. – Muscle Bulk • Large muscles may impede joint movement. – Activity Level • An active person tends to be more flexible than an inactive one, but activity alone will not improve flexibility.
  14. 14. Flexibility • Frequency, Duration, and Intensity of Stretching – Acute effects of stretching on ROM are transient. – For longer-lasting effects, a stretching program is required.
  15. 15. Flexibility • When Should an Athlete Stretch? – Following practice and competition • Postpractice stretching facilitates ROM improvements because of increased muscle temperature. • Stretching should be performed within 5 to 10 minutes after practice. • Postpractice stretching may also decrease muscle soreness although the evidence on this is ambiguous.
  16. 16. Flexibility • When Should an Athlete Stretch? – As a separate session • If increased levels of flexibility are required, additional stretching sessions may be needed. • In this case, stretching should be preceded by a thorough warm-up to allow for the increase in muscle temperature necessary for effective stretching. • This type of session can be especially useful as a recovery session on the day after a competition.
  17. 17. Flexibility • Proprioceptors and Stretching – Stretch reflex • A stretch reflex occurs when muscle spindles are stimulated during a rapid stretching movement. • This should be avoided when stretching, as it will limit motion.
  18. 18. Flexibility • Proprioceptors and Stretching – Autogenic inhibition and reciprocal inhibition • Autogenic inhibition is accomplished via active contraction before a passive stretch of the same muscle. • Reciprocal inhibition is accomplished by contracting the muscle opposing the muscle that is being passively stretched. • Both result from stimulation of Golgi tendon organs, which cause reflexive muscle relaxation.
  19. 19. Section Outline • Types of Stretching – Static Stretch – Ballistic Stretch – Dynamic Stretch – Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Stretch • Hold-Relax • Contract-Relax • Hold-Relax With Agonist Contraction • Common PNF Stretches With a Partner
  20. 20. Types of Stretching • Static Stretch – A static stretch is slow and constant, with the end position held for 30 seconds. • Ballistic Stretch – A ballistic stretch typically involves active muscular effort and uses a bouncing-type movement in which the end position is not held. • Dynamic Stretch – A dynamic stretch is a type of functionally based stretching exercise that uses sport-specific move- ments to prepare the body for activity.
  21. 21. Types of Stretching • Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF) Stretch – Hold-Relax • Passive prestretch (10 seconds), isometric hold (6 seconds), passive stretch (30 seconds)
  22. 22. Positions for PNF Hamstring Stretch • Figures 13.1 and 13.2 (next slide) – Starting position of PNF hamstring stretch – Partner and subject leg and hand positions for PNF hamstring stretch
  23. 23. Figures 13.1 and 13.2
  24. 24. Hold-Relax • Figures 13.3, 13.4, and 13.5 (next slide) – Passive prestretch of hamstrings during hold-relax PNF hamstring stretch – Isometric action during hold-relax PNF hamstring stretch – Increased ROM during passive stretch of hold-relax PNF hamstring stretch
  25. 25. Figures 13.3, 13.4, and 13.5
  26. 26. Types of Stretching • Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Stretch – Contract-Relax • Passive prestretch (10 seconds), concentric muscle action through full ROM, passive stretch (30 seconds)
  27. 27. Contract-Relax • Figures 13.6, 13.7, and 13.8 (next slide) – Passive prestretch of hamstrings during contract- relax PNF stretch – Concentric action of hip extensors during contract- relax PNF stretch – Increased ROM during passive stretch of contract- relax PNF stretch
  28. 28. Figures 13.6, 13.7, and 13.8
  29. 29. Types of Stretching • Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Stretch – Hold-Relax With Agonist Contraction • During third phase (passive stretch), concentric action of the agonist used to increase the stretch force
  30. 30. Hold-Relax With Agonist Contraction • Figures 13.9, 13.10, and 13.11 (next slide) – Passive prestretch during hold-relax with agonist contraction PNF hamstring stretch – Isometric action of hamstrings during hold-relax with agonist contraction PNF hamstring stretch – Concentric contraction of quadriceps during hold- relax with agonist contraction PNF hamstring stretch, creating increased ROM during passive stretch
  31. 31. Figures 13.9, 13.10, and 13.11
  32. 32. Key Point • The hold-relax with agonist contraction is the most effective PNF stretching technique due to facilitation via both reciprocal and autogenic inhibition.
  33. 33. Types of Stretching • Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Stretch – Common PNF Stretches With a Partner • Calf and ankle • Chest • Groin • Hamstrings and hip extensors • Quadriceps and hip flexors • Shoulder
  34. 34. Partner PNF Stretching • Figures 13.12-13.16 (next two slides) – Partner PNF stretching for the: • Calves • Chest • Groin • Quadriceps and hip flexors • Shoulders
  35. 35. Figures 13.12 and 13.13
  36. 36. Figures 13.14, 13.15, and 13.16
  37. 37. Types of Stretching • Guidelines for Static Stretching – Get into a position that facilitates relaxation. – Move to the point in the ROM where you experience a sensation of mild discomfort. If performing partner- assisted PNF stretching, communicate clearly with your partner. – Hold stretches for 30 seconds. – Repeat unilateral stretches on both sides.
  38. 38. Types of Stretching • Precautions for Static Stretching – Decrease stretch intensity if you experience pain, radiating symptoms, or loss of sensation. – Use caution when stretching a hypermobile joint. – Avoid combination movements that involve the spine (e.g., extension and lateral flexion). – Stabilizing muscles should be active to protect other joints and prevent unwanted movements.
  39. 39. Types of Stretching • Guidelines for Dynamic Stretching – Carry out 5 to 10 repetitions for each movement, either in place or over a given distance. – Progressively increase the ROM on each repetition. – Increase the speed of motion on subsequent sets where appropriate. – Contract the muscles as you move through the ROM.
  40. 40. Types of Stretching • Precautions for Dynamic Stretching – Move progressively through the ROM. – Move deliberately but without bouncing (movement must be controlled at all times). – Do not forsake good technique for additional ROM.

×