Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
The Three Appealsof Argument8th Grade Language Arts
Aristotles Persuasive Appeals: Logos         (LOGIC), Ethos (ETHICS), and               Pathos(EMOTIONS)   Who was Aristo...
   When making an argument for or against    something, there are three argumentative    appeals: logical, ethical, and e...
Logical Appeal (common sense)   Logical appeal is the    strategic use of logic,    claims, and evidence    to convince a...
When used correctly, the writeris seen as having...   Strong, clear claims   Reasonable qualifiers for claims   Warrant...
When used incorrectly, the writercan be viewed as having... Over-generalized claims Reasons that are not fully explained...
Ethical Appeal (morality)               Ethical appeal is used to                establish the writer as fair,           ...
When used correctly, the writeris seen as... Well-informed about the topic Confident in his or her position Sincere and...
When used incorrectly, the writercan be viewed as... Unfair or dishonest Distorting or misrepresenting information  (bia...
Emotional Appeal (feelings)   Not surprisingly, emotional appeals target the emotions    of the reader to create some kin...
When done well, emotionalappeals...   Reinforce logical arguments   Use diction and imagery to    create a bond with the...
When used improperly,emotional appeals...   Become a substitute for logic and reason       TV and magazine advertising o...
Effectiveness vs. Credibility   Credible (credibility) means an argument is    logically sound and well-supported with st...
How might YOU convince yourparents to let you stay up late towatch a TV show?
Using logical appeal:      99%   of the time I get       enough sleep on school       nights, so one night of       stayi...
    The logical appeal used a statistic and    common sense to make it sound reasonable for    the student to stay up lat...
Using ethical appeal:     Ima responsible kid, I know     that if I stay up late Ill still     have to be attentive in my...
    The ethical appeal used good character to    convince the parents that the student is able to    handle the responsib...
Using emotional appeal:  If I dont watch this show, then all   the other kids at school will make   fun of me for being a...
    The emotional appeal used guilt from social    pressure and the bandwagon effect to    convince the parents to let th...
Now You Try! Think about how you might use each of the three appeals to convince your parents/guardians to buy you the la...
Examining Advertising Activity: Number a piece of paper from 1 to 5. Read the advertising lines on the next  slide. Jot ...
1. Four out of five dentists recommend chewing Yummy Gum for fewer cavities.
1. Logical
2. Dont hate me because Im beautiful. With SuperModel HairColor, you can be beautiful too.
2. Emotional
3. Trust me, Attorney Iam Honnest, to handle your legal cases with respect and knowledge.
3. Ethical
4. Chocohealthcrunch is made with 100% whole wheat flour, real cane sugar, and no artificial ingredients
4. Logical
5. Your child deserves the best. Choose the best - NaturoHealth Cereal.
   5. Emotional
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

The Three Appeals of Argument

8,116 views

Published on

Published in: Education, Business, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

The Three Appeals of Argument

  1. 1. The Three Appealsof Argument8th Grade Language Arts
  2. 2. Aristotles Persuasive Appeals: Logos (LOGIC), Ethos (ETHICS), and Pathos(EMOTIONS) Who was Aristotle?  Greek Philosopher  384-322 B.C.  Student of Plato  Taught famous leaders such as Alexander the Great  Noticed people used three types of arguments when convincing others
  3. 3.  When making an argument for or against something, there are three argumentative appeals: logical, ethical, and emotional. Strong arguments have a balance of all of three. While logical appeal is essential for a strong, valid argument, appeals can be misused, creating arguments that are not credible.
  4. 4. Logical Appeal (common sense) Logical appeal is the strategic use of logic, claims, and evidence to convince an audience of a certain point.
  5. 5. When used correctly, the writeris seen as having... Strong, clear claims Reasonable qualifiers for claims Warrants that are valid Clear reasons for claims Strong evidence  facts, statistics, personal experience, expert authority, interviews, observations, anecdotes Acknowledgement of the opposition
  6. 6. When used incorrectly, the writercan be viewed as having... Over-generalized claims Reasons that are not fully explained or supported Misleading information Evidence misused or ignored No recognition of opposing views
  7. 7. Ethical Appeal (morality)  Ethical appeal is used to establish the writer as fair, open-minded, honest, and knowledgeable about the subject matter.  The writer creates a sense of him or herself as trustworthy and credible.
  8. 8. When used correctly, the writeris seen as... Well-informed about the topic Confident in his or her position Sincere and honest Understanding of the readers concerns and possible objections Humane and considerate
  9. 9. When used incorrectly, the writercan be viewed as... Unfair or dishonest Distorting or misrepresenting information (biased) Insulting or dismissive of other viewpoints Advocating intolerant ideas
  10. 10. Emotional Appeal (feelings) Not surprisingly, emotional appeals target the emotions of the reader to create some kind of connection with the writer. Since humans are in many ways emotional creatures, emotional appeal can be a very powerful strategy in argument. For this same reason, however, emotional appeal is often misused...sometimes to intentionally mislead readers or to hide an argument that is weak in logical appeal. A lot of visual appeal is emotional in nature (think of advertisements, with their powerful imagery, colors, fonts, and symbols).
  11. 11. When done well, emotionalappeals... Reinforce logical arguments Use diction and imagery to create a bond with the reader in a human way Appeal to idealism, beauty, humor, happy family memories, or pity (or other emotions) in a balanced way Are presented in a fair manner
  12. 12. When used improperly,emotional appeals... Become a substitute for logic and reason  TV and magazine advertising often relies heavily on emotional rather than logical appeal Uses stereotypes to pit one group of people against another  propaganda and some political advertising does this Offers a simple, unthinking reaction to a complex problem Takes advantage of emotions to manipulate (through fear, hate, pity, prejudice, embarrassment, lust, or other feelings) rather than convince credibly
  13. 13. Effectiveness vs. Credibility Credible (credibility) means an argument is logically sound and well-supported with strong evidence and reasoning. Effective (effectiveness) means an argument works in convincing or persuading its audience. Many arguments that are effective are also credible. . . but there are also many that arent.
  14. 14. How might YOU convince yourparents to let you stay up late towatch a TV show?
  15. 15. Using logical appeal:  99% of the time I get enough sleep on school nights, so one night of staying up late wont affect me. I usually get plenty of sleep. Please let me stay up tonight!
  16. 16.  The logical appeal used a statistic and common sense to make it sound reasonable for the student to stay up late one night
  17. 17. Using ethical appeal:  Ima responsible kid, I know that if I stay up late Ill still have to be attentive in my classes tomorrow and get all my schoolwork done. You can count on me. Please let me stay up tonight.
  18. 18.  The ethical appeal used good character to convince the parents that the student is able to handle the responsibility of staying up late
  19. 19. Using emotional appeal:  If I dont watch this show, then all the other kids at school will make fun of me for being a geek and going to bed early. I wont be able to talk about the show with my friends, and Ill become a social outcast. Please let me stay up tonight.
  20. 20.  The emotional appeal used guilt from social pressure and the bandwagon effect to convince the parents to let the student stay up late
  21. 21. Now You Try! Think about how you might use each of the three appeals to convince your parents/guardians to buy you the latest expensive cell phone. On a piece of paper, write in your argument for each appeal.
  22. 22. Examining Advertising Activity: Number a piece of paper from 1 to 5. Read the advertising lines on the next slide. Jot down next to each number whether the appeal is an example of logical, ethical, or emotional.
  23. 23. 1. Four out of five dentists recommend chewing Yummy Gum for fewer cavities.
  24. 24. 1. Logical
  25. 25. 2. Dont hate me because Im beautiful. With SuperModel HairColor, you can be beautiful too.
  26. 26. 2. Emotional
  27. 27. 3. Trust me, Attorney Iam Honnest, to handle your legal cases with respect and knowledge.
  28. 28. 3. Ethical
  29. 29. 4. Chocohealthcrunch is made with 100% whole wheat flour, real cane sugar, and no artificial ingredients
  30. 30. 4. Logical
  31. 31. 5. Your child deserves the best. Choose the best - NaturoHealth Cereal.
  32. 32.  5. Emotional

×