Context:the bigger picture

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  • No kidding….Lots of discussion about human activity affecting our atmosphere…what about our other biomes? What about our water cycle? What are the implications…with or without climate change.
  • It is a big lake. Lots of it - Why conserve? We have rights to it (literally a Supreme court decree). Is our current rate of a $1.33 for a thousand gallons…Practically the cheapest on planet…the value of water? The value of water is easily forgotten when you live in the Great Lakes watershed. We have invested tremendous capital – financial, political and social – to develop our water infrastructure. It was an investment with many dividends. However, there are costs, and there are needs, and there must be a vision at least as equal as history. Devotion to this resource today is more critical than at any other time, as populations grow, demands increase, and the values of the watershed are extended beyond drinking water and towards ecological, political, economic, and a recognition of sustainable practices. But how do we value this water?? What is the value of access to this immense resource? 3 rd world: Womens Work - 4 hrs per day, >25% of daily calories, major contributor to reduced education 1/6 people do not have access to safe water (~1 billion people) Woman’s Work – Every 15 seconds a child under five dies from lack of safe water 90% of wastewater in developing countries is discharged without treatment. 2/5 people do not have access to a toilet
  • Holing out of branch tunnel (17’ into 32’). Tunnel is unlined, Smooth face from TBM
  • This is a tunnel boring machine used on one of the contracts. The slide gives a good idea of the size of these TBMs.
  • Finished tunnel with concrete lining to reduce infiltration/exfiltration.
  • Delhi: very low tariff, intermittent supply, huge slums, bloated workforce The poor depend on daily job, beyond the inconvenience of fetching water, loss of income for the family
  • No kidding….Lots of discussion about human activity affecting our atmosphere…what about our other biomes? What about our water cycle? What are the implications…with or without climate change.
  • This is the epicenter of managing Water in Chicago. Interface of River and Lake. Love this picture. Symbolic. Navy Pier – Represents thriving urbanism JWPP – represents pumpage/ still the standard in water purification design Locks – USCOE, Holding back the Lake, River Reversal – one of greatest engineering feats sleuce – MWRD/IDNR Diversion accounting, groundbreaking policy. All great success – but what are the implications?? Are we done with managing our water now? Are we at the pinnacle? If we are at the top, what are we on top of? Did we perhaps climb the wrong mountain… It is a big lake. Lots of it - Why conserve? We have rights to it (literally a Supreme court decree). Is our current rate of a $1.33 for a thousand gallons…Practically the cheapest on planet…the value of water? The value of water is easily forgotten when you live in the Great Lakes watershed. We have invested tremendous capital – financial, political and social – to develop our water infrastructure. It was an investment with many dividends. However, there are costs, and there are needs, and there must be a vision at least as equal as history. Devotion to this resource today is more critical than at any other time, as populations grow, demands increase, and the values of the watershed are extended beyond drinking water and towards ecological, political, economic, and a recognition of sustainable practices. But how do we value this water?? What is the value of access to this immense resource? 3 rd world: Womens Work - 4 hrs per day, >25% of daily calories, major contributor to reduced education 1/6 people do not have access to safe water (~1 billion people) Woman’s Work – Every 15 seconds a child under five dies from lack of safe water 90% of wastewater in developing countries is discharged without treatment. 2/5 people do not have access to a toilet
  • Significance of mouth of river.
  • At the same time, we were building our first public water supply system… near shore intakes – no treatment (not until 1930’s). Pump Station – No treatment! Private side had rights about 10 years earlier Note the elevated storage.
  • Well, prior to treatment of any sort, we designed our sewers to discharge to the river. The river fed the Lake. The Lake was our drinking source. After repeated attempts to relocate the intakes, it was decided to reverse the river. Thus taking much of chicago drainage out of the Lake watershed. Population growth and industry put strain on public drinking water. By-products were sent to the river. The river then deposited into Lake Michigan, the city’s drinking water supply.
  • 1900 So, break the dive, connect with DesPlains. Develop a flush channel to the north. Lock it up and protect the water supply. 4 controlling structures.
  • Three systems Additional investment MWRD
  • Summary 1860 – combined sewer system 1900 – reverse the river 1930s – interceptors and reclamation 1970 – deep tunnel Why did we make this investment?
  • The vision of the Drainage District to protect the water supply is what allowed our massive infrastructure and investments to serve this population. ~5 Million people From our treatment plants, water is then conveyed by gravity to our 12 pumping stations through a tunnel system where it is then pumped into our distribution system. We have 8 electric stations and 4 steam stations. Our Roseland station was recently converted from steam to electric and our remaining steam stations are slated for conversion in the near future. Due to the massive volume of water we supply, we do not use elevated storage. We supply our peak demand and maintain pressure by increasing pumping rates with demand. We have over 600 miles of transmission mains ranging in size from 16-inch to 78-inch designed to deliver adequate pressure during our peak hour demand. Distribution system sized to supply peak hour
  • What mountain are we on? Sharing Resources…today’s water manager needs to consider far more than simply potable water for people. Resources for people. Same is true for the old road engineer…multi-modal rights of way (bike, walk, truck, car, train, skateboard, scooter), information corridors, pedestrian pathways, attracting people, attracting wildlife, soil for trees, habitat for birds and bees. Quality of life for many species. We no longer can think it’s ours to extract. Why not? Because it is all interconnected.
  • Extract – Use – Dispose So here we are today with almost 10,000 miles of pipes and tunnels, highly centralized with strong command and control and, delivering great performance. But are we on the right mountain? Are we on the eve of change?
  • Rain blocker effectively extends the capacity of the sewers by utilizing street ponding. The BMPs are complimentary to our infrastructure. Here is how the existing system works, and what we are trying to protect.
  • Holing out of branch tunnel (17’ into 32’). Tunnel is unlined, Smooth face from TBM
  • That was the history. Now I will move to today. Potable Water – Call DWM, no one does more better, Reclamation – Call MWRD, no one does more better Storm water – who are you going to call? No clear leadership. Lack of leadership is a problem – One man – Sid, working storm water planning, permits, design review, easements … it is not enough. i.e. Philadelphia, half our size, has a full time team of seven people working on their stormwater planning….planning, not design, not permits, but planning.
  • Have been setting the stage.
  • Describe axis We manage most of the storms in terms of numbers of storms Why moving backwards: LOS: NOT design storms, but a measure of WIB and WOS. Reasons back slide: CBO, loss of capacity (lack of cleaning), Increased impervious area: development, Aging: integrity failure Perceptions: Move to the right
  • Do we believe in Climate change? Enough to plan for it? Enough to invest?
  • Investment planning. Need a roadmap. Need coordinated planning. Can not tackle this on our own…we do not have the resources, tools or even the proper knowledge. Need tools to compensate.
  • Privilege – tremendous public servants. Made bold choices. We are at a time that we need to make similar bold plans. What mountain do we want to be on in 2120. What kind of infrastructure should the next generation of public officers be standing on. Project Mix – multidiscipline teams.
  • Context:the bigger picture

    1. 1. Context: the bigger picture Peter Mulvaney
    2. 2. <ul><li>“ The evidence that humans are changing the water cycle of the United States is increasingly compelling.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(National Assessment Water Report, 2000) </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Perceptions <ul><li>More deaths in the world due to lack of clean water than war. </li></ul>
    4. 5. <ul><li>Every 15 seconds a child under five dies from lack of safe water </li></ul>
    5. 6. Chicago: 17’ BRANCH TUNNEL MEETS 27’ MAIN TUNNEL Courtsy of MWRDGC <ul><li>2/5 people do not have access to a toilet </li></ul>
    6. 7. <ul><li>90% of wastewater in developing countries is discharged into rivers and streams without any treatment. </li></ul>
    7. 8. CHICAGO: 27’ DIA. TUNNEL BORING MACHINE Courtesy of MWRDGC
    8. 9. lifestraw <ul><li>1/6 people do not have access to safe water </li></ul>
    9. 10. Chicago: Courtesy of MWRDGC
    10. 12. <ul><li>Woman’s Work – most significant reason for lack of women education in many 3rd world countries </li></ul>
    11. 13. Chicago: Thornton Reservoir (2004)
    12. 15. Short Story 1 Chicago History
    13. 17. Chicago River Landscape Courtesy of Chicago Historical Society
    14. 18. Rapidly Growing City Courtesy of Chicago Historical Society
    15. 19. First Municipal Water Supply System 1853
    16. 20. Combined Sewers 1857
    17. 21. Need a Solution Inherent Conflict…
    18. 24. <ul><li>Phase I – Tunnel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>109.4 miles, 30’d, ~210 ft deep </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Completed 2006 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Phase II – Reservoirs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ORD – 1996, 350MG </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>McCook – 2014, 2024 10BG </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thornton – 2003, 3.1BG, 2014, 7.9BG </li></ul></ul>TARP
    19. 26. City of Chicago Water Supply Area Serves over 5.4 million people (44% of people in Illinois) <ul><li>12 Pumping Stations </li></ul><ul><li>Draw Water From Tunnels </li></ul><ul><li>8 Electric </li></ul><ul><li>4 Steam </li></ul><ul><li>No Elevated Storage in System </li></ul><ul><li>(Pump “On Demand”) </li></ul><ul><li>Over 600 Miles of Transmission Mains Ranging From 16-inch to 78-inch </li></ul>
    20. 27. Reflect: history/future, divisions/fragmentations, education, etc
    21. 28. Short Story 2 Infrastructure
    22. 29. From Lake to Intake Cribs to Tunnel and Purification Plants to Tunnel to Pump Stations to Pipe Network then Use and Collection to Interceptors -(and/or Tunnels) to Reclamation and River discharge to downstream value (but not to Lake) Water Infrastructure Path
    23. 30. Chicago Sewer: Wet Weather Operation
    24. 32. 17’ BRANCH TUNNEL MEETS 27’ MAIN TUNNEL Courtesy of MWRDGC
    25. 33. Thornton Reservoir (2004)
    26. 34. Short Story 3 Managing Stormwater
    27. 35. Distributed vs Discrete Responsibilities Who are you going to call? STORM POTABLE RECLAMATION Everyone has a role in managing stormwater
    28. 37. Ability to influence project outcome concept planning design construction Cost to influence project outcome
    29. 38. Stormwater Management Strategies
    30. 40. 2D Release Rates
    31. 41. Example CSO Data Assuming TARP unavailable Outfall Street Pipe Size Invert Control Elevation Level Monitor 2yr CSO Volume_MG Smallest Storm for CSO 154 Normal Ave. 16 X 12.8 -14.28 -10.85 -1.8 MWRD 23.45 6-month 155 Wallace St. 6 -6.98 0.5 -1.8 NO 0.01 2-year 160 Senour Ave. 3 -0.98 1.5 -2.0 NO 0.34 2-month 163 Throop St. 3 -2.28 0 -2.1 NO 0.00 2-year 165 Loomis St. 3 -1.88 0.9 -2.2 NO 0.79 2-month 166 Laflin St. 15 X 12 -11.78 -9.03 -2.3 MWRD 50.52 2-month 167 Ashland Ave. 5.5 -6.38 0.29 -2.3 NO 0.83 2-month 168 Paulina St. 12 X 12 -3.48 -2.6 -2.3 MWRD 26.96 2-month
    32. 42. frequency intensity Current Level of Service (LOS): We provide a level of service for most storms. However, we do allow a number of WOS and WIB. Current LOS
    33. 43. frequency intensity Climate Change: Climate change is going to shift the intensity of storms to the right.
    34. 44. Where should the bar be? frequency intensity Innovation INVESTMENT: Indicates the level of innovation (knowledge, ordinances, GI, etc.) needed to reverse aging infrastructure, manage changes in storm intensity and maintain the same level of service.
    35. 45. doing it differently
    36. 47. STOP

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