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  1. 1. Benjamin Franklin (B. Jan. 17, 1706 – D. April 17, 1790) Benjamin Franklin was born in Boston, Massachusetts. He was the fifteenth child of Josiah Franklin, a candle maker and a skilful mechanic, and AbiahFolger (Josiah’s second wife). He received his primary education from Boston Latin School. At the age of ten he left school because of the poor financial conditions of his family and continued his education through voracious reading. When he was twelve was apprenticed to his older brother James, a printer who taught him the printing trade. Franklin always wanted to be independent and hated being ordered about so he ran away to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania when he was seventeen. There he established his own printing office in partnership with Hugh Meredith in 1728. At the age of eighty-four, he died and was buried at Christ Church Burial Ground in Philadelphia. Franklin was a true philosopher who was interested in all facets of the natural world. He learned through his own experimentation and his conversation with those who shared his interests. Life as a Scientist: Benjamin Franklin was an extraordinary scientist and inventor. His creations that received a lot of recognition include: lightning rod, glass armonica (a glass instrument, not to be confused with the metal harmonica), Franklin stove, bifocal glasses and the flexible urinary catheter. He began his inventions on electricity and was the first person to discover the principle of conservation of charge. He also conducted his famous kite experiment, in which he flew a kite with the wire attached to a key during a thunderstorm. From this experiment he further established that laboratory-produced static electricity was similar to a previously unexplained and frightening natural phenomenon. Franklin was among the very few scientists who greatly supported the Christian Huygens’ wave theory of light. This theory was later proved to be true after experiments performed by other scientists in the 18th century. He noted the behaviour of winds and he found out storms do not always travel in the direction of the prevailing wind. This concept gained a great significance in meteorology. Franklin also conducted his experiments on the non-conduction of ice which received a great acceptance by other popular scientists such as Michael Faraday.
  2. 2. Charles-Augustin de Coulomb (14 June 1736 – 23 August 1806) Born in Angoulême, France to a wealthy family, Charles-Augustin de Coulomb was the son of Henri Coulomb, an inspector of the Royal Fields in Montpellier. The family soon moved to Paris, where Coulomb studied mathematics at the famous Collège des Quatre-Nations. A few years later in 1759, he was enrolled at the military school of Mézières. He graduated from Ecole du Génie at Mézières in 1761. Coulomb worked in the West Indies as a military engineer for almost nine years. When he came back to France, he was quite ill. During the French Revolution, Coulomb lived in his estate at Blois, where he mostly carried out scientific research. He was made an inspector of public instruction in 1802. Coulomb died in Paris. He was 70 years old. Contributions and Achievements: Charles-Augustin de Coulomb formulated his law as a consequence of his efforts to study the law of electrical repulsions put forward by English scientist Joseph Priestley. In the process, he devised sensitive apparatus to evaluate the electrical forces related to the Priestley’s law. Coulomb issued out his theories in 1785–89. He also developed the inverse square law of attraction and repulsion of unlike and like magnetic poles. This laid out the foundation for the mathematical theory of magnetic forces formulated by French mathematician Siméon-Denis Poisson. Coulomb extensively worked on friction of machinery, the elasticity of metal and silk fibres and windmills. The coulomb, SI unit of electric charge, was named after him.
  3. 3. Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta (18 February 1745 – 5 March 1827) Volta was raised in a strict Catholic family. He got his early education from a Jesuit school. He was adored by his teachers who thought Volta had all the abilities to become a good Jesuit priest. Volta was very keen about studying electricity which was in its earliest stages at the time. He envisioned that there is a net neutral condition in a body in which all electrical attractions are neutralized. This effect could be transformed by some external source which later changes the relative configuration of the particles. Volta believed that in such an electrically unstable state, the body gets electrically charged. He retired in 1819 to his estate in Camnago; Lombardy, Italy (now called “Camnago Volta”). He diedat the age of 82. Contributions and Achievements With this rather weak concept of an electrically charged body, Volta experimented extensively to study electrical induction. He was successful in creating some devices that were able to store electric charge. Subsequently, he gained fame and received grants to visit other countries. He also saw other famous scientists around this time. Volta accepted a teaching job at the University of Pavia where he stayed for about forty years. Influenced by the efforts of Dc Saussure, Volta developed an interest in atmospheric electricity. He made certain modifications to the electrical instruments made by the Swiss geologist, making them more refined and precise. He came up with methods to measure the so-called “electrical tension”, later named as the volt. Volta modified another instrument called the eudiometer, which measured the volume and composition of gases. He was successful in finding out that ordinary air contains about 21% of oxygen. The modified version of the instrument also helped Lavoisier on his legendary work regarding the composition of water. Volta found out that the inflammable gas which creates bubbles in marshes was methane, which is now used as a fuel. Volta initially rejected the Galvani’s idea of animal electricity. When he carried out the experiment himself, he was amazed that the same effect, momentary electric current, which was discovered by Galvani, can be achieved using metals and not dead frogs. Volta made it clear that electric currents could be generated by appropriately connecting metals or wires. Using zinc and copper wires and saline solutions, Volta successfully constructed the first electric battery, widely considered to be one of the greatest and most important breakthroughs in the history of science and mankind.
  4. 4. Georg Simon Ohm (16 March 1789 – 6 July 1854) Born in 1789 in the university town of Erlangen, Bavaria, his younger Martin Ohm also became a famous mathematician. Georg Ohm studied mathematics and physics at Erlangen University. For economic reasons, he had to do some teaching jobs while studying, which he found quite bothering. Georg Ohm was made a foreign member of the Royal Society in 1842, and a full member of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences and Humanities in 1845.Ohm died, he was 65 years old. Contributions and Achievements: When higher degrees of political instability were observed in the early 1800s were seen in Bavaria as the struggle against Napoleon rose, Ohm chose to leave native Bavaria in 1817 for Cologne, where he attained a Readership at the university. Ohm started passionately working on the conductivity of metals and the behaviour of electrical circuits. So much that he quit teaching in Cologne and got settled in his brother’s house in Berlin. After extensive research, he wrote “Die galvanischeKette, mathematischbearbeitet”, which formulated the relationship between voltages (potential), current and resistance in an electrical circuit: I = EIR After initial criticism, most particularly by Hegel, the noted creator of German Idealism, who rejected the authenticity of the experimental approach of Ohm, the “glory” finally came in 1841 when the Royal Society of London honoured him with the Copley Medal for his extraordinary efforts. Several German scholars, including an adviser to the State on the development of telegraphy, also recognized Ohm’s work a few months later. The pertinence of Ohm’s Law to electrolytes and thermoelectric junctions and metallic conductors, was demonstrated recognized soon enough. The law still remains the most widely used and appreciated of all the rules related to the behaviour of electrical circuits.
  5. 5. Dr. Gregorio Y. Zara (March 8, 1902 - October 15, 1978) Gregorio Zara born in Lipa City, Batangas, is one of the best known scientists from the Philippines. In 1926, Gregorio Zara graduated from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology with a Bachelor of Science degree in Mechanical Engineering. In 1927, he received his Master’s degree in Aeronautical Engineering from the University of Michigan. In 1930, he graduated with a Doctorate of Physics from Sorbonne University. On September 30, 1954 Gregorio Zara's alcohol-fuelled airplane engine was successfully tested and flown at the Ninoy Aquino International Airport. Contributions and Achievements invented the two-way television telephone or videophone (1955) patented as a "photo phone signal separator network discovered the physical law of electrical kinetic resistance called the Zara effect (around 1930) invented an airplane engine that ran on plain alcohol as fuel (1952) improved methods of producing solar energy including creating new designs for a solar water heater (SolarSorber), a sun stove, and a solar battery (1960s) invented a propeller-cutting machine (1952) designed a microscope with a collapsible stage helped design the robot Marex X-10 Presidential Diploma of Merit Distinguished Service Medal (1959) for his pioneering works and achievements in solar energy research, aeronautics and television. Presidential Gold Medal and Diploma of Honor for Science and Research (1966) Cultural Heritage Award for Science Education and Aero Engineering (1966)
  6. 6. AgapitoFlores(September 28, 1897 - 1943) Agapito Flores was born in Guiguinto, Bulacan, Philippines. He worked as an apprentice in a machine shop and later moved to Tondo, Manila where he trained at a vocational school to become an electrician. It has been reported that Agapito Flores received a French patent for a fluorescent bulb and that the General Electric Company bought Flores' patent rights and manufactured and sold his fluorescent bulb (making millions from it). However, all the inventors named above and more predate Agapito Flores' possible work on any fluorescent bulb. According to Dr. Benito Vergara of the Philippine Science Heritage Center, "As far as I could learn, a certain Flores presented the idea of fluorescent light to Manuel Quezon when he became president. At that time, General Electric Co. had already presented the fluorescent light to the public." Contributions and Achievements Many Filipinos acknowledge Agapito Flores as the inventor of the fluorescent lamp, which is the most widely used source of lighting in the world today. The fluorescent lamp reportedly got its name from Flores. Written articles about Flores said he was born in Bantayan Island in Cebu. The fluorescent lamp, however, was not invented in a particular year. It was the product of 79 years of the development of the lighting method that began with the invention of the electric light bulb by Thomas Edison. Among the other inventors who claimed credit for developing the fluorescent lamp were French physicist A. E. Becquerel (1867), Nikola Tesla, Albert Hall (1927), Mark Winsor and Edmund Germer. French inventor Andre Claude was recognized for developing the fluorescent tubular lighting systems. Yet, he was not officially recognized as the inventor of fluorescent lamp. It was reported that the General Electric and Westinghouse obtained Claude's patent rights and developed the fluorescent lamp that we know today. According to Filipino scientists, fluorescent lamp was not named after Flores. The term
  7. 7. fluorescence first cropped up as early as 1852 when English mathematician-physicist George Gabriel Stokes discovered a luminous material called "fluorspar", which he coined with "escence". The National Academy of Science and Technology also dismissed Flores being the inventor of fluorescent lamp as a myth. "No scientific report, no valid statement, no rigorous documents can be used to credit Flores for the discovery of the fluorescent lamp. We have tried to correct this misconception, but the media (for one) and our textbooks (for another) keep using the Flores example," a Filipino scientist wrote in her column at the Philippine Daily Inquirer. The fluorescent lamps were introduced into the U.S. market in 1938. Still, Filipinos recognize Agapito Flores as the inventor of the product that illuminated the world.
  8. 8. Portfolio In Physics Submitted by : Carlo G. Nidoy Submitted to: Mrs: Ruiz