Chapter 1 S1: What is Science


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What Science is and is not.

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Chapter 1 S1: What is Science

  1. 1. Chapter 1 : The Nature of Science
  2. 2. Table of Contents What is science?
  3. 3. Learning About the World <ul><li>Science is a way of learning more about the natural world . </li></ul><ul><li>Scientists want to know why, how, or when something occurred. </li></ul><ul><li>This learning process usually begins by keeping your eyes open and asking questions about what you see. </li></ul>1 What is science? - Observation & Questioning
  4. 4. Asking Questions <ul><li>Science can attempt to answer many questions about the natural world, but some questions cannot be answered by science. </li></ul><ul><li>Questions about love, art, politics, personal preference, morality, or religion can’t be answered by science. </li></ul><ul><li>Science can’t tell you what is right, wrong, good, or bad. </li></ul>1 What is science? SO WHAT ISN’T SCIENCE?
  5. 5. Possible Explanations <ul><li>Science can answer a question only with the information available at the time. </li></ul>1 What is science?
  6. 6. Possible Explanations <ul><li>As new information becomes available, explanations can be modified or discarded and new explanations can be made. </li></ul>1 What is science?
  7. 7. Scientific Theories <ul><li>An attempt to explain a pattern observed repeatedly in the natural world is called a scientific theory . </li></ul><ul><li>Theories in science must be supported by observations and results from many investigations . </li></ul><ul><li>They are the best explanations that have been found so far. </li></ul>1 What is science?
  8. 8. Scientific Theories <ul><li>Theories can change . As new data become available, scientists evaluate how the new data fit the theory. </li></ul><ul><li>If enough new data do not support the theory, the theory can be changed to fit the new observations better. </li></ul>1 What is science?
  9. 9. Scientific Laws <ul><li>A rule that describes a pattern in nature is a scientific law . </li></ul><ul><li>For an observation to become a scientific law, it must be observed repeatedly. </li></ul>1 What is science? <ul><li>For an observation to become a scientific law, it must be observed repeatedly. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Scientific Laws <ul><li>A law, however, does not explain why, for example, gravity exists or how it works. </li></ul><ul><li>A law, unlike a theory, does not attempt to explain why something happens. It simply describes a pattern. </li></ul>1 What is science? <ul><li>A law, NEVER FAILS THE TEST! </li></ul>
  11. 11. Systems in Science <ul><li>A system is a collection of structures, cycles, and processes that relate to and interact with each other. </li></ul><ul><li>The structures, cycles, and processes are the parts of a system, just like your stomach is one of the structures of your digestive system. </li></ul>1 What is science?
  12. 12. Systems in Science 1 What is science? <ul><li>Your school is a system with structures such as the school building, the tables and chairs, you, your teacher, the school bell, your pencil, </li></ul>and many other things.
  13. 13. Systems in Science <ul><li>Your school day also has cycles. </li></ul>1 What is science? <ul><li>Your daily class schedule and the calendar of holidays are examples of cycles. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Parts of a System Interact <ul><li>In a system, structures, cycles, and processes interact. </li></ul><ul><li>Your daily schedule influences where you go and what time you go. </li></ul>1 What is science? <ul><li>The clock shows the teacher when the test is complete, and you couldn’t complete the test without a pencil. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Parts of a Whole <ul><li>All systems are made up of other systems. </li></ul><ul><li>The human body is a system—within your body are other systems. </li></ul>1 What is science?
  16. 16. Parts of a Whole <ul><li>Scientists often break down problems by studying just one part of a system. </li></ul><ul><li>A scientist might want to learn about how construction of buildings affects the ecosystem. </li></ul>1 What is science? <ul><li>Because an ecosystem has many parts, one scientist might study a particular animal, and another might study the effect of construction on plant life. </li></ul>
  17. 17. The Branches of Science <ul><li>Science often is divided into three main categories, or branches—life science, Earth science, and physical science . </li></ul><ul><li>Each branch asks questions about different kinds of systems. </li></ul>1 What is science?
  18. 18. Life Science <ul><li>The study of living systems and the ways in which they interact is called life science . </li></ul><ul><li>Life scientists can study living organisms, where they live, and how they interact. </li></ul>1 What is science?
  19. 19. Life Science <ul><li>People who work in the health field know a lot about the life sciences. </li></ul><ul><li>Some other examples of careers that use life science include biologists, zookeepers, botanists, farmers, and beekeepers. </li></ul>1 What is science?
  20. 20. Earth Science <ul><li>The study of Earth systems and the systems in space is Earth science . </li></ul><ul><li>It includes the study of nonliving things such as rocks, soil, clouds, rivers, oceans, planets, stars, meteors, and black holes. </li></ul>1 What is science? <ul><li>Earth science also covers the weather and climate systems that affect Earth. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Earth Science <ul><li>Meteorologists study weather and climate. </li></ul><ul><li>Geologists study rocks and geologic features. </li></ul>1 What is science? <ul><li>A volcanologist is a person who studies volcanoes. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Physical Science <ul><li>The study of matter and energy is physical science . </li></ul><ul><li>Matter is anything that takes up space and has mass. </li></ul>1 What is science? <ul><li>The ability to cause change in matter is energy. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Physical Science Physical science can be divided into two general fields—chemistry and physics. <ul><li>Chemistry is the study of matter and the interactions of matter. </li></ul>1 What is science? <ul><li>Physics is the study of energy and its ability to change matter. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Careers <ul><li>Many careers are based on the physical sciences. </li></ul><ul><li>Physicists and chemists are some obvious careers. </li></ul>1 What is science?
  25. 25. Careers 1 What is science? <ul><li>Ultrasound and X-ray technicians working in the medical field study physical science because they study the energy in ultrasound or X-rays and how it affects a living system. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Science and Technology <ul><li>Technology is the practical use of science, or applied science . </li></ul><ul><li>Engineers apply science to develop technology. </li></ul>1 What is science? <ul><li>The study of how to use the energy of sunlight is science. Using this knowledge to create solar panels is technology. </li></ul>
  27. 27. 1 Section Check Question 1 A rule that describes a pattern in nature is known as _______. A. a scientific theory B. a scientific law C. a scientific hypothesis D. a scientific rule NC: 1.05
  28. 28. 1 Section Check Answer The answer is B. A scientific law only recognizes that patterns exist in nature; it doesn’t try to explain why they exist. When you drop a rock, it always falls—thanks to the law of gravity. NC: 1.05
  29. 29. 1 Section Check Question 2 Studying how the sun makes energy is science. Putting this knowledge to use in making solar panels, however, is called _______. A. philosophy B. solar science C. technology D. the scientific method NC: 2.01
  30. 30. 1 Section Check Answer The correct answer is C. The term “technology” refers to the application of knowledge gained through the use of science. For example, understanding why natural gas burns is science; a gas-burning stove is technology. NC: 2.01
  31. 31. 1 Section Check Question 3 Which of the following questions cannot be answered by science? A. How old is the sun? B. How do volcanoes erupt? C. Should we be kind to strangers? D. Why is the sky blue? NC: 1.01
  32. 32. 1 Section Check Answer The answer is C. Moral questions cannot be answered by science. The other questions can be answered by the careful study of nature. NC: 1.01