Definition• Bullying is defined in three parts by researcher Dan Olweus inVlachou, Andreou, Botsoglou, and Didaskalou’s (2011) review:- “(1) it is an aggressive behavior of intentional ‘harmdoing- (2) which is carried out repeatedly and over time- (3) in an interpersonal relationship characterized by animbalance of power,” (p. 331).• Bullying is most commonly shown through verbal abuse:- name-calling, threatening, spreading rumors/lies, mocking, judgingand criticizing, and more.• Bullying can also take the form of physical abuse:- fighting, punching, slapping, kicking, and sexual abuse
Bullying Video Clip• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Fg8wxcepAxM
The Causes• How a child is cared for in early years• Socioeconomic status• Sibling relationships• Parent relationships
Early Years• The attachment theory suggests that the style ofattachment a child experiences in their early life cancontinue from their early childhood to their adultrelationships.• There are two main types of attachments:1. Ambivalent- Showed through dependency, fear of abandonment, separationproblems, and more2. Avoidant- Showed by not seeking help when it’s needed, having withdrawalsymptoms from separation, and more.- More likely to become bullies later in life• Insecure relationships/attachments can lead to bullying.
Socioeconomic Status• 1/3 of the 6,379 children studied between ages five and six, oflow socioeconomic status were involved in bullying (Jansen,2012) .- They may not have the same access to tools, resources, andknowledge to develop better behavior patterns.• Low socioeconomic status has been linked to aggression,which is a very common trait in bullies (Vlachou et al.’s, 2011) .• More stress from economic and financial troubles could resultin less time and support to children, which can lead tochildren’s feelings of rejection and less feelings of warmth inthe family.
Sibling Relationships• 60% of bullies and victims reported that their siblings hadbullied them (Vlachou et al., 2011).- Children often look up to their older siblings, so if an older siblinguses their power to bully them, the younger children might think thatbehavior is okay and imitate that behavior outside the family setting.• Bullies ultimately try to achieve power.- If a child witnesses the success of a siblings bullying behavior, it canthen become a model for them to follow in their own situations ofattempting to gain power.
Parent Relationships• Bullying is more likely to stem from children in dysfunctionalfamilies where there is less emotional support for the childrenand where there is possible abuse.• “Studies have shown that children “who lack a securerelationship with a dominant adult – usually a parent – will tryto dominate their peers,” (Hammer, 2012, p. 1).• Children that have unstable relationships with their parentshave been known to pick on the weak.
Limitations• It is hard to observe children verbally abusing each otherbecause they don’t normally do it around adults; instead theydo it around their peers.• Children do not want to tattle on the bully or are afraid if theword gets out that they told they too would get bullied.• Kids stories are not necessarily always true.• Some of the results can be confusing.• Opposing results• The age groups that the researchers study are different.
Conclusion• Bullies become bullies because they can.• More bullies displayed an avoidant attachment.• Most bullies have reported that their siblings bullied them athome.• Children and young adults’ relationships with their parents, aswell as the continued atmosphere of tolerance, can also causebullying.• Bullies lack self-control, the ability to empathize, feel guilty orembarrassed, so the methods in which they have learned torespond, in social situations, do not conform to the generallyaccepted social behaviors of society as a whole.
References• Austin, S. M., Reynolds, G. P., & Barnes, S. L. (2012). School Leadership andCounselors Working Together to Address Bullying. Education, 133(2), 283-290.• Hammer, K. (2012). Trying to teach empathy to stop bullying. Globe & Mail(Toronto, Canada), A6.• Henry, S. (2004). Bullying -- Like Father Like Son? The contentious findings ofa year long study. Education Journal, (77), 23-26.• Jansen, P. W., Verlinden, M., Berkel, A., Mieloo, C., Ende, J., Veenstra, R.,Verhulst, F. C., Jansen, W., & Tiemeier, H. (2012). Prevalence of bullying andvictimization among children in early elementary school: Do family andschool neighbourhood socioeconomic status matter? BMC Public Health,12(1), 1-18.• Koiv, K. (2012). Attachment Styles among Bullies, Victims and UninvolvedAdolescents. Online Submission, 160-165.• Vlachou, M., Andreou, E., Botsoglou, K., & Didaskalou, E. (2011).Bully/Victim Problems among Preschool Children: A Review of CurrentResearch Evidence. Educational Psychology Review, 23(3), 329-358.