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Applying UML and Patterns
2017/01/11
Taka Wang
CH1.
Object-Oriented Analysis and Design
Owning a hammer doesn't make one an
architect
Knowing an object-oriented language (such as Java) is a necessary but
insuff...
What Is Analysis and Design
Design emphasizes a conceptual solution that fulfills the requirements, rather
than its implem...
What Is Object-Oriented Analysis and Design
OOD: Defining software objects and how they collaborate to fulfill the
require...
Dice Game
骰子遊戲,一次丟兩個骰子,如果總和是
7則贏,否則就輸。
這不是OO的產出,只是寫故事。
Play a Dice Game: A player picks up and rolls the dice. If the dice face value
total seven, they win; othe...
Define a Domain Model
● Object-oriented analysis is concerned with creating a description of the
domain from the perspecti...
Partial Domain Model
物件只是從真實世界得到 啟發,而不是直接Model真實世界。
Define Interaction Diagrams
因為 play message 是丟給 DiceGame,所以 DiceGame 需要有 method play
而 Die Class 需要 roll 跟 getFaceValue 兩個方法
描述 Class 而不是真實世界
使用UML的三種角度
1. Conceptual perspective the diagrams are interpreted as describing things
in a situation of the real world or...
三種角度的範例
domain concepts or conceptual classes
design classes
CH6.
USE CASES
Use Cases
Use cases 是文字的故事,不是 Diagrams
Process Sale:
A customer arrives at a checkout with items to purchase. The cashier
...
Definition: Actors, Scenarios and Use Cases
● An actor is something with behavior, such as a person (identified by role),
...
Scenarios example - Handle Returns (退貨處理)
Main Success Scenario:
A customer arrives at a checkout with items to return. Th...
Use Cases 討論
● Use Cases 是文字故事
● Use Cases 跟物件導向沒有關係,寫下 Uses Cases 並不是在做OOA
● Use Cases are a key requirements input to cl...
三種 Actors
Primary actor: has user goals fulfilled through using services of the system. <
收銀員>
Why: To find user goals, wh...
三種常見的UC格式
Brief:通常是 main success scenario (抓個主題與範圍的感覺)
Casual: 前面的退款範例 (多個scenarios)
Fully dresses:所有步驟與變形的完整描述 (通常選10%有價值...
完整陳述的範本
Guidelines
1. Write in an Essential UI-Free Style (Root-goal, keep the user interface out
and focus on actor intent)
2. Wr...
3. Write Black-Box Use Cases
4. Take an Actor and Actor-Goal Perspective
Write requirements focusing on the users or actors of a system, asking about
t...
5. How to Find Use Cases
1. 選擇 system boundary (大框框)
2. 找出所有的 primary actors
3. 找出每個 primary actor 的 Goal
4. Define User C...
5.2 收銀員或顧客才是 Primary Actor?
另一種手法:從 Event 出發
什麼事件,從哪來,為什麼?
5.4 Define Use Cases
● 一個 Goal 寫一個 Use Case <CRUD例外>
● Use Case 的名稱類似 Goal :
○ Goal: process a sale
○ Use Case: Processs S...
6. What tests can help find useful use cases
1. The Boss Test
2. Elementary Business Process (EBP) Test: A task performed ...
Use Case Diagram
UC:畫圖還有畫線是次要的,文字
描述才是重點
畫 Use Case Diagram時,一併寫
下 actor-goal 清單
不要花超過一小時在這張圖上
Use Case Diagram 的繪製建議
CH9. USE-CASE MODEL:
Drawing system sequence
diagrams
System Sequence Diagram
Clarify the input and output system events
related to our system
System Sequence Diagrams:
● 一個特定的...
SSD for a Process Sale scenario
Simple cash-only success
scenario of Process Sale
SSDs and Use Cases
SSD 是從 UC 導出來的 後面有過程
找出 System boundary,找出直接觸發(穿過)系統的 Event
Naming System Events and Operations
● System Event 應該表達出 intent,而不是從什麼媒介 (按
鈕)
● 從動詞出發比較好, 命令導向
加上文字描述 (從 UC 抓過來)
● operations
● parameters
● return data
簡短就好
CH 10. Domain Model
Visualizing Concepts
Domain Model, aka. Conceptual Model
A domain model is a visual representation of real-world
conceptual classes, not of sof...
Domain Model example
Domain model is a visual dictionary of abstractions
Relate to Domain-Driven Design (DDD)
Ubiquitous
Language
Domain Model 不是在 Model Software Component
不要出現這些
● Software artifacts, such as a window or a database, unless the domain
b...
Conceptual Class Identification
● The central task is to identify conceptual classes related to the scenarios
under design...
Conceptual Class Category List
從 UC 找名詞
Domain Modeling Guidelines
1. List the candidate conceptual classes using the Conceptual Class
Category List and noun phra...
Common Mistake
Perhaps the most common mistake when creating a domain model is to
represent something as an attribute when...
Skip..
Lowering the representational gap
From analysis to design
Use Case SSD
Domain
Model
Design
Model
use case diagram
and descriptions
sequence diagram conceptu...
Thank you
Applying UML and Patterns (CH1, 6, 9, 10)
Applying UML and Patterns (CH1, 6, 9, 10)
Applying UML and Patterns (CH1, 6, 9, 10)
Applying UML and Patterns (CH1, 6, 9, 10)
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Applying UML and Patterns (CH1, 6, 9, 10)

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Overview Ch1, 6, 9, 10

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Applying UML and Patterns (CH1, 6, 9, 10)

  1. 1. Applying UML and Patterns 2017/01/11 Taka Wang
  2. 2. CH1. Object-Oriented Analysis and Design
  3. 3. Owning a hammer doesn't make one an architect Knowing an object-oriented language (such as Java) is a necessary but insufficient first step to create object systems. Knowing how to "think in objects" is also critical. The UML is not OOA/D or a method, it is simply notation. How should responsibilities be allocated to classes of objects? How should objects interact? What classes should do what? These are critical questions in the design of a system.
  4. 4. What Is Analysis and Design Design emphasizes a conceptual solution that fulfills the requirements, rather than its implementation. Ultimately, designs can be implemented. => Do the thing right. Analysis emphasizes an investigation of the problem and requirements, rather than a solution. It is a broad term, best qualified, as in requirements analysis (an investigation of the requirements) or object analysis (an investigation of the domain objects). => Do the right thing.
  5. 5. What Is Object-Oriented Analysis and Design OOD: Defining software objects and how they collaborate to fulfill the requirements. Ex. Book software object may have a title attribute and a getChapter method. OOA: Finding and describing the objects - or concepts - in the problem domain. Ex. Book, Library, Patron. (跟 Software object 無關)
  6. 6. Dice Game 骰子遊戲,一次丟兩個骰子,如果總和是 7則贏,否則就輸。
  7. 7. 這不是OO的產出,只是寫故事。 Play a Dice Game: A player picks up and rolls the dice. If the dice face value total seven, they win; otherwise, they lose.
  8. 8. Define a Domain Model ● Object-oriented analysis is concerned with creating a description of the domain from the perspective of classification by objects. A decomposition of the domain involves an identification of the concepts, attributes, and associations that are considered noteworthy. (分類法,找出概念、屬性跟關 係) ● A domain model is not a description of software objects; it is a visualization of concepts in the real-world domain. (真實世界的概念)
  9. 9. Partial Domain Model
  10. 10. 物件只是從真實世界得到 啟發,而不是直接Model真實世界。
  11. 11. Define Interaction Diagrams
  12. 12. 因為 play message 是丟給 DiceGame,所以 DiceGame 需要有 method play 而 Die Class 需要 roll 跟 getFaceValue 兩個方法 描述 Class 而不是真實世界
  13. 13. 使用UML的三種角度 1. Conceptual perspective the diagrams are interpreted as describing things in a situation of the real world or domain of interest. 2. Specification (software) perspective the diagrams (using the same notation as in the conceptual perspective) describe software abstractions or components with specifications and interfaces, but no commitment to a particular implementation (for example, not specifically a class in C# or Java). <<實務上不常用>> 3. Implementation (software) perspective the diagrams describe software implementations in a particular technology (such as Java).
  14. 14. 三種角度的範例 domain concepts or conceptual classes design classes
  15. 15. CH6. USE CASES
  16. 16. Use Cases Use cases 是文字的故事,不是 Diagrams Process Sale: A customer arrives at a checkout with items to purchase. The cashier uses the POS system to record each purchased item. The system presents a running total and line-item details. The customer enters payment information, which the system validates and records. The system updates inventory. The customer receives a receipt from the system and then leaves with the items. 什麼故事:Some actor using a system to meet goal.
  17. 17. Definition: Actors, Scenarios and Use Cases ● An actor is something with behavior, such as a person (identified by role), computer system, or organization; for example, a cashier. ● A scenario is a specific sequence of actions and interactions between actors and the system; it is also called a use case instance. ● A use case is a collection of related success and failure scenarios that describe an actor using a system to support a goal.
  18. 18. Scenarios example - Handle Returns (退貨處理) Main Success Scenario: A customer arrives at a checkout with items to return. The cashier uses the POS system to record each returned item ... Alternate Scenarios: If the customer paid by credit, and the reimbursement (退款) transaction to their credit account is rejected, inform the customer and pay them with cash. If the item identifier is not found in the system, notify the Cashier and suggest manual entry of the identifier code (perhaps it is corrupted). If the system detects failure to communicate with the external accounting system, ...
  19. 19. Use Cases 討論 ● Use Cases 是文字故事 ● Use Cases 跟物件導向沒有關係,寫下 Uses Cases 並不是在做OOA ● Use Cases are a key requirements input to classic OOA/D ● Use Cases emphasize the user goals and perspective (User-centric) “Who is using the system, what are their typical scenarios of use, and what are their goals?” (誰在什麼情境使用此系統,為了完成什麼事情)
  20. 20. 三種 Actors Primary actor: has user goals fulfilled through using services of the system. < 收銀員> Why: To find user goals, which drive the use cases. Supporting actor: provides a service (ex. information) to the system. <自動付款 認證服務> Why: To clarify external interfaces and protocols Offstage actor: has an interest in the behavior of the use case. <稅務局> Why: To ensure the all necessary interests are identified and satisfied.
  21. 21. 三種常見的UC格式 Brief:通常是 main success scenario (抓個主題與範圍的感覺) Casual: 前面的退款範例 (多個scenarios) Fully dresses:所有步驟與變形的完整描述 (通常選10%有價值的UC來寫)
  22. 22. 完整陳述的範本
  23. 23. Guidelines 1. Write in an Essential UI-Free Style (Root-goal, keep the user interface out and focus on actor intent) 2. Write Terse Use Cases (刪掉贅詞) 3. Write Black-Box Use Cases (不考慮內部的運作,只在乎系統的 responsibilities,What 而不是 How) 4. Take an Actor and Actor-Goal Perspective 5. How to Find Use Cases 6. What Tests Can Help Find Useful Use Cases
  24. 24. 3. Write Black-Box Use Cases
  25. 25. 4. Take an Actor and Actor-Goal Perspective Write requirements focusing on the users or actors of a system, asking about their goals and typical situations. Focus on understanding what the actor considers a valuable result.
  26. 26. 5. How to Find Use Cases 1. 選擇 system boundary (大框框) 2. 找出所有的 primary actors 3. 找出每個 primary actor 的 Goal 4. Define User Cases satisfy the goals of the primary actors Actor-Goal List
  27. 27. 5.2 收銀員或顧客才是 Primary Actor?
  28. 28. 另一種手法:從 Event 出發 什麼事件,從哪來,為什麼?
  29. 29. 5.4 Define Use Cases ● 一個 Goal 寫一個 Use Case <CRUD例外> ● Use Case 的名稱類似 Goal : ○ Goal: process a sale ○ Use Case: Processs Sale ● Use Case 從動詞開始
  30. 30. 6. What tests can help find useful use cases 1. The Boss Test 2. Elementary Business Process (EBP) Test: A task performed by one person in one place at one time, in response to a business event, which adds measurable business value and leaves the data in a consistent state 3. The Size Test:3~10 steps
  31. 31. Use Case Diagram UC:畫圖還有畫線是次要的,文字 描述才是重點 畫 Use Case Diagram時,一併寫 下 actor-goal 清單 不要花超過一小時在這張圖上
  32. 32. Use Case Diagram 的繪製建議
  33. 33. CH9. USE-CASE MODEL: Drawing system sequence diagrams
  34. 34. System Sequence Diagram Clarify the input and output system events related to our system System Sequence Diagrams: ● 一個特定的scenario,所有 系統都當作黑盒子 ● actor generate events ● 重點在抓出從 actor 穿越 system boundary 的 Event UC已經描述外部的actor怎麼跟系統互動
  35. 35. SSD for a Process Sale scenario Simple cash-only success scenario of Process Sale
  36. 36. SSDs and Use Cases SSD 是從 UC 導出來的 後面有過程
  37. 37. 找出 System boundary,找出直接觸發(穿過)系統的 Event
  38. 38. Naming System Events and Operations ● System Event 應該表達出 intent,而不是從什麼媒介 (按 鈕) ● 從動詞出發比較好, 命令導向
  39. 39. 加上文字描述 (從 UC 抓過來) ● operations ● parameters ● return data 簡短就好
  40. 40. CH 10. Domain Model Visualizing Concepts
  41. 41. Domain Model, aka. Conceptual Model A domain model is a visual representation of real-world conceptual classes, not of software components in a domain of interest. It is not a set of diagrams describing software classes, or software objects with responsibilities. - domain objects or conceptual classes - associations between conceptual classes - attributes of conceptual classes Class Diagram 只用這些
  42. 42. Domain Model example Domain model is a visual dictionary of abstractions
  43. 43. Relate to Domain-Driven Design (DDD) Ubiquitous Language
  44. 44. Domain Model 不是在 Model Software Component 不要出現這些 ● Software artifacts, such as a window or a database, unless the domain being modeled is of software concepts, such as a model of graphical user interfaces. ● Responsibilities or methods
  45. 45. Conceptual Class Identification ● The central task is to identify conceptual classes related to the scenarios under design. ● It is better to overspecify a domain model with lots of fine-grained conceptual classes than to underspecify it. 1. Use a conceptual class category list 2. Identify noun phrases 3. Analysis patterns [Fowler96] <<Transaction Pattern>> 尋找的策略
  46. 46. Conceptual Class Category List
  47. 47. 從 UC 找名詞
  48. 48. Domain Modeling Guidelines 1. List the candidate conceptual classes using the Conceptual Class Category List and noun phrase identification techniques related to the current requirements under consideration. 2. Draw them in a domain model. 3. Add the associations necessary to record relationships for which there is a need to preserve some memory. 4. Add the attributes necessary to fulfill the information requirements.
  49. 49. Common Mistake Perhaps the most common mistake when creating a domain model is to represent something as an attribute when it should have been a concept. If we do not think of some conceptual class X as a number or text in the real world, X is probably a conceptual class, not an attribute. 如果還是不確定,將它當作 concept,domain model 中很少有attribute
  50. 50. Skip..
  51. 51. Lowering the representational gap
  52. 52. From analysis to design Use Case SSD Domain Model Design Model use case diagram and descriptions sequence diagram conceptual class diagram (state diagram) class diagram
  53. 53. Thank you

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