Complete Chapter 9:2 - Interactions Between Living Things

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Complete Chapter 9:2 - Interactions Between Living Things

  1. 1. Section 2 Interactions Between Living Things
  2. 2. Characteristics of Population—Population Size <ul><li>The number of individuals in the population is the population’s size. </li></ul><ul><li>If a population is small and made up of organisms that do not move, the size can be determined by counting the individuals. </li></ul><ul><li>Usually individuals are too widespread or move around too much to be counted. The population size then is estimated. </li></ul>Interactions Among Living Organisms 2
  3. 3. Characteristics of Population—Population Size <ul><li>The size of human population is increasing each year. </li></ul>Interactions Among Living Organisms 2 <ul><li>The size of a population is always changing. The rate of change in population size varies from population to </li></ul>population.
  4. 4. Population Density <ul><li>The number of individuals in a population that occupy a definite area is called population density . </li></ul><ul><li>When more individuals live in a given amount of space the population is more dense. </li></ul>Interactions Among Living Organisms 2
  5. 5. Topic: Populations <ul><li>The number of individuals in a population is its size. </li></ul><ul><li>Populations are always changing </li></ul><ul><li>The dividing the number of individuals by the definite area they live in = population density. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Population Spacing <ul><li>Another characteristic of populations is spacing, or how the organisms are arranged in a given area. </li></ul><ul><li>They can be evenly spaced, randomly spaced, or clumped together. </li></ul>Interactions Among Living Organisms 2
  7. 7. Limiting Factors <ul><li>All ecosystems have a limited amount of food, water, living space, mates, nesting sites, and other resources. </li></ul><ul><li>A limiting factor is any biotic or abiotic factor that limits the number of individuals in a population. </li></ul>Interactions Among Living Organisms 2
  8. 8. Limiting Factors <ul><li>Competition is the struggle among organisms to obtain the same resources needed to survive and reproduce. </li></ul><ul><li>As population density increases, so does competition among individuals for the resources in their environment. </li></ul>Interactions Among Living Organisms 2
  9. 9. Carrying Capacity <ul><li>Carrying capacity is the largest number of individuals of a species that an environment can support and maintain for a long period of time . </li></ul><ul><li>If a population gets bigger than the carrying capacity of the environment, some individuals are left without adequate resources. </li></ul>Interactions Among Living Organisms 2
  10. 10. Topic: Limiting Factors <ul><li>Anything that limits the size of a population is a limiting factor. </li></ul><ul><li>As a population gets bigger it gets harder for each individual to survive. </li></ul><ul><li>Carrying capacity describes how many individuals an area can support for a long time. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Biotic Potential <ul><li>The maximum rate at which a population increases when plenty of food and water are available, the weather is ideal, and no diseases or enemies exist, is its biotic potential . </li></ul><ul><li>Most populations never reach their biotic potential, or they do so for only a short period of time. </li></ul>Interactions Among Living Organisms 2 <ul><li>Eventually, the carrying capacity of the environment is reached and the population stops increasing. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Symbiosis and Other Interactions <ul><li>Symbiosis (sihm bee OH sus) is any close interaction between two or more different species. </li></ul><ul><li>Mutualism is a symbiotic relationship in which two different species of organisms cooperate and both benefit. </li></ul>Interactions Among Living Organisms 2
  13. 13. Symbiosis and Other Interactions <ul><li>Commensalism is a form of symbiosis that benefits one organism without affecting the other organism. </li></ul><ul><li>Parasitism is a symbiotic relationship between two species in which one species benefits and the other species is harmed. </li></ul>Interactions Among Living Organisms 2
  14. 14. Predation <ul><li>Predation is the act of one organism hunting, killing, and feeding on another organism. </li></ul><ul><li>Owls are predators of mice. </li></ul>Interactions Among Living Organisms 2 <ul><li>Mice are their prey. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Predation <ul><li>Predators are biotic factors that limit the size of the prey population. </li></ul><ul><li>Availability of prey is a biotic factor that can limit the size of the predator population. </li></ul>Interactions Among Living Organisms 2
  16. 16. Habitats and Niches <ul><li>The role, or job, of an organism in the ecosystem is called its niche (NICH). </li></ul><ul><li>What a species eats, how it gets its food, and how it interacts with other organisms are all parts of its niche. </li></ul>Interactions Among Living Organisms 2 <ul><li>The place where an organism lives is called its habitat . </li></ul>
  17. 17. Topic: Predation <ul><li>In Predation one organism eats another. </li></ul><ul><li>The number of predators limits the number of prey, and vice-versa. </li></ul><ul><li>Niche is an organisms job, habitat is where it lives. </li></ul>
  18. 18. What Did You Learn?  <ul><li>What are three factors used to describe populations? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the difference in carrying capacity and biotic potential (perfect conditions)? </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how predators and prey are limiting factors to one another. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the difference in niche and habitat. </li></ul>

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