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Final project

  2. 2. 2 NORTH MAHRASHTRA UNIVARCITY, JALGAON. This is certify that SACHIN P CHAUDHARI, NEHA P KOTKAR, DIPAK B SHELKE, PRANITA UWAYKODE has carried out the investigation & satisfactorily delivered a Seminar on topic GLOBAL WARMING This is a record of his own work carried out under my supervision & guidance during the academic year 2009-2010 in the partial fulfillment of BACHOLER OF BUISNESS MANAGMENT As per requirement of NORTH MAHRASHTRA UNIVARCITY PROJECT GUIDE HEAD OF DEPARTMENT Mr.Chetan Kulkarni Dr.SEEMA JOSHI 2
  4. 4. 4CHAPTER NO.1. INTRODUCTIONGlobal warming is the increase in the average temperature of the Earthsnear-surface air and the oceans since the mid-twentieth century and itsprojected continuation. Global surface temperature increased 0.74 ±0.18 °C (1.33 ± 0.32 °F) during the 100 years ending in 2005. TheIntergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concludes thatanthropogenic (human-sourced) greenhouse gases are responsible formost of the observed temperature increase since the middle of thetwentieth century, and natural phenomena such as solar variation andvolcanoes probably had a small warming effect from pre-industrial timesto 1950 and a small cooling effect from 1950 onward. These basicconclusions have been endorsed by more than 40 scientific societiesand academies of science, including all of the national academies ofscience of the major industrialized countries.Climate modelprojections summarized inthe latest IPCC reportindicate that global surfacetemperature will probably rise a further 1.1 to 6.4 °C (2.0 to 11.5 °F) 4
  5. 5. 5during the twenty-first century. The uncertainty in this estimate arisesfrom the use of models with differing climate sensitivity, and the use ofdiffering estimates of future greenhouse gas emissions. Some otheruncertainties include how warming and related changes will vary fromregion to region around the globe. Although most studies focus on theperiod up to 2100, warming is expected to continue beyond 2100, even ifemissions have stopped, because of the large heat capacity of theoceans and the lifespan of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.• Pictured left: 1999-2008 Mean temperatures: This figure shows thedifference in instrumentally determined surface temperatures betweenthe period January 1999 through December 2008 and "normal"temperatures at the same locations, defined to be the average over theinterval January 1940 to December 1980. The average increase on thisgraph is 0.48 °C, and the widespread temperature increases areconsidered to be an aspect of global warming.The ice of the Polar Regions furnishes clues to the makeup of Earth‟sancient atmosphere. Ice cores that scientists have bored from the icesheets of Greenland and Antarctica provide natural records of bothtemperature and atmospheric greenhouse gases going back hundredsof thousands of years. Layers in these ice cores created by seasonalsnowfall patterns allow scientists to determine the age of the ice in eachcore. By measuring tiny air bubbles trapped in the ice and properties ofthe ice itself, scientists can estimate the temperature and amount ofgreenhouse gases in Earth‟s past atmosphere at the time each layerformed. Based on this data, scientists know that greenhouse gases havenow risen to levels higher than at any time in the last 650,000 years.Greenhouse gases are rising, and temperatures are following. Beforethe late 1800s, the average surface temperature of Earth was almost15°C (59°F). Over the past 100 years, the average surface temperaturehas risen by about 0.7 Celsius degrees (1.3 Fahrenheit degrees), withmost of the increase occurring since the 1970s. Scientists have linkedeven this amount of warming to numerous changes taking place aroundthe world, including melting mountain glaciers and polar ice, rising sealevel, more intense and longer droughts, more intense storms, morefrequent heat waves, and changes in the life cycles of many plants and 5
  6. 6. 6animals. Warming has been most dramatic in the Arctic, wheretemperatures have raised almost twice as much as the global average. 6
  7. 7. 7CHAPTER NO.2. HISTORYFirst Person who ClaimSyante Arrhenius (1859_1927) was a Swedish scientist that was firstlyclaims that fossil fuel consumption is the main reason for the globalwarming in not only enhances the global warming but also leavespoisonous particles in the air. He provided the world with the clearevidence for the relationship in carbon dioxide and atmosphere wit hitheories and experiments. He proposed that the calculated averagetemperature of the earth is 15 Centi garde but the process that involvesvaporization and infra red absorption has increase it this phenomena isknown as green house effect.Wrong assumptionAfter this the topic about global warming is forgotten for a long period oftime and at that time that natural forces are more strong than humaninfluences like solar activity and ocean circulation. On the same timethey also thought that the oceans were such great ocean sink that wouldautomatically minimize our pollution. And water vapor is considered tobe most influential greenhouse gas.1940 to 1970 ResearchCharles keeling is the person who used the most modern technologiesavailable to produce concentration curves for atmospheric carbondioxide. These are those curves which are one of the major reasons ofglobal warming. The curve showed a downward trend of global annualtemperature from 1940 to 1970.Impact of Global WarmingAs we see that the climate are change almost everywhere. The hottestyears which are recorded on a record book took place in the 1980 orafter so on. Lakes and rivers are thawing earlier each spring. Animal and 7
  8. 8. 8plants are moving to higher elevations. Arctic is heating up twice as fastas any place else in the world and also polar bears are going hungry.Pacific lands are in danger that their some of their parts are swallowedby the sea. If the people not stop to reduce the greenhouse gasesemission pumped up in the atmospherePrediction of Experts about Global warmingThey predicted that if all this happen continuously so the planetsaverage temperature could raise anywhere .Sea level is also rise due tothis. Heat rays are more intense and attacking fires occurs often.Disease can be spread wide with the carrier mosquitoes. Globalwarming can bring extra intense and extreme weather conditions.Leading mountain ranges will melt fast. And living world would be livingat the risk. 8
  9. 9. 9CHAPTER NO.3. DEFINITION CLIMATE CHANGEClimate change is any substantial change in Earth‟s climate that lasts foran extended period of time. Global warming refers to climate changethat causes an increase in the average temperature of the loweratmosphere. Global warming can have many different causes, but it ismost commonly associated with human interference, specifically therelease of excessive amounts of greenhouse gases. (EPA, 2006)Greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4),water vapor, and fluorinated gases, act like a greenhouse around theearth. This means that they let the heat from the Sun into theatmosphere, but do not allow the heat to escape back into space. Themore greenhouse gases there are, the larger the percentage of heat thatis trapped inside the earth‟s atmosphere. The earth could not exist in itspresent state (that is, with life) without the presence of some naturallyoccurring greenhouse gases, such as CO2, CH4, and water vapor.Without any greenhouse gases no heat would be trapped in atmosphere,so the earth would be extremely cold. (NASA, 2002) Naturally occurring greenhouse gases (not fluorinated gases) are goodin naturally occurring amounts; it‟s when people start contributingexcessive amounts of them that greenhouse gases become a problem.With excessive greenhouse gas buildup, the earth‟s atmosphere warmsto unnatural temperatures which causes, among other things, sea level torise. Global warming also causes sea surface temperatures to raise,precipitation patterns to change, etc... (NASA, 2002)Earth has seen a violent past and has seen life forms disappearing fromits surface, but that was due to natural forces. But now, humans arecreating a catastrophe known as global warming that will wipe out all thelife forms in future if it is not stopped now. Global warming definition canbe understood by following the average temperature of earth‟s surface inthe last hundred years. An average temperature has risen dramaticallysince the industrial revolution clearly showing that global warming is not anatural phenomenon but is a man made disaster. It is the responsibility ofevery one on earth to understand global warming definition and act toprevent its onslaught. 9
  10. 10. 10CHAPTER NO.4. GLOBAL WARMING IN THE FUTUREThe globally averaged surface temperature of the Earth has increasedduring the past century by about 0.7°C. Most of the increase can beattributed to the greenhouse effect, the increase in the atmosphericconcentration of carbon dioxide that is emitted when fossil fuels areburned to produce energy. The book begins with the important distinctionbetween weather and climate, followed by data showing how carbondioxide has increased and the incontrovertible evidence that it is causedby burning fossil fuels (i.e., coal, oil, and natural gas). I also address theinevitable skepticism that global warming arouses and offer a number ofresponses to the global warming skeptics. After dealing with the skeptics,I analyze both the current and future effects of global warming. Thesefuture effects are based on scenarios or “storylines” put forth by theInternational Institute for Applied Systems Analysis. In closing, I addressthe controversial (and grim) suggestion that we have already passed the“tipping point,” which is the time after which, regardless of our futureactions, global warming will cause considerable hardship on humansociety. I intend this book to be approachable for all concerned citizens,but especially students of the sciences and engineering who will soon bein a position to make a difference in the areas of energy and theenvironment. I have tried to frame the debate in terms of what theengineering community must do to help combat global warming. Wehave no choice but to think in terms of global environmental constraintsas we design new power plants, factories, automobiles, buildings, andhomes. The best thing for scientists to do is to present what we know,clearly separating what is known from what is suspected, in a non-apocalyptic manner. If matters are clearly and passionately presented tothe public, we must be prepared to accept the will of the people. Thispresents the scientific community with an enormous responsibility,perhaps unlike any we have had in the past. 1. GREEN HOUSE EFFECT 2. CARBONE DIOXIDE 3. OZEN GAS. 10
  11. 11. 11 GREEN HOUSE EFFECT The greenhouse effect is a naturally occurring process that aids inheating the Earths surface and atmosphere. It results from the fact thatcertain atmospheric gases, such as carbon dioxide, water vapor, andmethane, are able to change the energy balance of the planet byabsorbing longwave radiation emitted from the Earths surface. Withoutthe greenhouse effect life on this planet would probably not exist as theaverage temperature of the Earth would be a chilly -18° Celsius, ratherthan the present 15° Celsius. As energy from the Sun passes through the atmosphere a numberof things take place (see Figure 7h-1). A portion of the energy (26%globally) is reflected or scattered back to space by clouds and otheratmospheric particles. About 19% of the energy available is absorbed byclouds, gases (like ozone), and particles in the atmosphere. Of theremaining 55% of the solar energy passing through the Earthsatmosphere, 4% is reflected from the surface back to space. Onaverage, about 51% of the Suns radiation reaches the surface. Thisenergy is then used in a number of processes, including the heating ofthe ground surface; the melting of ice and snow and the evaporation ofwater; and plant photosynthesis. 11
  12. 12. 12 CARBONE DIOXIDE Carbon dioxide (CO2) is emitted in a number of ways. It is emittednaturally through the carbon cycle and through human activities like theburning of fossil fuels.Natural sources of CO2 occur within the carbon cycle where billions oftons of atmospheric CO2 are removed from the atmosphere by oceansand growing plants, also known as „sinks,‟ and are emitted back into theatmosphere annually through natural processes also known as„sources.‟ When in balance, the total carbon dioxide emissions andremovals from the entire carbon cycle are roughly equal. Since the Industrial Revolution in the 1700‟s, human activities,such as the burning of oil, coal and gas, and deforestation, haveincreased CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere. In 2005, globalatmospheric concentrations of CO2 were 35% higher than they werebefore the Industrial Revolution. Humans are significantly increasing the amount of carbon dioxidereleased to the atmosphere through the burning of fossil fuels (such ascoal, oil, and natural gas), solid wastes, and wood and wood products toheat buildings, drive vehicles, and generate electricity. At the same time,the number of trees available to absorb carbon dioxide throughphotosynthesis has been greatly reduced by deforestation, thewidespread cutting of trees for lumber or to clear land for agriculture. 12
  13. 13. 13 OZEN GASOzone is an unstable form (activated, allotrope) of oxygen that iscontained the air, in fact is a gas that is generated in natural form in theatmosphere, product of diverse climatic and environmental conditions,and has a scent similar to the one of the "wet earth".The ozone hole, however, is not the mechanism of global warming.Ultraviolet radiation represents less than one percent of the energy fromthe sun—not enough to be the cause of the excess heat from humanactivities. Global warming is caused primarily from putting too muchcarbon into the atmosphere when coal, gas, and oil are burned togenerate electricity or to run our cars. These gases spread around theplanet like a blanket, capturing the solar heat that would otherwise beradiated out into space. (For more detail on the basic mechanism ofglobal warming, see carbon dioxide FAQ.)Both of these environmental problems do, however, have a commoncause—human activities that release gases into and alter theatmosphere. Ozone depletion occurs when chlorofluorocarbons(CFCs)—formerly found in aerosol spray cans and refrigerants—arereleased into the atmosphere. These gases, through several chemicalreactions, cause the ozone molecules to break down, reducing ozonesultraviolet (UV) radiation-absorbing capacity.Read more: 13
  14. 14. 14CHAPTER NO.5. TYPES OF GLOBAL WARMING CAUSESCarbon DioxideHumans create an excessive amount of greenhouse gases, includingcarbon dioxide, or CO2. Every time something burns, carbon dioxide isreleased into the atmosphere. Fossil fuels, which are used to fuel carsand airplanes, are the primary source of carbon dioxide emissions.Plants and trees store carbon dioxide, and when trees are destroyed tobuild houses and buildings, carbon dioxide is released back into theatmosphere, increasing global warming. Plant life in the oceans storecarbon dioxide, but because of the increased temperatures, underwaterplants are dying off as well, reports A Cooler in "WhatCauses Global Warming? Learn The Major Human Causes Of ClimateChange."MethaneMethane gas is much more potent than carbon dioxide, and this gas iscreated when bacteria break down organic matter that is free of oxygen,according to "National Geographic" in "Causes of Global Warming." Theprocess occurs during human and animal digestive processes and isreleased into the air. Increased farming leads to increased methane gaslevels. Rice paddies, landfills and gas leaks are also primary sources ofmethane gas pollution. Calthrates are frozen pieces of ice that lie in theocean, and when temperatures rise, they melt and release methane intothe water, reports "National Geographic."Nitrogen OxideThe growing need to produce more food has led to increased use ofmodern technology, and to drastically speed growth and production oftheir crops, farmers typically use nitrogen fertilizers. Nitrogen oxides trapmore than 300 times the amount of heat than carbon dioxide does in aprocess that happens every time soil is fertilized. In fact, studies haveproven that modern farming practices have affected global warmingmore than modern transportation, reports A Cooler 14
  15. 15. 15Other CausesOther causes of global warming that are less significant include CFCsHCFCs (chlorofluorocarbons and hydrochlorofluorocarbons), organiccompounds caused by refrigeration and aerosols, which contribute to thehole in the ozone layer. While the concentrations of these gases aresmaller, they are much more toxic to the environment than carbondioxide, reports A Cooler Electrical pollution Burning Fossil fuels Chemicals Light consumption Watching TV 15
  16. 16. 16CHAPTER NO.6. OBJECTIVE OF GLOBLE WARMINGCarbon dioxide (CO2) - a natural gas, essential for all life on earth. Itsabsorbed by plants as they grow, and emitted by all life forms when theydie (or are burnt as fuel). Other than water vapor, its the most commongreenhouse gas.Greenhouse gases (GHG) - including carbon gases like CO2 andmethane, they are vital in the Earths atmosphere in certain quantitiesbecause they help trap and retain some of the suns heat (thegreenhouse effect). This makes life as we know it possible on Earth -without it the world would be mostly frozen. But too much is dangeroustoo...Carbon cycle - the natural processes that emit and absorb carbon gasesacross the globe, keeping overall levels stable, and our climate suitablefor an abundance of life Human activity - over the past 150 years, theworlds industrialized nations have unwittingly upset the delicate balanceof the carbon cycle by burning huge amounts of fossil fuels(concentrated carbon, like coal, oil, gas), as well as breeding vastnumbers of methane-producing livestock, and cutting down the foreststhat naturally absorb CO2 from the air.The extra carbon in the atmosphere has been raising globaltemperatures.Global warming - doesnt mean well all have warmer weather in future.As the planet heats, climate patterns change, with more extreme andunpredicted weather across the world - some places will be hotter, somecolder. Some wetter, others drier.We know the planet has warmed by an average of nearly 1ºC in the pastcentury. Might not sound much, but small rises can create big problemsfor people and wildlife.2º is too much - a rise of just 2ºC means:severe storms and floods in some countries, droughts in many moreseas become more acidic, coral and krill die, food chains are destroyedno Arctic ice in summer - not just bad news for polar bears, it also meansglobal climate warms faster. Tipping points and feedback effects - as the 16
  17. 17. 17earth warms, the impacts can fuel each other and accelerate, causingrunaway, irreversible changes.For instance, polar ice reflects sunlight away from the Earth. When itmelts (and Arctic sea ice is already predicted to be mostly gone insummer by 2020), more heat will be absorbed. And thawing permafrostreleases trapped methane, just as drying forests and warming oceansemit their stores of CO2, all further increasing the greenhouse effect.Beyond 2º - scientists predict possible rises of up to 6º this century if wedont drastically cut greenhouse gas emissions.We barely want to think about what this would mean. Rainforests dying.The melting of the ancient ice sheets of Greenland and Antarctica.Dramatic sea level rises. And people and animals suffering along theway. Thats why we must act now. 17
  18. 18. 18CHAPTER NO.7. EFFECTS OF GLOBAL WARMINGGlobal warming is affecting all parts of the earth in different manners.Global warming makes the sea rise and when due to global warming searise it covers many low land island and this is one of the main problemsfor all creatures of islands like plants animal and people in island. Thewater on islands covers the plants and in result it damage or die themost of them. When the plant die so animal have no source of food alsowith their habitat so when they don‟t get food so they also start diebecause of shortage of food. When plants and animal dies so peoplealso lose two major sources of food. As a result of all this they also haveto leave their area where they live for a long time and this is called breakin a food chain or break food reaction, one thing happen after this otherthing happens and its lead to another and so on.Ocean on the other hand is also gets damaged by global warmingproblems as well. Most of the things which are happening in the ocean isalso due to global warming.The main thing happening in the warm waters of oceans, which is themajor cause of global warming is the change of directions of water.Algae is like a producer which we can see floating in the top of the waterwhich make food for the other creature which are inside the ocean andconsumer of algae is small fish, crab, some whales and other animals.Due to global warming algae are fewer and number of animal in a sea isgreater so its create a problem. 18
  19. 19. 19CHAPTER NO.8. WHAT CAUSES GLOBAL WARMING?Scientists have spent decades figuring out what is causing globalwarming. They‟ve looked at the natural cycles and events that areknown to influence climate. But the amount and pattern of warmingthat‟s been measured can‟t be explained by these factors alone. Theonly way to explain the pattern is to include the effect of greenhousegases (GHGs) emitted by humans.To bring all this information together, the United Nations formed a groupof scientists called the International Panel on Climate Change, or IPCC.The IPCC meets every few years to review the latest scientific findingsand write a report summarizing all that is known about global warming.Each report represents a consensus, or agreement, among hundreds ofleading scientists.One of the first things scientists learned is that there are severalgreenhouse gases responsible for warming, and humans emit them in avariety of ways. Most come from the combustion of fossil fuels in cars,factories and electricity production. The gas responsible for the mostwarming is carbon dioxide, also called CO2. Other contributors includemethane released from landfills and agriculture (especially from thedigestive systems of grazing animals), nitrous oxide from fertilizers,gases used for refrigeration and industrial processes, and the loss offorests that would otherwise store CO2.Different greenhouse gases have very different heat-trapping abilities.Some of them can even trap more heat than CO2. A molecule ofmethane produces more than 20 times the warming of a molecule ofCO2. Nitrous oxide is 300 times more powerful than CO2. Other gases,such as chlorofluorocarbons (which have been banned in much of theworld because they also degrade the ozone layer), have heat-trappingpotential thousands of times greater than CO2. But because theirconcentrations are much lower than CO2, none of these gases adds asmuch warmth to the atmosphere as CO2 does.In order to understand the effects of all the gases together, scientiststend to talk about all greenhouse gases in terms of the equivalentamount of CO2. Since 1990, yearly emissions have gone up by about 6billion metric tons of “carbon dioxide equivalent” worldwide, more than a20% increase. 19
  20. 20. 20 CONCLUSION RecommendationsThe world is temporarily affected by hot and cold climate periods. Theindustrial revolution which started in 1875 changed weather conditions.The world has a tendency to warm up.The industrialization and the increasing population density are forcinggovernments to consume more fossil fuels and are affecting the artificialgreenhouse gases fluctuation.Even if the usage of fossil fuels could be prohibited, greenhouse gasesextant in the atmosphere are going to remain for hundred years.The emission of greenhouse gases cant be Signature ofGuide. 20