Chapter: The Nature of Science Table of Contents Section 3:  Models in Science Section 1:  What is science? Section 2:  Sc...
<ul><li>Do you believe everything you read or hear? </li></ul>4 Evaluating Scientific Explanation Believe it or not? <ul><...
<ul><li>What you did was evaluate, or judge the reliability of what you heard.   </li></ul>4 Evaluating Scientific Explana...
<ul><li>When you evaluate something, you use critical thinking - judging the reliability of what you heard, read, or seen....
<ul><li>You can evaluate an explanation by breaking it down into two parts.   </li></ul>4 Evaluating Scientific Explanatio...
<ul><li>A scientific investigation always contains observations—often called  data .  </li></ul>4 Evaluating Scientific Ex...
4 Evaluating Scientific Explanation Evaluating the Data   <ul><li>You should be cautious about believing any claim that is...
<ul><li>The data given to back up a claim should be specific.   </li></ul>4 Evaluating Scientific Explanation Are the data...
<ul><li>An example of data in the form of a frequency table is shown. </li></ul>4 Evaluating Scientific Explanation Are th...
<ul><li>Scientists must take thorough notes at the time of an investigation. </li></ul>4 Evaluating Scientific Explanation...
<ul><li>It is also important for you to write down every observation, including ones that you don’t expect.   </li></ul>4 ...
<ul><li>In science class, you will be keeping a science journal.  </li></ul>4 Evaluating Scientific Explanation Your Scien...
<ul><li>Your observations should be detailed enough that another person could read what you wrote and repeat the investiga...
<ul><li>Scientists require repeatable evidence.   </li></ul>4 Evaluating Scientific Explanation Can the data be repeated? ...
<ul><li>When you think about a conclusion that someone has made, you can ask yourself two questions.  </li></ul>4 Evaluati...
<ul><li>Suppose you saw an advertisement in the newspaper like the one shown.   </li></ul>4 Evaluating Scientific Explanat...
<ul><li>How was this claim tested?  </li></ul>4 Evaluating Scientific Explanation Evaluating Promotional Materials   <ul><...
<ul><li>Results from an independent laboratory usually are more reliable than results from a laboratory paid by the sellin...
4 Section Check Question 1 The formal term for observations made during a scientific experiment is_______. A. conclusion B...
4 Section Check Question 2 When supporting a claim, you’ll want to have data that is _______. A. impressive B. new C. made...
4 Section Check Question 3 Suppose a person claims to have done an experiment that made him briefly invisible but says tha...
4 Section Check <ul><li>Credible scientific experiments must be  </li></ul><ul><li>repeatable. </li></ul><ul><li>B. It isn...
4 Section Check Answer The answer is B. When you evaluate a scientific claim you should examine the data. Is it given? Doe...
4 Section Check Answer The answer is D. The data should be as specific as possible, weeding out generalizations that don’t...
4 Section Check Answer The correct answer is A. All scientific experiments must be repeatable before the results can be be...
End of Chapter Summary File
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Chapter 1 S4

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Evaluating Scientific Explanation

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Chapter 1 S4

  1. 2. Chapter: The Nature of Science Table of Contents Section 3: Models in Science Section 1: What is science? Section 2: Science in Action Section 4: Evaluating Scientific Explanation
  2. 3. <ul><li>Do you believe everything you read or hear? </li></ul>4 Evaluating Scientific Explanation Believe it or not? <ul><li>Think of something that someone told you that you didn’t believe. </li></ul><ul><li>Chances are you looked at the facts you were given and decided that there wasn’t enough proof to make you believe it. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Believe none of what you hear, only some of what you read, and half of what you see.” </li></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>What you did was evaluate, or judge the reliability of what you heard. </li></ul>4 Evaluating Scientific Explanation Believe it or not? <ul><li>When you hear a statement, you ask the question “How do you know?” </li></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>When you evaluate something, you use critical thinking - judging the reliability of what you heard, read, or seen. </li></ul>4 Evaluating Scientific Explanation Critical Thinking <ul><li>Critical thinking means combining what you already know with the new facts that you are given to decide if you should agree with something. </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>You can evaluate an explanation by breaking it down into two parts. </li></ul>4 Evaluating Scientific Explanation Critical Thinking <ul><li>First you can look at and evaluate the observations. </li></ul><ul><li>Then you can evaluate the inferences—or conclusions made about the observations. </li></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>A scientific investigation always contains observations—often called data . </li></ul>4 Evaluating Scientific Explanation Evaluating the Data <ul><li>Data are gathered during a scientific </li></ul>investigation and can be recorded in the form of descriptions, tables, graphs, or drawings.
  7. 8. 4 Evaluating Scientific Explanation Evaluating the Data <ul><li>You should be cautious about believing any claim that is not supported by data. </li></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>The data given to back up a claim should be specific. </li></ul>4 Evaluating Scientific Explanation Are the data specific? <ul><li>That means they need to be exact. </li></ul><ul><li>When you are given specific data, a statement is more reliable and you are more likely to believe it. </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>An example of data in the form of a frequency table is shown. </li></ul>4 Evaluating Scientific Explanation Are the data specific? <ul><li>A frequency table shows how many times types of data occur. </li></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>Scientists must take thorough notes at the time of an investigation. </li></ul>4 Evaluating Scientific Explanation Take Good Notes <ul><li>Important details can be forgotten if you wait several hours or days before you write down your observations. </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>It is also important for you to write down every observation, including ones that you don’t expect. </li></ul>4 Evaluating Scientific Explanation Take Good Notes <ul><li>Often, great discoveries are made when something unexpected happens in an investigation. </li></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>In science class, you will be keeping a science journal. </li></ul>4 Evaluating Scientific Explanation Your Science Journal <ul><li>You will write down what you do and see during your investigations. </li></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>Your observations should be detailed enough that another person could read what you wrote and repeat the investigation exactly as you performed it. </li></ul>4 Evaluating Scientific Explanation Your Science Journal
  14. 15. <ul><li>Scientists require repeatable evidence. </li></ul>4 Evaluating Scientific Explanation Can the data be repeated? <ul><li>When a scientist describes an investigation, other scientists should be able to do the investigation and get the same results. </li></ul><ul><li>The results must be repeatable. </li></ul>
  15. 16. <ul><li>When you think about a conclusion that someone has made, you can ask yourself two questions. </li></ul>4 Evaluating Scientific Explanation Evaluating the Conclusions <ul><li>First, does the conclusion make sense? </li></ul><ul><li>Second, are there any other possible explanations? </li></ul>
  16. 17. <ul><li>Suppose you saw an advertisement in the newspaper like the one shown. </li></ul>4 Evaluating Scientific Explanation Evaluating Promotional Materials <ul><li>What would you think? First, you might ask, “Does this make sense?” It seems unbelievable. </li></ul>
  17. 18. <ul><li>How was this claim tested? </li></ul>4 Evaluating Scientific Explanation Evaluating Promotional Materials <ul><li>How is the amount of wrinkling in skin measured? </li></ul><ul><li>You might also want to know if an independent laboratory repeated the results. </li></ul><ul><li>An independent laboratory is one that is not related in any way to the company that is selling the product or service. </li></ul>
  18. 19. <ul><li>Results from an independent laboratory usually are more reliable than results from a laboratory paid by the selling company. </li></ul>4 Evaluating Scientific Explanation Evaluating Promotional Materials <ul><li>It is important that you carefully evaluate advertising claims and the data that support them before making a quick decision to spend your money. </li></ul>
  19. 20. 4 Section Check Question 1 The formal term for observations made during a scientific experiment is_______. A. conclusion B. data C. hypothesis D. theories NC: 1.09
  20. 21. 4 Section Check Question 2 When supporting a claim, you’ll want to have data that is _______. A. impressive B. new C. made up D. specific NC: 1.05
  21. 22. 4 Section Check Question 3 Suppose a person claims to have done an experiment that made him briefly invisible but says that it cannot be done again. You would not believe this person, because _______. NC: 1.09
  22. 23. 4 Section Check <ul><li>Credible scientific experiments must be </li></ul><ul><li>repeatable. </li></ul><ul><li>B. It isn’t possible to become invisible. </li></ul><ul><li>C. No one has ever turned invisible before. </li></ul><ul><li>D. You were not there to see the experiment </li></ul><ul><li>performed. </li></ul>NC: 1.09
  23. 24. 4 Section Check Answer The answer is B. When you evaluate a scientific claim you should examine the data. Is it given? Does it support the claim? NC: 1.09
  24. 25. 4 Section Check Answer The answer is D. The data should be as specific as possible, weeding out generalizations that don’t really help explain the world. NC: 1.05
  25. 26. 4 Section Check Answer The correct answer is A. All scientific experiments must be repeatable before the results can be believed. NC: 1.09
  26. 27. End of Chapter Summary File

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