Presentacion Michael Crawford


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Presentación del especialista senior en educación del banco mundial, Michael Crawford, en el marco del seminario "Innovar para crecer: El gran desafío de la década que se incia" organizado por el Consejo Nacional de Innovación para la competitividad.

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Presentacion Michael Crawford

  1. 1. Human Capital for Innovation and Competitiveness in Chile<br />What Next? <br />Michael Crawford <br />The World Bank<br />Santiago, January 22nd, 2010<br />
  2. 2. Figure 1. Average PISA 2006 Math Scores and per Capita GDP, by Country<br />
  3. 3. The Race Between Education and Technology<br />“The authors skillfully demonstrate that for more than a century, and at a steady rate, technological breakthroughs — the mass production system, electricity, computers — have been increasing the demand for ever more educated workers. And, they show, America’s school system met this demand, not with a national policy, but in grassroots fashion, as communities taxed themselves and built schools and colleges.” <br />--The New York Times, October 4,2008<br />
  4. 4. Why Did the US do Well in the 20th Century in the Race between Education and Technology<br />Two percent real productivity growth for 100 years; 7x GDP; large and relatively open market<br />1900-45: High School movement prepared large numbers of individuals to assume quasi-managerial jobs that emerged through industrialization <br />1946-76: When the challenges became more complex (post WWII), the GI Bill provided a second wave of more advanced HC<br />1900-76: Wage differentials decreased because provision did not lag demand<br />1976-present: Supply of high quality HC plateaued in the 1980’s, reigniting large wage differences <br />
  5. 5. Where is Chile in this Race? <br /> A few new sectors (Salmon, Fruit, Wine, Processed Foods) added almost 10B USD to GDP – [4% of output] but while relying mostly on knowledge embodied in capital, not in people. Growth based on “low hanging fruit.” <br />
  6. 6. Chilean Growth Spurt (1985-98)Was Natural Resource Based<br />
  7. 7. Efficiency Should Precede Innovation<br />
  8. 8. Do Returns to Higher Education Reflect Productivity or Rent?<br />Return on a year’s additional education by type of education (%)<br />Source: based on Mizala & Romaguera (2004) for1990-2000; for 2003 and 2006<br />
  9. 9. Is Tertiary Education Compensating for Weaknesses in Basic Education?<br />Overall learning achievement is low (PISA 430)<br />Tertiary education makes up for poor development of cognitive skills at secondary level<br />TE Grads earn high salaries because skills are scarce<br />Decent returns can be earned without risk, firms do not have abundance of skills needed to innovate/expand<br />Risk aversion by entrepreneurs lowers the demand for skills<br />
  10. 10. Reaching Long-term goals depend on mitigation of disconnects in productivity<br />
  11. 11. Three Main Questions<br />What is Chile doing right in HCP?<br />Where can Chile do better? <br />What should the priorities be for the next 5 years?<br />
  12. 12. Things Chile Does Well Now<br />Overall--<br /><ul><li>Has a long-term(15-20 year) perspective for policy
  13. 13. Significant efforts to improve primary and secondary –
  14. 14. Significant investments in human capital (tertiary education, adult education and life-long learning)
  15. 15. Important attempts to create a qualifications framework
  16. 16. Pilot for certification of competencies</li></li></ul><li>Things Chile Does Well Now <br />In Tertiary and Innovation<br />Appropriate goals for tertiary coverage [50% and beyond]<br />Combination of market dynamism with reasonable quality assurance<br />Labor market info for student through Futurolaboral<br />Overcome the institutional resistance to provision of accurate data on tertiary education<br />Vast expansion of student aid with policy levers<br />Accreditation of CFTs/Ips linked to student lending<br />Experiments with results-based financing for universities<br />Incentives for retirement of retirement-age university professors<br />Bold program for adding an international dimension to technicians, master’s, PhD, and post-doctoral training<br />Increases to R&D funding/enhanced role for CORFO<br />
  17. 17. What Can Chile Do Better?<br />Improve PISA and TIMSS scores as an indicator of success for basic and secondary education policy; <br />Vice Minister for Tertiary Education/Research– strengthened ability to lead policy implementation <br />Shorten duration of university degree programs<br />Emphasizes CFT/IPs and create pathways for life long learning<br />Keep the spotlight on accreditation as a true driver of quality within tertiary education. <br />Strengthen the financial rewards to efficient, high quality tertiary institutions<br />Monitor closely delinquency and default rates as students begin to enter repayment to protect the funding base of the CAE;<br />Encourage defacto profit-making by private universities<br />Clarify CONICYT’s mandate to support relevant R&D<br />
  18. 18. Gaps in Knowledge for Policies <br />What is driving job creation? <br />Who is hiring graduates and why: CFTs/Ips/Universities – by sector?<br />Are tertiary graduates adding value?<br />What are the employment and educational profiles of EMTP and ESHC graduates ?<br />Can young people with good ideas start businesses?<br />Will certification of labor competencies improve productivity?<br />What Impacts have policy pilots initiatives had?<br />
  19. 19. Where is the HC Going?<br />Futurolaboral is improving the availability of information, but the sector understanding of where HC is employed is still very partial<br />
  20. 20. Learning from Experiments <br />MECESUP<br />Chile Califica<br />Labor Competencies<br />
  21. 21. Priorities Going Forward<br />Improve basic education as a gateway to all other gains<br />Increasing labor force skills – adult education and certification of labor competencies<br />Document what has worked in Chile Califica and FC<br />Emphasizes the role of CFTs/IPs and pathways to higher degrees<br />Accreditation, student aid, and community college model<br />Stronger Mineduc for tertiary and research policy<br />Integrate MECESUP, BCP and CONICYT policies<br />Revitalize Accreditation <br />Increase Performance based funding and reward efficient universities<br />Take Mission-related research seriously – decrease investigator-driven research<br />