World Bank Policy & NHRD in sub Saharan Africa AHRD 2014

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Literature Review Presentation on how World Bank policy affects National Human Resource Development in Sub-Saharan Africa by Charlene Mutamba

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World Bank Policy & NHRD in sub Saharan Africa AHRD 2014

  1. 1. WORLD BANK POLICY & NHRD IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA: AN EXPLORATION OF THE LITERATURE Charlene Mutamba North Carolina State University AHRD Conference 2014
  2. 2. OBJECTIVES  Purpose of the Literature Review  Method  Article Search Procedure  Selection Criteria  Analysis  Findings  NHRD in sub-Saharan Africa  The World Bank in sub-Saharan Africa     1960s 1980s 1990s 2000s  Implications for HRD Research
  3. 3. PURPOSE OF THE LITERATURE REVIEW  The purpose of this literature review is to explore the influence of World Bank Policy on national human resource development in sub-Saharan Africa.  Explored the four dimensions  Political system  Economic System  Social system &  Education System  This paper seeks to expand the view of NHRD in Africa by showing how policy developed at the World Bank affects local HRD practices.  The World Bank is important because they are the leading global investor in education which makes it worth exploring.
  4. 4. METHOD  Research Questions  What does the literature say about World Bank human resource development policy in sub-Saharan Africa?  What does the literature say about national human resource development (NHRD) policy in sub-Saharan Africa?  What does the literature say about human resource development initiatives that have been influenced by the World Bank?  Selection Criteria  Initial search yielded 322 articles  43 journal articles, research reports and book chapters selected
  5. 5. ANALYSIS  Literature reviewed through content analysis and identification of major themes  World Bank policy went through  Periods of manpower analysis  Then focus on vocational education  And now basic education
  6. 6. FINDINGS  NHRD in Sub-Saharan Africa  Main source of funding for education and training are central government grants  Nearly all sub-Saharan African countries; public training systems are the leading source of structured, pre -employment training and formal sector training (Ziderman, 2001).  1960s and 1970s WB encouraged growth of large capital and import intensive operations that required highly skilled and experienced managers and technicians.  National training systems are small, ineffective and focused on industrial and service occupations but agriculture accounts for more than half of the gross national product (GNP)
  7. 7. FINDINGS  World Bank in Sub-Saharan Africa  Provides interest free loans and grants to governments of the poorest nations  Use ‘knowledge economy’ as the most important factor in economic development  Believe in strong human capital base and effective national innovative system.
  8. 8. FINDINGS  The 1960s  Focus on manpower development through vocational education in secondary schools, colleges prior to employment and in enterprises  NHRD was driven by human capital theory and education and training to increase productivity and economic development (Psacharopolous, 2006).  Used human capital measurements in its analytic work (Heyneman, 2003).
  9. 9. FINDINGS  The 1980s  Sub-Saharan Africa received $2 per capita in external assistance for education, about twice that for other regions  Rate of return methodologies favored vocational over academic education (Heyneman, 2012)  However, a shift was also occurring  Increase in private cost for attending universities  introduction of loans for higher education instead of government funding  Higher returns in basic education than higher education  Lack of employment for TSVD graduates made it less popular
  10. 10. FINDINGS  The 1990s  After the World Conference on Education in 1990, universal primary education became important.  From 2000 universal primary education became a Millennium Development Goal (MDG)  After global economic woes of the 1990s WB advocated reduction in public sector spending  Economic Structural Adjustment Programs introduced  Establishment of autonomous training agencies
  11. 11. FINDINGS  The 2000s  WB began to focus on lifelong learning which encompasses adult training and development through  Distance education  Open learning  Use of technology e.g. African Virtual University (AVU)  Support Individual country initiatives  Youth Opportunities Program in Uganda  Technical and Vocational Vouchers Program in Kenya
  12. 12. IMPLICATIONS FOR HRD  Need to explore how NHRD is implemented in various contexts (McLean, 2004).  Need to develop and implement theories based on culture and needs of individual countries (Sydhagen & Cunningham, 2007).  Provide policy makers with a perspective of how external influences shape local NHRD policy and the ability to unleash human resources for economic benefit  It is important for policy makers to understand World Bank policy implications for individual and regional and global economies.
  13. 13. CONCLUSION  The government in most Sub-Saharan countries will continue to play a central role in funding education and training  Human capital development will continue to be an essential ingredient for economic growth (Chen & Dahlman, 2005)  It is important for HRD researchers to explore how policy is shaped in different national, regional and international contexts .

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