Chapter:  Views of Earth Table of Contents Section 3:  Maps Section 1:  Landforms Section 2:  Viewpoints
Map Projections <ul><li>Maps are models of Earth’s surface. </li></ul><ul><li>Scientists use maps to locate various places...
Map Projections <ul><li>A  map projection  is made when points and lines on a globe’s surface are transferred onto paper. ...
Mercator Projection <ul><li>Mercator  (mer KAY ter)  projections  are used mainly on ships. </li></ul><ul><li>They project...
Robinson Projection <ul><li>A  Robinson projection  shows  accurate continent shapes  and  more accurate land areas.   </l...
Conic Projection <ul><li>Conic projections often are used to produce maps of small areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Half of the wo...
Conic Projection <ul><li>Conic projections   are made by projecting points and lines from a globe onto a cone. </li></ul>M...
Topographic Maps <ul><li>A   topographic map   models the changes in elevation of Earth’s surface. </li></ul>Maps 3 <ul><l...
Contour Lines <ul><li>A  contour line   is a line on a map that connects points of equal elevation. </li></ul>Maps 3 <ul><...
Contour Lines <ul><li>In mountainous areas, the contour lines are close together. </li></ul>Maps 3 <ul><li>However, if the...
Map Scale <ul><li>The  map scale   is the relationship between the distances on the map and distances on Earth’s surface. ...
Map Legend <ul><li>A  map legend   explains what the symbols used on the map mean. </li></ul>Maps 3
Geologic Maps <ul><li>Geologic maps show the arrangement and types of rocks at Earth’s surface.   </li></ul>Maps 3 <ul><li...
Geologic Maps <ul><li>The block diagram is a 3-D model that illustrates a solid section of Earth.  </li></ul>Maps 3 <ul><l...
Three-Dimensional Maps <ul><li>To visualize Earth three dimensionally, scientists often rely on computers. </li></ul>Maps ...
Map Uses <ul><li>If you wanted to determine New Zealand’s location relative to Canada, you probably would examine a Mercat...
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Chapter 2:3 Maps

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Chapter 2:3 Maps

  1. 2. Chapter: Views of Earth Table of Contents Section 3: Maps Section 1: Landforms Section 2: Viewpoints
  2. 3. Map Projections <ul><li>Maps are models of Earth’s surface. </li></ul><ul><li>Scientists use maps to locate various places and to show the distribution of various features or types of materials. </li></ul>Maps 3 <ul><li>For example, an Earth scientist might use a map to plot the distribution of a certain type of rock. </li></ul>
  3. 4. Map Projections <ul><li>A map projection is made when points and lines on a globe’s surface are transferred onto paper. </li></ul><ul><li>All types of projections distort the shape of landmasses or their areas. </li></ul>Maps 3
  4. 5. Mercator Projection <ul><li>Mercator (mer KAY ter) projections are used mainly on ships. </li></ul><ul><li>They project correct shapes of continents, but the areas are distorted . </li></ul>Maps 3 <ul><li>Lines of longitude are projected onto the map parallel to each other. </li></ul><ul><li>When longitude lines are projected as parallel, areas near the poles appear bigger than they are. </li></ul>
  5. 6. Robinson Projection <ul><li>A Robinson projection shows accurate continent shapes and more accurate land areas. </li></ul>Maps 3
  6. 7. Conic Projection <ul><li>Conic projections often are used to produce maps of small areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Half of the world at any one time. </li></ul>Maps 3
  7. 8. Conic Projection <ul><li>Conic projections are made by projecting points and lines from a globe onto a cone. </li></ul>Maps 3 Click image to view movie.
  8. 9. Topographic Maps <ul><li>A topographic map models the changes in elevation of Earth’s surface. </li></ul>Maps 3 <ul><li>With such a map, you can determine your location relative to identifiable natural features. </li></ul><ul><li>Topographic maps also indicate cultural features such as roads, cities, dams, and other structures built by people. </li></ul>
  9. 10. Contour Lines <ul><li>A contour line is a line on a map that connects points of equal elevation. </li></ul>Maps 3 <ul><li>The difference in elevation between two side-by-side contour lines is called contour interval. </li></ul>
  10. 11. Contour Lines <ul><li>In mountainous areas, the contour lines are close together. </li></ul>Maps 3 <ul><li>However, if the change in elevation is slight, the contour lines will be far apart. </li></ul><ul><li>Some contour lines, called index contours, are marked with their elevation. </li></ul>
  11. 12. Map Scale <ul><li>The map scale is the relationship between the distances on the map and distances on Earth’s surface. </li></ul>Maps 3 <ul><li>Scale often is represented as a ratio. </li></ul><ul><li>A map scale also can be shown in the form of a small bar that is divided into sections and scaled down to match real distances on Earth. </li></ul>
  12. 13. Map Legend <ul><li>A map legend explains what the symbols used on the map mean. </li></ul>Maps 3
  13. 14. Geologic Maps <ul><li>Geologic maps show the arrangement and types of rocks at Earth’s surface. </li></ul>Maps 3 <ul><li>Using geologic maps and data collected from rock exposures, a geologist can infer how rock layers might have looked below Earth’s surface. </li></ul>
  14. 15. Geologic Maps <ul><li>The block diagram is a 3-D model that illustrates a solid section of Earth. </li></ul>Maps 3 <ul><li>The top surface of the block is the geologic map. </li></ul><ul><li>Side views of the block are called cross sections , which are derived from the surface map. </li></ul>
  15. 16. Three-Dimensional Maps <ul><li>To visualize Earth three dimensionally, scientists often rely on computers. </li></ul>Maps 3 <ul><li>Using computers, information is digitized to create a three-dimensional view of features such as rock layers or river systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Digitizing is a process by which points are plotted on a coordinate grid. </li></ul>
  16. 17. Map Uses <ul><li>If you wanted to determine New Zealand’s location relative to Canada, you probably would examine a Mercator projection. </li></ul>Maps 3 <ul><li>If you wanted to travel across the country, you would rely on a road map, or conic projection. </li></ul><ul><li>To climb the highest peak in your region, you would take along a topographic map. </li></ul>

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