Finding “Real”Water Losses in JolietJohn H. Van Arsdel, Vice President
OverviewWater Loss ControlWater Balance Format (AWWA/IWA)Apparent LossesReal LossesLeakage controlCase Study
Water Loss ControlMonitoring water resources has been conducted forthousands of years.Julius Frontenus was first Roman Wat...
Gallons of water being pumped into the distribution systemeach billing period exceeds the gallons being sold.             ...
Water Loss ControlThe difference in the water pumped versuswater sold is basically termed “water loss”Is it not possible t...
State Water Loss Standards - 2001  20%                    10%15%                       15%                   15%          ...
Water Systems are not designed to              loose $$’s• If you think it is OK to loose 10%, 15% or 20% of  your water …...
Water systems are not designed to lose               money! What is considered “acceptable loss” in a system?     10%, 15%...
Water Loss ControlWater Loss Control is defined simply as the process of “Auditing” the operational procedures and process...
Standard WaterStart here                                   Balance Format                Move this direction              ...
Water Audit FormDeveloped by theAWWA WaterLoss CommitteeEasier than a1040 form!
Water Loss ControlWater Loss Spreadsheet provides helpand direction for Financial, Operational,and Water Resources Conside...
Now available free of charge athttp://www.awwa.org/waterwiser/waterloss/
Water Loss Control / Water Audit A Water Audit is made up of 5 major components1.    Master Meter Testing2.    Commercial/...
Water LossesApparent - Metering Inaccuracies         Unauthorized Consumption  ( $$ Non-Revenue Water    $$ )Real Losses -...
Real Losses
“Let’s begin today with a look atHoly #@**%$ ...    When did this happen”?                  72” main break
Too late…
Well, so much for watering the lawn and        washing the car today…**Main breaks happen… some areunavoidable.Are you rea...
Four                                  Components of                                    Managing                           ...
Non-Revenue WaterNon-Revenue Water = Pumped Water – Billed Water              Real Losses- Leakage                        ...
Think all leaks surface?    Don’t bet on it!!
Acoustic Leak Detection 101• Fluid escaping a pipe  under pressure produces  “Leak Noise”• Leaks are detectable  based on:...
How to perform a Leak Survey…        The old way…
Acoustic Leak Detection 101 (continued)  • Leak noise is picked up by a set of transducers  • Signal is amplified and tran...
The pipe material, pipe size, and length of pipe segments             are entered into the Correlator and the leak noise i...
Operational Theory•   L=d-vt/2•   L is Leak Distance from “A”•   D is distance between “A” and “B”•   V is velocity of lea...
Leak Correlation Equipment
Leak Located - X marks the SpotNote the other utility’s locations…
Hole Dug…
Leak Repaired - One Hole, One Restoration
Case study        City of Joliet, IL (2008-2009)24 wells providing average 13 mgd.2005 capacity increased to 23 mgd.Large ...
Case study        City of Joliet, IL (2008-2009)375 miles of water main in the City ofJoliet’Joliet’s distribution system....
Reasons behind leak detectionConserve freshwater resources by reducing theamount of “real” water losses through leakageCon...
City of Joliet, ILSome areas similar to other Cities and Villages…
City of Joliet, ILOther older areas have been renewed …
Case study          City of Joliet, IL (2008-2009)What was found in first part of survey….  59 leaks in first 67 miles sur...
Case study          City of Joliet, IL (2008-2009)What was found ….  149 leaks (average of one leak per  1.2 miles of main...
Case study        City of Joliet, IL (2008-2009)What was found …. 149 leaks (estimated total 1.73 mgd or about 1200 gpm) 3...
Case study         City of Joliet, IL (2008-2009)The majority of these leaks did not surfacebecause the local geology of J...
Case study          City of Joliet, IL (2008-2009)Estimated leakage 1.73 mgd   (or about 1200 gpm)Daily average pumpage @ ...
State Water Loss Standards - 2001  20%                    10%15%                       15%                  15%           ...
Leak Locations (water drops) in 180 miles of main
Downtown area
Estimating Leak AmountsHole Diameter   GPM Loss        GPD Loss    1/2"            34.9         50,256.0    1/4"          ...
Pressure’s affect on leak amountsMathematical relationship…Double the pressure…(50psi x 2 = 100psi)The leak amount (volume...
When things went wrong….       A few Problems …Once leak was pinpointed, dug as soonas possible•When leak location was off...
Typical Neighborhood ….
Main line break near a corp.
Some valve boxes cleanedto gain access to the valvefor listening…
Documentation                              GPS location of leaks for                                  import into GIS    F...
Leak tracking in survey area…
Phase IIWhat was found ….• 69 leaks in 150 miles of pipe  (estimated total .26352 mgd or about 183 gpm)• 6 main breaks (av...
Phase IIThe majority of these leaks did not surfacebecause the local geology of Joliet islimestone.Annualized estimated wa...
Phase I & II totals$ 1,057,822 estimated annual      wholesale costs (loss)1.998 mgd lossAverage pumpage 13 mgd15.3% estim...
State Water Loss Standards - 2001  20%                    10%15%                       15%                  15%           ...
Lessons Learned from the Leak program   • Fire Hydrant issues…   • Potential Customer Meter     issues…   • Customer Later...
Standard Water                        Balance Format                     Water                                            ...
Future goals• Increased water loss control• Introduce the best leak detection available• Continue process of identifying h...
AWWA Policy Statement (M-36)              Conduct AuditsEvaluate overall effectiveness of:    Metering    Billing and acco...
THANK YOU!!A special thank you to the following  people/entities who provided information:AWWA Water Loss Control Committe...
Finding “Real” Water Losses in Joliet
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Finding “Real” Water Losses in Joliet

  1. 1. Finding “Real”Water Losses in JolietJohn H. Van Arsdel, Vice President
  2. 2. OverviewWater Loss ControlWater Balance Format (AWWA/IWA)Apparent LossesReal LossesLeakage controlCase Study
  3. 3. Water Loss ControlMonitoring water resources has been conducted forthousands of years.Julius Frontenus was first Roman WaterCommissioner and recognized importance ofequitable water distribution (300 BC)Concept of “water rights” and water use has beendebated for centuriesEnd result: majority of water use is nowmetered or monitored
  4. 4. Gallons of water being pumped into the distribution systemeach billing period exceeds the gallons being sold. Water Sold Water Pumped
  5. 5. Water Loss ControlThe difference in the water pumped versuswater sold is basically termed “water loss”Is it not possible to have a “perfect system”Concept of “acceptable loss” levels– What is “acceptable”?– How do you control losses?
  6. 6. State Water Loss Standards - 2001 20% 10%15% 15% 15% 15% 20% 15% 20% 15%10% 15% 15% 10% 15% 15% 15% 7.5% 20% 15% 10% 10%
  7. 7. Water Systems are not designed to loose $$’s• If you think it is OK to loose 10%, 15% or 20% of your water … Just hand over to me …10%, 15%, or 20% of your paycheck each payday… and I will go away!!Now that I have your attention….
  8. 8. Water systems are not designed to lose money! What is considered “acceptable loss” in a system? 10%, 15%, ??? Why are these losses unacceptable? Law of diminishing returns…
  9. 9. Water Loss ControlWater Loss Control is defined simply as the process of “Auditing” the operational procedures and processes of our water utility to determine losses and then provide remediation for those issues.IWA/AWWA developed a “Water Balance” chart after much research into differences in concept of water losses.
  10. 10. Standard WaterStart here Balance Format Move this direction Water Billed Water Exported Exported Billed Revenue Authorized Billed Metered Consumption Own Authorized Water Consumption Sources Consumption Total Total Billed Unmetered Consumption System System Input Input Unbilled Unbilled Metered Consumption Authorized (allow Consumption Unbilled Unmetered Consumption ( allow Water for Supplied for Apparent Unauthorized Consumption known known Losses Non- errors) errors ) Revenue Customer Metering & Data Inaccuracies Water Water Water Leakage on Mains Imported Losses Real Leakage on Service Lines Losses (before the meter) Leakage & Overflows at Storage
  11. 11. Water Audit FormDeveloped by theAWWA WaterLoss CommitteeEasier than a1040 form!
  12. 12. Water Loss ControlWater Loss Spreadsheet provides helpand direction for Financial, Operational,and Water Resources Considerationsthrough a “scoring” mechanism (calledILI).Considerations are given to optimization ofthe above 3 resources.
  13. 13. Now available free of charge athttp://www.awwa.org/waterwiser/waterloss/
  14. 14. Water Loss Control / Water Audit A Water Audit is made up of 5 major components1. Master Meter Testing2. Commercial/Industrial Meter Testing3. Residential Meter Testing4. Meter Reading & Billing Review5. Leak Detection
  15. 15. Water LossesApparent - Metering Inaccuracies Unauthorized Consumption ( $$ Non-Revenue Water $$ )Real Losses - Leakage ( $$ Non-Revenue Water $$)
  16. 16. Real Losses
  17. 17. “Let’s begin today with a look atHoly #@**%$ ... When did this happen”? 72” main break
  18. 18. Too late…
  19. 19. Well, so much for watering the lawn and washing the car today…**Main breaks happen… some areunavoidable.Are you ready for this??
  20. 20. Four Components of Managing Real Losses Imp r ove ce, enan tation for l respons in t e Ma ehabili eak repa e time ov irs Impr ent & R cem R epla Existing Real Losses Pres e Activ ntrol Mana sure Co ge m ent Lea kage Economic As each component receives Levelmore or less attention, the losses The Utility shouldwill increase or decrease Unavoidable strive to keep losses Real Losses to a minimum
  21. 21. Non-Revenue WaterNon-Revenue Water = Pumped Water – Billed Water Real Losses- Leakage - ( $$ Non-Revenue Water $$) (You do not make $$’s on leaks!!)
  22. 22. Think all leaks surface? Don’t bet on it!!
  23. 23. Acoustic Leak Detection 101• Fluid escaping a pipe under pressure produces “Leak Noise”• Leaks are detectable based on: – Size of leak – Pressure of pipe – Pipe size – Pipe material – Length of pipe between listening points – Good physical contact with pipe or valve
  24. 24. How to perform a Leak Survey… The old way…
  25. 25. Acoustic Leak Detection 101 (continued) • Leak noise is picked up by a set of transducers • Signal is amplified and transmitted to Correlator to pinpoint leak location. • Leak Correlation is based on time delay difference of arrival of leak sound received by each sensor. • Generally, – Smaller, high pressure leaks - mid to higher frequency ranges – Larger, low pressure leaks - low to mid range – PVC - lowest range
  26. 26. The pipe material, pipe size, and length of pipe segments are entered into the Correlator and the leak noise is analyzed and the leak pinpointed!
  27. 27. Operational Theory• L=d-vt/2• L is Leak Distance from “A”• D is distance between “A” and “B”• V is velocity of leak noise• T is time delay of noise between “A” & “B”
  28. 28. Leak Correlation Equipment
  29. 29. Leak Located - X marks the SpotNote the other utility’s locations…
  30. 30. Hole Dug…
  31. 31. Leak Repaired - One Hole, One Restoration
  32. 32. Case study City of Joliet, IL (2008-2009)24 wells providing average 13 mgd.2005 capacity increased to 23 mgd.Large part of the piping system wasover 100 years old
  33. 33. Case study City of Joliet, IL (2008-2009)375 miles of water main in the City ofJoliet’Joliet’s distribution system.180 miles surveyed for Phase I of theprogramFocus on older sections of pipe,downtown areas
  34. 34. Reasons behind leak detectionConserve freshwater resources by reducing theamount of “real” water losses through leakageConserve energy and reducing treatment costsby reducing pumpage because of main breaksHelp in monitoring potential distribution systemoperations and maintenance problems Water Sold Water PumpedPromote proper accounting and financialreporting (GASB 34)Reduce the risk of water shortage and customerhardship by finding leaks beforethey become catastrophicEnsure a sound and reliable water service andfire protection for customers of the Utility
  35. 35. City of Joliet, ILSome areas similar to other Cities and Villages…
  36. 36. City of Joliet, ILOther older areas have been renewed …
  37. 37. Case study City of Joliet, IL (2008-2009)What was found in first part of survey…. 59 leaks in first 67 miles surveyed (average of one leak per 1.1 miles of main) 12 main breaks (average 1 main break per 5.6 miles) 17 service line leaks 26 hydrant leaks 4 valve leaks (packing and bonnet bolts).
  38. 38. Case study City of Joliet, IL (2008-2009)What was found …. 149 leaks (average of one leak per 1.2 miles of main) 33 main breaks (average 1 main break per 4.5 miles) 59 service line leaks (7 on the customer side of the shut off valve 46 hydrant leaks 11 valve leaks (packing and bonnet bolts).
  39. 39. Case study City of Joliet, IL (2008-2009)What was found …. 149 leaks (estimated total 1.73 mgd or about 1200 gpm) 33 main breaks (average 24.5 gpm each) 59 service line leaks (average 5 gpm each) 46 hydrant leaks (2 gpm each) 11 valve leaks (1 gpm each)
  40. 40. Case study City of Joliet, IL (2008-2009)The majority of these leaks did not surfacebecause the local geology of Joliet islimestone.Annualized water losses $918,354.00 (wholesale costs of $1.45/1000 gals)Payoff for cost of survey: 15 days
  41. 41. Case study City of Joliet, IL (2008-2009)Estimated leakage 1.73 mgd (or about 1200 gpm)Daily average pumpage @ 13 mgdLoss = 13.3 %
  42. 42. State Water Loss Standards - 2001 20% 10%15% 15% 15% 15% 20% 15% 20% 15%10% 15% 15% 10% 15% 15% 15% 7.5% 20% 15% 10% 10%
  43. 43. Leak Locations (water drops) in 180 miles of main
  44. 44. Downtown area
  45. 45. Estimating Leak AmountsHole Diameter GPM Loss GPD Loss 1/2" 34.9 50,256.0 1/4" 8.85 12,744.0 1/8" 2.25 3,240.0 1/16" 0.5666 815.9 1/32" 0.1333 192.0 ** Pressure at 50 psi
  46. 46. Pressure’s affect on leak amountsMathematical relationship…Double the pressure…(50psi x 2 = 100psi)The leak amount (volume) isSQUARED!(10 gpm x 10 = 100 gpm)
  47. 47. When things went wrong…. A few Problems …Once leak was pinpointed, dug as soonas possible•When leak location was off, leak crewreturned to verify location.•Generally reason for miss was wrongdistance, pipe material, diameter,abandoned service…
  48. 48. Typical Neighborhood ….
  49. 49. Main line break near a corp.
  50. 50. Some valve boxes cleanedto gain access to the valvefor listening…
  51. 51. Documentation GPS location of leaks for import into GIS Field DocumentationDiagram of Location
  52. 52. Leak tracking in survey area…
  53. 53. Phase IIWhat was found ….• 69 leaks in 150 miles of pipe (estimated total .26352 mgd or about 183 gpm)• 6 main breaks (average 17.5 gpm each)• 15 service line leaks (average 2 gpm each)• 44 hydrant leaks (1 gpm each)• 4 valve leaks (1 gpm each)
  54. 54. Phase IIThe majority of these leaks did not surfacebecause the local geology of Joliet islimestone.Annualized estimated water losses $139,468.00 (wholesale costs of $1.45/1000 gals)Payoff for cost of survey: 51 days
  55. 55. Phase I & II totals$ 1,057,822 estimated annual wholesale costs (loss)1.998 mgd lossAverage pumpage 13 mgd15.3% estimated loss
  56. 56. State Water Loss Standards - 2001 20% 10%15% 15% 15% 15% 20% 15% 20% 15%10% 15% 15% 10% 15% 15% 15% 7.5% 20% 15% 10% 10%
  57. 57. Lessons Learned from the Leak program • Fire Hydrant issues… • Potential Customer Meter issues… • Customer Lateral issues • GIS Mapping Updates • Not all leaks surface! • Prioritize CIP programs
  58. 58. Standard Water Balance Format Water Billed Water Exported Exported Billed Revenue Authorized Billed Metered Consumption Own Authorized Water ConsumptionSources Consumption Total Total Billed Unmetered Consumption System System Input Input Unbilled Unbilled Metered Consumption Authorized (allow Consumption Unbilled Unmetered Consumption ( allow Water for Supplied for Apparent Unauthorized Consumption known known Losses Non- errors) errors ) Revenue Customer Metering & Data Inaccuracies Water Water Water Leakage on MainsImported Losses Real Leakage on Service Lines Losses (before the meter) Leakage & Overflows at Storage
  59. 59. Future goals• Increased water loss control• Introduce the best leak detection available• Continue process of identifying high percentage leak areas for system betterment• Preparing and implementing a reporting system in accordance with proposed AWWA guidelines (per M-36)
  60. 60. AWWA Policy Statement (M-36) Conduct AuditsEvaluate overall effectiveness of: Metering Billing and accounting Water loss control (leaks)** Audits provide basis of assessing what needs to be improved
  61. 61. THANK YOU!!A special thank you to the following people/entities who provided information:AWWA Water Loss Control CommitteeJohn Van Arsdel/Dan Hood – M.E. Simpson Co., Inc.

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