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FW279 Feedback


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  1. 1. Chapter 6: Feedback, Reinforcement, and Intrinsic Motivation 6 Feedback,Feedback, Reinforcement,Reinforcement, and Intrinsicand Intrinsic MotivationMotivation C H A P T E R
  2. 2. Session Outline • Understanding feedback and reinforcement • Feedback and reinforcement – Principles of reinforcement – Approaches to influencing behavior – Principles of positive reinforcement (continued)
  3. 3. Session Outline (continued) – Punishment and guidelines for punishment – Modifying behavior in sport • Intrinsic motivation and extrinsic rewards – Cognitive evaluation theory – How extrinsic rewards affect intrinsic motivation in sport – Increasing intrinsic motivation (continued)
  4. 4. Session Outline (continued) – Flow: A special case of intrinsic motivation – Flow and element of flow – Factors that facilitate or disrupt flow
  5. 5. Understanding Feedback and Reinforcement • Reinforcement is the use of rewards and punishment, which increase or decrease the likelihood of a similar response occurring in the future.
  6. 6. Principles of Reinforcement • If doing something results in a good consequence (such as being rewarded), people tend to repeat the behavior to achieve additional positive reinforcement. • If doing something results in an unpleasant consequence (such as being punished), people tend not to repeat the behavior to avoid more negative consequences. (continued)
  7. 7. Principles of Reinforcement (continued) • Why principles of reinforcement are complex: – People react differently to the same reinforcement. – People are unable to repeat desirable behaviors. – People receive different reinforcers in different situations.
  8. 8. Approaches to Influencing Behavior • Positive approach focuses on rewarding appropriate behavior, which increases the likelihood of desirable responses occurring in the future. • Negative approach focuses on punishing undesirable behaviors, which should lead to future redirection of these inappropriate behaviors.
  9. 9. TARGET Approach to Creating a Positive Motivational Climate • Create a mastery-oriented climate by manipulating the following environmental conditions using the TARGET principle. • TARGET: tasks, authority, rewards, groupings, evaluation, timing.
  10. 10. Approaches to Influencing Behavior • Most coaches and instructors combine positive and negative approaches. • Sport psychologists agree that the predominant approach with physical activity and sport participants should be positive because the negative approach often instills fear in participants.
  11. 11. Principles of Positive Reinforcement • Choose effective reinforcers (e.g., social, material, activity, special outings, intrinsic and extrinsic). • Choose timing or schedule of reinforcement. – Early learning—continuous and immediate reinforcement desirable – Learned skill—intermittent and immediate reinforcement desirable (continued)
  12. 12. Principles of Positive Reinforcement (continued) • Reward appropriate behaviors—choose the proper behaviors to reward. • Shape or reinforce successful approximations of difficult behaviors. • Reward performance as well as outcome. • Reward effort. • Reward emotional and social skill.
  13. 13. Providing Performance Feedback • Provide knowledge of results (feedback regarding the correctness of an action). • Provide sincere and contingent feedback. • Provide motivational and instructional feedback. • Use varied types of feedback—verbal praise, facial expressions, and pats on the back.
  14. 14. What Not to Do: Inappropriate Approaches to Motivation • Focus on criticism. • Focus on criticism with sarcasm. • Use physical abuse. • Employ guilt.
  15. 15. Punishment • Punishment can control and change behavior, but 80% to 90% of reinforcement should be positive. • Support of punishment: – Punishment can serve a useful educational purpose (i.e., maintain stability, order, mastery). – Punishment can deter future cheating or wrongdoing. (continued)
  16. 16. Punishment (continued) • Drawbacks of punishment: – Punishment can arouse fear of failure. – Punishment can act as a reinforcer. – Punishment can create an unpleasant, aversive learning environment.
  17. 17. Guidelines for Using Punishment • Be consistent by giving everyone the same type of punishment for breaking similar rules. • Punish the behavior, not the person— convey to the person that it’s his or her behavior that needs to change. • Allow athlete’s input in making up punishments for breaking rules. (continued)
  18. 18. Guidelines for Using Punishment (continued) • Do not use physical activity as a punishment. • Make sure the punishment is not perceived as a reward or simply as attention. • Impose punishment impersonally—do not berate the person or yell. Simply inform the person of the punishment. (continued)
  19. 19. Guidelines for Using Punishment (continued) • Do not punish athletes for making errors while playing. • Do not embarrass individuals in front of teammates or classmates. • Use punishment sparingly, but enforce it when you use it.
  20. 20. Modifying Behavior in Sport • Behavior modification – Systematic application of the principles of reinforcement to change behavior – Contingency management = behavioral coaching = behavior modification (continued)
  21. 21. Modifying Behavior in Sport (continued) • Behavioral techniques have been used to modify behaviors in sport and physical education. – Feedback reinforcement in football – Behavioral coaching in golf – Recording and shaping in basketball – Improving attendance in swimming – Addressing inappropriate behaviors in tennis
  22. 22. Principles of Behavior Programs • Target the behaviors you want to change. • Define targeted behaviors. • Record the behaviors. • Provide meaningful feedback. • State outcomes clearly. • Tailor reward systems.
  23. 23. Ways to Choose and Monitor Target Behaviors • Direct observation of single behaviors • Behavioral checklists for recording multiple behaviors • Athlete self-monitoring • Videotape of practice, precompetition, and competition • Postperformance videotape reconstruction of verbal behavior
  24. 24. Intrinsic Motivation • People who have intrinsic motivation strive inwardly to be competent and self- determining in their quest to master the task at hand. • They enjoy competition, like the action and excitement, focus on having fun, and want to learn skills to the best of their ability.
  25. 25. Figure 6.2
  26. 26. Factors Influencing Intrinsic Motivation • Social factors – Success and failure – Focus of competition – Coaches’ behavior • Psychological factors – Need for competence, autonomy, and relatedness (continued)
  27. 27. Factors Influencing Intrinsic Motivation (continued) • Passion is a strong inclination and desire toward an activity one likes, finds important, and invests time and energy in. – Harmonious passion (HP): A strong desire to engage in an activity freely as it becomes part of one’s identity. – Obsessive passion (OP): An uncontrollable desire to participate in an activity that does not become part of one’s identity.
  28. 28. Intrinsic Motivation and Extrinsic Rewards • Basic question: Do extrinsic rewards undermine intrinsic motivation? • Research shows that being paid for working on an intrinsically interesting activity can decrease a person’s intrinsic motivation for the activity. (continued)
  29. 29. Intrinsic Motivation and Extrinsic Rewards (continued) • Classic studies – Deci (1971, 1972): SOMA puzzles – Lepper and Greene (1975): Nursery school, expected and unexpected rewards (continued)
  30. 30. Intrinsic Motivation and Extrinsic Rewards (continued) • Cognitive evaluation theory: How rewards are perceived is critical in determining whether intrinsic motivation increases or decreases.
  31. 31. Cognitive Evaluation Theory • Controlling aspects: Rewards perceived to control a person decrease intrinsic motivation, whereas rewards that contribute to an internal locus of causality increase intrinsic motivation. • Informational aspects: Rewards that provide information and positive feedback about competence increase intrinsic motivation, whereas rewards that suggest the person is not competent decrease intrinsic motivation. (continued)
  32. 32. Cognitive Evaluation Theory (continued) • Functional significance of the event: How a reward affects intrinsic motivation depends on whether the recipient perceives it to be more controlling or more informational.
  33. 33. How Extrinsic Rewards Affect Intrinsic Motivation in Sport • Scholarships – Athletic scholarships can either decrease or increase athletes’ levels of intrinsic motivation. – Effects depend on which is more emphasized by the coach—the controlling or information aspects. (continued)
  34. 34. How Extrinsic Rewards Affect Intrinsic Motivation in Sport (continued) • Competitive success and failure – Success tends to increase intrinsic motivation. – Failure tends to decrease intrinsic motivation. • Feedback: Positive feedback increases intrinsic motivation.
  35. 35. Other Determinants of Intrinsic Motivation • Higher levels of intrinsic motivation are related to the following: – Playing for an autonomous (democratic) versus a controlling coach – Participating in a recreational versus competitive league – High versus low perceived competence – High versus low perceived control
  36. 36. Increasing Intrinsic Motivation • Provide for successful experiences. • Give rewards contingent on performance. • Use verbal and nonverbal praise. • Vary content and sequence of practice drills. • Involve participants in decisions. • Set realistic performance goals.
  37. 37. Flow: A Special Case for Intrinsic Motivation • Flow is a holistic, intrinsically motivating sensation that people feel when they are totally involved in an activity or are on automatic pilot. • A flow model describes the essential elements of flow.
  38. 38. The Flow Model • Essential elements of flow: – Balance of challenges and skills – Complete absorption in the activity – Clear goals – Merging of action and awareness – Total concentration on the task (continued)
  39. 39. The Flow Model (continued) • Essential elements of flow: – Loss of self-consciousness – A sense of control – No goals or rewards external to the activity – Transformation of time – Effortless movement
  40. 40. Figure 6.4
  41. 41. Controllability of Flow States • Research with athletes indicates that they cannot control flow. • Athletes do report that they can increase the probability of flow occurring.
  42. 42. Flow: How to Achieve It • Be motivated to perform (maintain a balance between goals and skills). • Achieve optimal arousal before performing. • Maintain an appropriate focus (stay in the present, focus on key points). • Use precompetitive and competitive plans and preparation. (continued)
  43. 43. Flow: How to Achieve It (continued) • Achieve optimal physical preparation and readiness. • Experience optimal environmental and situational conditions. • Exhibit confidence and positive mental attitude. • Have positive team play and interaction (positive play and shared purposes). • Feel good about performance.
  44. 44. Factors that Prevent Flow from Occurring • Nonoptimal physical preparation and readiness – Injury – Fatigue – Not feeling good physically (continued)
  45. 45. Factors that Prevent Flow from Occurring (continued) • Nonoptimal environmental or situational conditions – External stresses – Unwanted crowd response – Uncontrollable influences of the event (continued)
  46. 46. Factors that Prevent Flow from Occurring (continued) • Lack of confidence or a negative mental state – Negative thinking – Self-doubt – No control of mental state (continued)
  47. 47. Factors that Prevent Flow from Occurring (continued) • Inappropriate focus – Thinking too much – Worrying about what others are doing – Frustration with teammates’ effort (continued)
  48. 48. Factors that Prevent Flow from Occurring (continued) • Problem with precompetitive preparation – Poor precompetitive preparation – Distraction before competition – Interruption to precompetitive preparation (continued)
  49. 49. Factors that Prevent Flow from Occurring (continued) • Lacking motivation to perform – No goals – Lack of challenge – Low arousal or motivation • Nonoptimal arousal level before competition – Not feeling relaxed – Feeling too relaxed (continued)
  50. 50. Factors that Prevent Flow from Occurring (continued) • Negative team play and interactions – Team not performing well – Not feeling part of the team – Negative talk within the team (continued)
  51. 51. Factors that Prevent Flow from Occurring (continued) • Performance going poorly – Unforced errors – Poor technique – Things not going as planned (continued)
  52. 52. Factors that Prevent Flow from Occurring (continued) • Nonoptimal environmental and situational influences – Stoppage in play – What the opposition is doing – Negative refereeing decisions – Inappropriate, negative, or no feedback (continued)
  53. 53. Factors that Prevent Flow from Occurring (continued) • Problems with physical readiness or physical state – Lack of physical preparation – Injury during the competition – Fatigue (continued)
  54. 54. Factors that Prevent Flow from Occurring (continued) • Problems with team performance or interactions – Negative talk on the field – Team not playing well – Lack of team interactions (continued)
  55. 55. Factors that Prevent Flow from Occurring (continued) • Inappropriate focus – Worrying about competitor’s ability – Daydreaming – Loss of concentration • Doubting self and putting pressure on self
  56. 56. Negative Side of Flow • A potential negative consequence might be that of contributing to dependence on an activity once associated with a flow experience. • Some surfers were found to be addicted to the euphoric feelings they experienced and were willing to continue to surf despite family commitments, injury, or potential death.