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Cnu Ne Talk

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Cnu Ne Talk

  1. 1. Fix It First for Sustainability? Accountability in State Smart Growth Programs April 3, 2009
  2. 2. Fix It First for Sustainability? Accountability in State Smart Growth Programs April 3, 2009
  3. 3. Smart Growth Principles Revitalize and enhance compact centers and neighborhoods ✤ Protect and preserve environmental quality and important ✤ natural and cultural features Promote health and vitality of communities through targeted ✤ economic growth in mixed use centers Provide choices in mode of transportation integrated with land ✤ use Provide for diverse housing needs of residents ✤ Balance growth with economic and efficient delivery of public ✤ facilities and services Engage public in goals, strategies and actions ✤
  4. 4. Smart Growth Principles Revitalize and enhance compact centers and neighborhoods ✤ Protect and preserve environmental quality and important ✤ natural and cultural features Promote health and vitality of communities through targeted ✤ economic growth in mixed use centers Provide choices in mode of transportation integrated with land ✤ use Provide for diverse housing needs of residents ✤ Balance growth with economic and efficient delivery of public ✤ facilities and services Engage public in goals, strategies and actions ✤
  5. 5. Smart Growth Principles Revitalize and enhance compact centers and neighborhoods ✤ Protect and preserve environmental quality and important ✤ natural and cultural features Promote health and vitality of communities through targeted ✤ economic growth in mixed use centers Provide choices in mode of transportation integrated with land ✤ use Provide for diverse housing needs of residents ✤ Balance growth with economic and efficient delivery of public ✤ facilities and services Engage public in goals, strategies and actions ✤
  6. 6. Smart Growth Principles Revitalize and enhance compact centers and neighborhoods ✤ Protect and preserve environmental quality and important ✤ natural and cultural features Promote health and vitality of communities through targeted ✤ economic growth in mixed use centers Provide choices in mode of transportation integrated with land ✤ use Provide for diverse housing needs of residents ✤ Balance growth with economic and efficient delivery of public ✤ facilities and services Engage public in goals, strategies and actions ✤
  7. 7. Smart Growth Principles Revitalize and enhance compact centers and neighborhoods ✤ Protect and preserve environmental quality and important ✤ natural and cultural features Promote health and vitality of communities through targeted ✤ economic growth in mixed use centers Provide choices in mode of transportation integrated with land ✤ use Provide for diverse housing needs of residents ✤ Balance growth with economic and efficient delivery of public ✤ facilities and services Engage public in goals, strategies and actions ✤
  8. 8. A Challenge for Sustainability In 2030 about half of the buildings will ✤ have been built since 2000 There may be as much as 214 billion ✤ square feet of new built space by 2030 Projections anticipate that nearly 1/3 of ✤ our building stock in the next 20-25 years will be demolished.
  9. 9. A Challenge for Sustainability In 2030 about half of the buildings will ✤ have been built since 2000 There may be as much as 214 billion ✤ square feet of new built space by 2030 Projections anticipate that nearly 1/3 of ✤ our building stock in the next 20-25 years will be demolished.
  10. 10. A Challenge for Sustainability In 2030 about half of the buildings will ✤ have been built since 2000 There may be as much as 214 billion ✤ square feet of new built space by 2030 Projections anticipate that nearly 1/3 of ✤ our building stock in the next 20-25 years will be demolished.
  11. 11. A Challenge for Sustainability - How will we Build? If we follow the trends of the ✤ past 50 years... We will sprawl ✤ We will increase VMT per ✤ capita We will continue to consume ✤ over half of our urban landscape with automobile uses
  12. 12. A Challenge for Sustainability - How will we Build? If we follow the trends of the ✤ past 50 years... We will sprawl ✤ We will increase VMT per ✤ capita We will continue to consume ✤ over half of our urban landscape with automobile uses
  13. 13. A Challenge for Sustainability - How Will We Build? If we alter these patterns to a more ✤ sustainable form, we may: Increase the share of people living ✤ in compact, mixed use urban and village centers and neighborhoods Reduce driving by 15-50% as a ✤ result of these patterns Lower our energy consumption ✤
  14. 14. A Challenge for Sustainability - How Will We Build? If we alter these patterns to a more ✤ sustainable form, we may: Increase the share of people living ✤ in compact, mixed use urban and village centers and neighborhoods Reduce driving by 15-50% as a ✤ result of these patterns Lower our energy consumption ✤
  15. 15. A Challenge for Sustainability - How Will We Build? If we alter these patterns to a more ✤ sustainable form, we may: Increase the share of people living ✤ in compact, mixed use urban and village centers and neighborhoods Reduce driving by 15-50% as a ✤ result of these patterns Lower our energy consumption ✤
  16. 16. Influence of State Programs Put in place investments that direct growth ✤ Establish tax policies that can protect open land or create incentives ✤ for investment in historic buildings, affordable housing and downtowns Have their own regulations guiding growth ✤ Enable and mandate communities to regulate growth ✤
  17. 17. Why are State Programs Important Today? Need to focus on what we have ✤ during these tough economic times There are fewer dollars to support ✤ infrastructure - need to be efficient in public investments There are programs in place that ✤ could be better implemented to achieve smart growth goals
  18. 18. Why are State Programs Important Today? Need to focus on what we have ✤ during these tough economic times There are fewer dollars to support ✤ infrastructure - need to be efficient in public investments There are programs in place that ✤ could be better implemented to achieve smart growth goals
  19. 19. Stimulus Bill: $250 B to States State in driver’s seat for much of these funds ✤ Surface transportation money - $27.5 Billion ✤ Energy Efficiency Block Grants to state and local governments- $3.2 Billion ✤ State Energy Program: $3.1 Billion ✤ Tax Credit Bonds for School Repair or New Construction: $9.97 Billion ✤ Clean Water and Drinking Water: $6 Billion ✤ Community Development Block Grant: $1 Billion ✤
  20. 20. Assessments of State Programs Washington ✤ Maryland ✤ Vermont ✤
  21. 21. Washington Growth Management Act - Buildable Lands Program Goal is increasing densities within urban areas ✤ and lowering development in rural areas Evaluates GMA and remedies problems for six ✤ most populous counties of state Compares what is built to what was planned ✤ If don’t meet standards, amend planning ✤ program, including regulations, and annually monitor effectiveness of changes.
  22. 22. Washington Program Findings All counties have sufficient land within UGA to ✤ accommodate residential, commercial and industrial growth All counties show an increase in density in UGAs between ✤ 2002 and 2007 Results are then used to see if there is enough capacity for ✤ future growth as planned or if there is overcapacity 4 out of 6 counties show increase share of residential ✤ growth inside UGA vs outside UGA Only two counties show increase in ratio of MF housing to ✤ SF housing
  23. 23. Maryland: Smart Growth & Neighborhood Conservation Program: A Look at 10 Years Limit state funding to Priority Funding ✤ Areas Also carrots to develop inside PFAs ✤ Provide funds for rural lands conservation ✤
  24. 24. MD Smart Growth: Ten Years PFAs a weak tool for containment - sprawl still ✤ happening outside of these areas Infrastructure finance - too little state money, for ✤ example, for brownfields Conservation land protection - fragmented, inconsistent ✤ with local zoning and still threatened with sprawl Not integrated with state planning laws -no link of PFAs ✤ in local comprehensive plans No benchmarks or goals, enforcement or monitoring ✤ mechanism, for example, for retaining or obtaining density minimum of 3.5 units per acre
  25. 25. Vermont Smart Growth Audit - 2003 and 2007 Undertaking by Vermont Smart ✤ Growth Collaborative to determine impact of state investments and policies on sprawl Vermont has a history of anti-sprawl ✤ measures taken since the 1960s Have they been effective? ✤
  26. 26. Vermont Audit VHCB directs over 90% of its investments in housing ✤ towards existing settlements. Large share of state aid for school construction went ✤ for maintenance and major renovations VTrans has invested in new construction over fixing ✤ what they have. The majority of funds for economic development ✤ supported growth in sprawl locations. 77% of public investment supported wastewater ✤ facilities in sprawl locations. No state agency planning as mandated by law ✤
  27. 27. Vermont Audit - 2003 Overall Investments (Percentages) Smart Growth Sprawl Locations 100.0% 90.0% 80.0% 70.0% Percentage Invested 60.0% 50.0% 40.0% 30.0% 20.0% 10.0% 0.0% School VT Housing VT Economic VT Economic State Sewer Chittenden Construction & Conservation Progress Development Funding County Small Renovation Board Council Authority Business Loans
  28. 28. Results of Assessments WA: Adjustments required to plans and regulations ✤ MD: New legislation - in progress ✤ VT: New legislation with emphasis on designating downtowns and ✤ growth centers
  29. 29. How accomplish WA: Mandates in legislation, cost-sharing, state staff ✤ MD: Watch dog group, research, legislation ✤ VT: Watch dog group, research, legislation ✤
  30. 30. Conclusions - Assessments of state smart growth laws show problems ✤ with implementation of programs Increased Densities & Spawl Containment Diverse Housing Focused State $$$ Rural Lands Adequate Funding Connection to Plans
  31. 31. Conclusions - Built-in mechanisms to benchmark, evaluate and adjust work without ✤ new legislation Role of smart growth organizations is critical to assessing ✤ implementation of programs and getting necessary changes Funding is key: need to watch and access Stimulus $$$; emphasize ✤ efficiency in spending and prevention of waste Won’t work without integrated local planning ✤

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