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How to read a million books
Clemens Neudecker
Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin
17 May 2017
How to read a million books?
Clemens Neudecker
Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin
17 May 2017
How to read a million books
newspapers?
Clemens Neudecker
Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin
17 May 2017
How to read* a million newspapers?
(* hint: do try this at home)
Clemens Neudecker
Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin
17 May 2017
https://xkcd.com/1838
Agenda
• Digital Collections
• Data, Tools, Formats
• Europeana Newspapers
• NLP challenges
• Experiments & use cases
About me
• Research Coordinator @ Berlin State Library
• M.A. Philosophy, Computer Science, Political Science
• Mostly curious about
– Optical Character Recognition, Document Analysis
– Natural Language Processing
– Digital Humanities
• More: @cneudecker, cneud.net
Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin
• Established 1661 as the Library of the King of Prussia
• Today largest research library in Germany,
with approx. 11.5m volumes (23m objects)
• Part of the „Stiftung Preußischer Kulturbesitz“,
a unique union of museums, archives, libraries
and research institutes from Berlin
• http://staatsbibliothek-berlin.de/
Digitisation 2.0
Europeana
• http://www.europeana.eu/portal/
• Europe‘s Digital Library
• > 53m objects incl.
art, sound, fashion,...
• API: http://labs.europeana.eu/api
DPLA
• https://dp.la/
• Digital Public
Library of America
• > 16m objects
• API: https://dp.la/info/developers/codex/
Hathi Trust
• https://www.hathitrust.org/
• Public copy of
Google Books
• > 15m volumes
• API: https://www.hathitrust.org/data
DDB
• http://ddb.de/
• Germany‘s federal
Digital Library
• > 9m objects
• API: https://api.deutsche-digitale-bibliothek.de/
Trove
• http://trove.nla.gov.au/
• Digital Library
of Australia
• > 540m objects
• API:
http://help.nla.gov.au/trove/building-with-trove/api
Formats & Standards
• What data is available?
• Typically, a digital object is composed of:
– Scanned Images in TIFF, JP2 or JPEG
– Descriptive metadata in DublinCore
– Structural metadata in METS
– Text content in ALTO or TEI
– Europeana in EDM
– Linked Data in RDF or JSON-LD
Tools (1/3)
• OAI-PMH
– https://pypi.python.org/pypi/Sickle
– https://pypi.python.org/pypi/pyoai
– https://pypi.python.org/pypi/oaiharvest
• METS
– https://pypi.python.org/pypi/metsrw
– https://pypi.python.org/pypi/pymets
Tools (2/3)
• DublinCore
– https://pypi.python.org/pypi/pydc
– https://pypi.python.org/pypi/dcxml
• Europeana
– https://pypi.python.org/pypi/europeana-search
– https://pypi.python.org/pypi/django-europeana
Tools (3/3)
• IIIF
– https://pypi.python.org/pypi/iiif/
– https://pypi.python.org/pypi/Flask-IIIF/
• KB NL
– https://pypi.python.org/pypi/kb
– https://github.com/KBNLresearch/intro-kb-apis
– http://lab.kb.nl/
Europeana Newspapers
• EU-project to make Europe‘s historical
newspapers searchable & accessible
• http://www.europeana-newspapers.eu/
Europeana Newspapers Collection
• 12 million historic newspaper pages text
(> 10.000.000.000 tokens)
• 40 languages, 4 alphabets
• 400 years (1618 – 2016)
• http://www.theeuropeanlibrary.org/tel4/newspapers
OCR / OLR
(U.lag nul «chestttetrung- ■geeinoel II, Setch«it,zen I—Ig Ufr sterntpeechee g» U II.
für ftrene-geingelpilche: 13 01191 nnd 13 03 11 io"gl f l««lt-beOeu; OetHn *1,
blnftraße IS IZeinsptechee; H I Sanemeinummet gurfilrft 8MB); ««de«: gdn.o(tio||e III
(ZemlpreAei 284.3»). Iie.gonlen nur nnier heimnnn » Erden bei der veutlchen Bonl
»n« Vtdennld-Getelltchoil gttloto bumduig. Commerz- nndprinoldonlN voINchrSomI
bomduig u 189 ß>, .»ontbeegee Kochelchlen- eitchelne» 12 mal wSchenNIch. täglich
zweimal — morgen« nnd ndendn —, Sonntage nnr morgen». Toonlnge nur abend»
Zn den Kochdorerlen wird die Ndend-Nuegode noch am üben!
Dieser Entwurf ist. wie Bürgermeister Roß mitteilte, den Fraktionen zur
Stellungnahme vorgelegt worden. Zum Donnerstag war eine zweite Sitzung der
Fraktionsfübrer vom Vertreter des Senats angeordnet worden, zu der ober zwei
Fraktionen, die Teutschnationalen und die Nationalsozialisten, nicht erschienen
waren. Von den Nationalsozialisten ist kurz vor Beginn der Sitzung eine telephonische
Erklärung abgegeben worden, etwa des Inhalts, daß die Fraktion sich den sachlichen
Verhandlungen entziehen müsse, solange nicht gewisse Vorbedingungen erfüllt sein.
http://www.theeuropeanlibrary.org/tel4/newspapers/issue/Hamburger_Nachrichten/1932/12/31
https://github.com/cneud/alto-tools
Performance
82.4%
85.3%
80.9%
75.9%
67.5%
83.4% 84.1%
68.1%
93.1%
57.6%
87.0%
68.3%
76.1%
82.6%
54.1%
32.7%
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%
SuccessRate
Language Setting
Bag of Words OCR Evaluation
Per Language
79.1%
62.2%
55.9%
58.8%
94.7%
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%
Keyword
search
Phrase search Access via
content
structure
Print/ebook
on demand
Content
based image
retrieval
SuccessRate(harmonic,areabased)
Evaluation Profile
Layout Analysis Performance
Per evaluation profile
Experimental(!) Downloads
• http://data.theeuropeanlibrary.org/download/
newspapers-by-country/README.html
• http://research.europeana.eu/itemtype/
newspapers
• http://test-solr-mongo.eanadev.org/
europeana-research-newspapers-dump/
sample-2017-04-26/Staatsbibliothek_zu_Berlin_
Preu%253Fischer_Kulturbesitz/titles.html
OCR
• EU: IMPACT project (2008-2012)
• US: eMOP project (2013-2015)
• DE: OCR-D project (2016-2018)
• Google:
–Tesseract
–ocropy (fka OCRopus)
–Aksara
Named Entity Recognition
• 3 Categories:
– PERSON; LOCATION; ORGANIZATION
• 3 Languages:
– Dutch; French; German
• Powered by Stanford CoreNLP - CRF-NER
Annotations
Language # tokens # PER # LOC # ORG
French 207,000 5,672 5,614 2,574
Dutch 182,483 4,492 4,448 1,160
German 96,735 7,914 6,143 2,784
Language # tokens # PER # LOC # ORG
French 100% 2,75% 2,71% 1,24%
Dutch 100% 2,46% 2,44% 0,64%
German 100% 8,18% 6,35% 2,88%
Language Word-Error-Rate
(Bag of Words)
Reading Order
Success Rate
French 16,6% 19,9%
Dutch 17,6% 23,2%
German 15,9% / 21,9% 13,6%
Evaluation
Dutch French
Challenges
• https://github.com/EuropeanaNewspapers/
ner-corpora/wiki/Corpus-cleanup
Lack of metadata
Issue
There is no associated metadata for the annotated
text (newspaper title, date, etc.)
Solution
Automatically match lines with newspaper pages
through keyword search
OCR errors vs. historical spelling
Issue
Text contains OCR errors but also
valid(!) historical spelling variants
Solution
Document language profiling to distinguish
OCR errors and spelling variants
theylteil eyeitht
   ,
Sentence splits
Issue
During data pre-processing, (parts) of
sentences have been erroneously cut
Solution
Reconstruct sentences through keyword
search and matching procedure
Hyphenation
Issue
Text contains hyphenation to be removed
but hyphens do also occur in regular text
Solution
Use a tokenizer to determine hyphens to be
removed
Missing tags
Issue
Human operators forgot to tag some entities
or tagged them with the wrong category
Solution
???
Punctuation
Issue
According to CONLL, punctuation should be in
a separate line from the token - but
abbreviations…
Solution
???
https://altomator.github.io/EN-data_mining/
https://github.com/altomator/EN-data_mining
http://www.kbresearch.nl/dictionary/
https://github.com/jlonij/dictionary-viewer
http://www.kbresearch.nl/telraam/
https://gist.github.com/WillemJan/6ab02c48af576ba47b68
http://ngramviewer.kbresearch.nl/
https://bitbucket.org/ilps/pm-ngramviewers-kbkranten
http://www.digitalvictorianist.com/
https://twitter.com/VictorianHumour
https://github.com/BL-Labs/embellishments
http://networks.viraltexts.org/1836to1899/index.html
https://github.com/dasmiq/passim
EUROPEANA
TRANSCRIBATHON
CAMPUS BERLIN 2017
22-23 June 2017
Berlin State Library
http://pro.europeana.eu/
event/europeana-
transcribathon-campus-
2017
Thank you for your attention!
Clemens Neudecker
Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin
17 May 2017

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