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Biotechnology at work new tools

  1. 1. Biotechnology Works in North CarolinaNew Tools for the State’s Industries
  2. 2. ContentsOVERVIEW 3 Health Care 9 Improved disease prevention Improved disease detection INDUSTRIES Improved disease treatment Plants as drug factories Animal Agriculture 4 Household Products 10 Animal health Improved breeding Biodegradable plastics Improved animal feed Improved detergents and cleansers Improved or reduced animal waste Healthier foods Improved food safety Industrial Processing 10 Aquatic Life 4–5 Biodegradable plastics Resistance to common diseases Improved manufacturing Improved cultivation practices Biodegradable materials to replace other chemicals Improved sustainability Improved food processing methods Improved food quality Natural Products 10 – 11 Identification of novel compounds Identification of active compounds Defense 5 Improved propagation techniques Improved defense from biological weapons Plant Agriculture 11 – 12 Improved response to biological weapons Improved yield Energy 6 Improved quality Improved energy technologies Improved stress tolerance Improved sustainable energy sources Insect and disease resistance Reduced waste Better weed control Reduced air pollution Plants as bio-factories Environment 6–8 Textiles and Furniture 12 Improved pollution detection Improved strength and appearance Improved pollution removal Improved manufacturing efficiency Improved chemical safety Improved wastewater treatment Improved recycling processes RESOURCES Better control of invasive species Better conservation tools U.S. Biotechnology Product Sales Forecast 13 Forensics 8 Web Sites and Guides 13 Improved identification tests Improved tools for anthropology Guide to Biotechnology Improved understanding of epidemiology Fact Sheets for Educators Scientific research tools Glossary of Biotechnology Terms Transgenic Crops: An Introduction and Resource Guide Forestry 8 Articles and Reports 14 – 15 Improved growth and breeding Improved resistance to insects and disease Protection and restoration of endangered species Reduced manufacturing waste
  3. 3. Biotechnology tools for industriesBiotechnology: Adding New Lifeto North Carolina’s IndustriesOv e rv i e wLike the tall pines of North Carolina’s heritage, biotechnology has found thisstate a fertile landscape for establishing the deep roots and steady growthneeded for strength and breadth.The wide-ranging techniques and processes of biotechnology are becomingwoven into the fabric of the state’s most notable industries, including humanhealth, agriculture, forestry and even biofuels.This document explores that range of applications — business opportunitiesrepresenting extraordinary value to North Carolinians and making the worlda better place for future generations. Some of the more familiar fruits ofbiotechnology are well established, with proven results and obvious benefits.Others are earlier in their movement from science lab to marketplace. Evenmore haven’t yet been conceived. But with nurturing, the promise ofbiotechnology will bring robust growth for North Carolina in coming decades.Every application of biotechnology requires new strategies, targeted effortand patience. Disparate parties — agencies and companies, institutions andcommunity leaders, growers and processors, entrepreneurs and investors —must work together to convert biotechnology’s promise into biotechnologyproducts. Research at North Carolina’s many universities must be directed toreal needs, problems and industries.It’s been a long-term task to develop this richly complicated new toolkit calledbiotechnology. But the rewards are becoming manifest in satisfying careers andworthwhile products for new generations of North Carolina’s citizens, andvaluable opportunities for the state’s industries.Significantly, North Carolina is gaining particular regional benefits from theseapplications of biotechnology. Resources and strengths vary across the state, asdo opportunities. But few states are so well positioned to enjoy the spectrum ofopportunity biotechnology brings to North Carolina.In January 2004 the North Carolina Biotechnology Center published “New JobsAcross North Carolina,” a strategic plan to help guide this growth in every partof the state. What follows in this report are some examples of how biotechnologyis improving processes and products, adding new life — cellular and commercial —to North Carolina’s industries.NORTH C A ROLIN A B IOTECHNOLOGY CENTER
  4. 4. Biotechnology tools for industriesIndustries North Carolina example: North Carolina State University poultry scientist Dr. Jason Shih has created and patented enzymes capable of improvingAnimal Agriculture poultry feeding. The enzymes have been commercial- ized with early help from the Biotechnology Center,Animal health through two loans totaling $40,000 to Research Triangle Park-based BioResource International (BRI).Vaccines and diagnostic tests for improved animal health The firm subsequently raised more than $2.6 millionare being developed for both companion and farm animals. in federal and venture capital funding. North Carolina example: Poultry hatcheries around BRI, a technology spinout of North Carolina State the world use an automated, in ovo (in the egg) University headed by Jason Shih’s son Giles, has be- vaccination system that was developed by Embrex gun selling its Valkerase powdered enzyme product of Durham. Embrex to one of the largest poultry processors in Thailand. has a new vaccine- Valkerase helps turn feathers into a digestible and production plant in nutritious poultry feed additive. Another BRI enzyme Laurinburg. product, Versazyme, improves digestibility of poultry The Biotechnology feed to improve efficiency and reduce feed costs. Center provided more than $260,000 in four Improved or reduced animal waste separate rounds of funding to Embrex, Addition of an enzyme called phytase to animals’ diges- starting in 1986. tive systems can decrease phosphorus content in waste, a The company raised major source of farm pollution. Feed crop plants can also $16.7 million in 1991 be modified for a similar effect. through an initial public offering. On Improved food safety Jan. 19, 2007, Pfizer Animal Health, a Farmers can use biotechnology techniques to rapidly division of Pfizer Inc., bought Embrex for $155 mil- diagnose infectious diseases such as trichinosis, foot- lion. By the time of the Pfizer buy-out, Embrex, now and-mouth disease, bacterial contamination and mad a wholly-owned subsidiary of Pfizer, employed 169 cow disease. This prevents diseased products from people in North Carolina, 307 worldwide. Pfizer said entering our food. it will keep Embrex headquarters in Durham.Improved breeding Aquatic Life Resistance to common diseasesWith selective breeding farmers can avoid geneticdiseases, increase growth rates and muscle mass and Vaccines and genetic improvements in cultivated fishselect the gender in their livestock. and shellfish species can help protect against more than 50 common diseases and parasites, reducing the needImproved animal feed for use of antibiotics and other drugs during cultivation. North Carolina example: North Carolina Sea GrantThanks to biotechnology, farmers can build nutrientsinto feed crops, reducing costs and increasing animal researchers have isolated a peptide antibiotic fromhealth. the American oyster that may have implications for managing many diseases in oysters. AmericanPotentially useful feed additives, such as enzymes and oyster defensin (AOD) may protect against bacteriaantibiotics, can be identified and produced through in Crassostrea virginica, a species that is native tobiotechnology. North Carolina and important economically to Atlantic and Gulf Coast fisheries. Ed Noga, a professor at the North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine, said the peptide may also be helpful in selecting disease-resis- tant oysters for aquaculture and fisheries, and may even allow for the development of a test to monitorNORTH C A ROLIN A B IOTECHNOLOGY CENTER
  5. 5. Biotechnology tools for industries oyster health. Scientists from Yale University’s Keck North Carolina example: Researchers at the Biotechnology Resource Laboratory collaborated University of North Carolina-Wilmington’s Center with Noga on the study. for Marine Science have identified compounds from the algae that cause red tide, which may be useful inImproved cultivation practices developing treatments for cystic fibrosis and other lung-related diseases.Biotechnology contributes to more efficient waste-removal systems, improved breeding rates, and increasedgrowth rates in commercial fisheries. DefenseFour genes that improve muscle growth and development Improved defense from biological weaponshave been identified in rainbow trout. The discoverycould lead to the breeding of bigger fish. Vaccines against biological weapons such as anthrax and smallpox are being developed and produced with North Carolina example: Fisheries in North biotechnology. A recent study showed that enough Carolina contribute an estimated $3 billion to anthrax vaccine to inoculate the entire U.S. population the state annually. could be grown in one acre of transgenic tobacco plants.Improved sustainability North Carolina example: AlphaVax, a Research Triangle Park company that was founded on researchOverall health and sustainability of wild and cultivated done at UNC-Chapel Hill, is developing vaccinesfish communities can be improved by increasing the for disease-causing agents that could protect againstfish’s tolerance to pollution, low oxygen or extreme the effects of terrorist attacks. AlphaVax has re-water temperatures. ceived federal funding for research on vaccines for smallpox, influenza, SARS, botulinum neurotoxins,An “anti-freeze” gene has been isolated from Arctic fish. equine encephalomyelitis viruses and other agents.With this gene, other fish can also survive in colder watertemperatures. In 1997, the North Carolina Biotechnology Center gave AlphaVax a loan of almost $200,000. SinceImproved food quality then, AlphaVax has raised more than $64 million in federal and venture capital funding.Testing and diagnostic systems for fish and shellfish canidentify and eradicate contamination in our food supply. Improved response to biological weaponsProducts such as omega-3 fatty acids can be identified Various products such as oral and nasal spray drugs,and/or extracted from marine sources to be used as artificial skin and blood, and portable detection devicesnutritional additives for food or feed. are being specifically developed for use in battlefields.Identification of novel compounds Monoclonal antibodies can also be used to detect infectious agents and to kill bacterial and viral infectionsIdentification of many new pharmaceutical and in the bloodstream.industrial products from plant and marine sources The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency hashas been made possible funded a number of projects to gather genetic sequencesthrough genetic sequenc- of common infectious agents and create therapeutic drugsing and genomics. for defense from these agents.Several marine productshave also been identifiedwith the potential tobe used as effective andenvironmentally safepesticides. © UNCW / Jamie MoncriefNORTH C A ROLIN A B IOTECHNOLOGY CENTER
  6. 6. Biotechnology tools for industries Improved sustainable energy sources Many biofuels require source material, often from crops such as soybeans and corn. As renewable energy technologies become more economically favorable, this new source of income for farmers will continue to grow. Many economic and socio-political advantages will come from reducing U.S. dependence on foreign petroleum sources, while increasing the income potential for America’s farmers. Reduced waste Another renewable energy source is from waste, including used vegetable oils from restaurants, animal manure, and vegetative debris left after crop or timber harvests. Recycling these products not only creates bioenergy, but reduces waste. Reduced air pollution Burning biofuels produces fewer harmful air pollutants than burning petroleum-based fuels. Environment Improved pollution detection Antibodies, enzymes, microbes and some algae can be used as environmental monitoring tools to detect and measure harmful pollutants in soil and water. North Carolina example: Dr. Vincent Henrich and other scientists at EcoGenomix Inc., a spinoff from the University of North Carolina-Greensboro, are developing a product called WaterChip to analyzeEnergy microbes in water for environmental quality.Improved energy technologies Improved pollution removalBiofuels are made from organic matter and may involve Biotechnology can be used to clean up toxic waste,the use of enzymes. Ethanol and biodiesel are quickly radioactive waste, chemical spills and other pollution inbecoming viable renewable energy sources to complement soil, air and water. Bioremediation is the use of livingand reduce current petroleum usage. organisms such as bacteria and algae to break down toxicBecause algae are fast growing and some species produce contaminants into harmless byproducts.high amounts of oil, they may also be a feasible source North Carolina example: Raleigh-based Ensolveof biodiesel and biofuel energy. Fast-growing plants such Biosystems has developed the PetroLiminator system,as switchgrass may also be important energy sources. the only biologically based certified system in theBiotechnology techniques can increase the efficiency of world for treating bilge water in ships. It uses friendlythese processes. bacteria in a biomechanical process to remove oil, North Carolina example: The first large-scale grease and other pollution from bilge effluent. ethanol plants on the East Coast are being built in North Carolina. In addition, there are numerous small biodiesel processors and stations throughout the state.NORTH C A ROLIN A B IOTECHNOLOGY CENTER
  7. 7. Biotechnology tools for industries The company has garnered some $2 million in fed- Improved wastewater treatment eral and venture capital funding since the Biotech- nology Center loaned the company $218,000 in the Biotechnology-enhanced microorganisms are used in 1990s. One recent award was a $600,000 Small Busi- wastewater treatment. Researchers are using similar ness Innovative Research contract by the U.S. Navy techniques for improved biodegradation of landfill waste, to develop a complete hydrocarbon removal solution and are also investigating ways to recover valuable for use during the cleanup of decommissioned ships. byproducts from the process. North Carolina example: As the second-leading pork-producing state, North Carolina is constantly Improved recycling processes searching for economically feasible methods of hog- Biotechnology can improve and accelerate recycling of a waste disposal. One system being tested in Sampson variety of materials. For example, enzymes can be used to County uses microorganisms to convert solid waste de-ink recycled paper and can decrease the disintegration into gases, which can then be used to create electricity. time of recycled pulp.Improved chemical safety Better control of invasive speciesPaints and cements can be made to include bacteria or Harmful and invasive organisms such as kudzu and redenzymes to prevent the corrosion and contamination algae may be better controlled through biotechnology,that come from bacterial slimes, fungi or algae. This is or even used for beneficial purposes. In fact, kudzu hasparticularly useful for outdoor surfaces of buildings, been proposed for use in herbal medicines and biofuelboats, and transportation infrastructure. production.NORTH C A ROLIN A B IOTECHNOLOGY CENTER
  8. 8. Biotechnology tools for industriesBiotechnology is also providing tools such as environ-mentally friendly pesticides to control populations of Forestryinsect pests, including gypsy moths. Improved growth and breedingBetter conservation tools Rapid propagation of trees through tissue culture techniques provides speed and accuracy to the tree-Biodiversity of plant and animal species may be breeding process.conserved by using biotechnology tools to characterize Growth rates of trees can be increased by helping treesexisting genetic diversity. use energy more efficiently for wood production. In- creased growth rates will allow timber harvest and forest preservation to co-exist.ForensicsImproved identification tests Improved resistance to insects and diseaseSince everyone has a unique DNA sequence, identity can Biotechnology can be used to improve a tree’s resistancebe confirmed through DNA tests. This can be useful in to pests, diseases and climatic stress. Certain fungi andsolving crimes and determining biological ancestry. bacteria can be effective in protecting living trees from disease. North Carolina example: LabCorp, headquartered in Burlington, is a leader in paternity testing, han- In addition, felled trees can be treated with fungi to dling more than 100,000 tests each year. protect the wood from decay until it’s ready to be used. North Carolina example: North Carolina is theImproved tools for anthropology second-largest Christmas tree producer in the nation. Researchers at North Carolina State University areForensic anthropology uses DNA testing on human using biotechnology and genetics to create evergreensremains and animal fossils to shed light on criminal that are taller, bushier, and more resistant to disease.investigations and evolutionary history. North Carolina example: Fox’s TV series “Bones” Protection and restoration of endangered is based on the life of Dr. Kathy Reichs, best-selling species author and forensic anthropologist for the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner in North Carolina. Biotechnology can be used to rescue and restore threat- ened and endangered species, such as the American chest-Improved understanding of epidemiology nut, a tree once found throughout Appalachian forests.Forensic pathologists can study historically relevant North Carolina example: Restoration of “heritagepathogens (such as the 1918 Spanish flu) to predict and trees” is a major project at the Institute of Forestprevent future outbreaks. Biotechnology, located on North Carolina State University’s Centennial Campus in Raleigh. The initiative is focused on the American chestnut,Scientific research tools elm and Fraser fir.DNA sequencing, protein analysis, cell culture and otheradvances in research technologies allow scientists to more Reduced manufacturing wastequickly and accurately do their work. Biotechnologyis combined with information technologies to create Biopulping, the use of enzymes in pulp processes, canpowerful research tools for sifting through large volumes greatly decrease cost and increase efficiency. Similarly,of data. using enzymes in biobleaching can reduce the use of bleaching chemicals, energy costs and toxic waste and North Carolina example: A research services com- improve paper quality. pany in High Point, MWG Biotechnology, provides DNA sequencing and custom molecular products for Reduction in lignin content and/or increases in cellulose researchers around the world. content in trees result in a reduced chemical input for paper mills. North Carolina example: Zen-Bio, located in Re- search Triangle Park, has developed a novel method for growing human fat cells in the laboratory. The technique may be used to investigate new drugs and understand diseases related to obesity.NORTH C A ROLIN A B IOTECHNOLOGY CENTER
  9. 9. Biotechnology tools for industriesHealth Care The North Carolina Biotechnology Center awarded a $150,000 faculty recruitment grant to help Dr. AtalaImproved disease prevention bring another world-class research faculty member into his lab.Vaccines are being developed against cancer, rabies,malaria and many other diseases. Plants as drug factoriesImproved disease detection In addition to producing industrial enzymes, plants can be engineered to produce large quantities of vaccines andRapid and cost-effective diagnostic tests for strep throat, other biologics for health care uses.cancer and high cholesterol have been developed with theuse of biotechnology. Early diagnosis of these and other North Carolina example: Biolex Therapeutics, adiseases leads to earlier and more effective treatment. drug-development company based in Pittsboro, uses a tiny aquatic plant called lemna, or duckweed (below),Genetic tests can warn of potential diseases, such as to make complex proteins and monoclonal antibodies.diabetes, cancer and asthma so therapies can begin asearly as possible. The North Carolina Biotechnology Center awarded Biolex a $100,000 Small Business Research loan in North Carolina example: LabCorp, headquartered 2000. Since then, Biolex has raised more than $83 in Burlington, is a pioneer in technologies for diag- million in venture capital. nostic testing and genetic analysis of diseases such as cancer, HIV and cystic fibrosis. North Carolina example: An Asheville company, Genova Diagnostics, specializes in developing non- invasive tests to diagnose digestive diseases.Improved disease treatmentBiotechnology techniques are used to develop andmanufacture therapeutic proteins as well as insulinand blood-clotting factors. North Carolina example: In Clayton, Talecris Biotherapeutics makes Gamimune N and Gamunex, immunoglobulin intravenous therapy products used to prevent or treat some illnesses that can occur when a person’s immune system alone cannot prevent those diseases.Gene therapy may be used as a technique for treating anumber of hereditary diseases.The intricacies of organ transplantation are being inves-tigated as scientists discover ways to provide replacementorgans from animals, as well as cell transplants to tempo-rarily substitute for working organs. North Carolina example Ventria Bioscience, a Sacramento, Calif., biotechnology company, has North Carolina example: Anthony Atala, M.D., begun testing a North Carolina-grown experimental director of the Institute for Regenerative Medicine medical treatment incorporating human proteins at Wake Forest University School of Medicine in grown in plants. The proteins are produced in trans- Winston-Salem, has achieved long-term success with genic rice grown on a Washington County farm and implanted bladders grown in his laboratory from are being examined for their ability to combat child- cells taken from the same children and teenagers who hood diarrhea — the world’s second-biggest infec- received the organs. Such laboratory-grown organs tious killer of children under the age of 5. may help solve the shortage of donated organs avail- able for transplantation.NORTH C A ROLIN A B IOTECHNOLOGY CENTER
  10. 10. Biotechnology tools for industriesHousehold Products Industrial ProcessingBiodegradable plastics Biodegradable plasticsPlastic materials can be bioplastics, making them biode- Biodegradable plastics can be manufactured from plantgradable and decreasing oil consumption by 90 to 145 material through biotechnology, which could reduce themillion barrels per year. demand for petroleum products by 20 to 80 percent. Adoption of bioplastics could also reduce our current North Carolina example: The Research Triangle plastic waste by up to 80 percent. Park campuses of the Environmental Protection Agency and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences use bio-based, compostable plastic Improved manufacturing flatware at their cafeterias. The use of biological molecules in industrial processes can help companies conserve energy and reduce toxicImproved detergents and cleansers waste emissions, thereby lessening the environmental impact of manufacturing.Enzymes discovered and produced through biotechnol-ogy methods are used as detergents and detergentadditives. Proteases, amylases and lipases are used to Biodegradable materials to replacedissolve protein, starch, and fatty stains on clothing, other chemicalswhile other enzymes are used to prevent dye leaching Vegetable oils can be modified to meet industrial needsand fraying of fabric. for coatings, plastics, cosmetics, lubricants and inks. North Carolina example: Novozymes, a Denmark- based world leader in enzymes and microorganisms Improved food processing methods for home and industrial uses, has a major presence in North Carolina. Modification of the structure of starch from crops such as corn and potatoes may improve freezing stability and North Carolina example: EarthWellTech, which nutritional content. originated in Asheville, is a specialty chemical company that researches, produces and markets bio-based cleaning solutions. Natural ProductsHealthier foods Identification of active compoundsNaturally caffeine-free coffee and tea, reduced-cholesterol Many medicinal herbs are gaining popularity for use invegetable oil and a variety of other functional foods are complementary and alternative medicine. Biotechnologybeing developed through biotechnology. tools can be used to identify and characterize active com- pounds in medicinal herbs, improving public acceptanceBiotechnology has been used for thousands of years of these alternative make food products such as cheese, wine, beer andyogurt. North Carolina example: The antioxidant proper- ties of grapes and blueberries, grown throughout the North Carolina example: ZuZu Bioceuticals of state, have increased the marketability of these fruits Wrightsville Beach has patented processes to produce in recent years. omega-3 and the red pigment astaxanthin, both use- ful food additives. North Carolina example: The newly emerging North Carolina Research Campus in Kannapolis North Carolina example: Nitta Gelatin has opened includes plans for the Dole Research Institute. There, a new manufacturing plant in Cumberland County to scientists will study nutrition and seek improvements produce 3,000 tons of gelatin a year. Gelatin is a pro- in fruits and vegetables. tein product made from the byproducts of the meat industry. Gelatin has many uses in food, biotechnol- ogy, medicine, cosmetics and other industries.NORTH C A ROLIN A B IOTECHNOLOGY CENTER 10
  11. 11. Biotechnology tools for industriesImproved propagation techniques North Carolina example: Researchers at Sun Dance Genetics and Duke University have used biotechnologyMany plants grow better from cuttings and shoots than tools to create a new hybrid corn with drought toler-from seeds. Using tissue culture techniques can speed up ance and improved yield.the propagation process for many fruits and herbs, andcan even be used to recover endangered plant species. Insect and disease resistance Plants with built-in resistance to pests and disease canPlant Agriculture greatly reduce the use of agricultural chemicals. In 2004, biotech crops reduced pesticide use by 62 million poundsImproved yield in the U.S. while reducing costs and increasing overallGenetically modi- crop yields.fied crops can yield North Carolina example: Syngenta, a globalmore or bigger agribusiness company with locations inseeds, fruits or Research Triangle Park and Greensboro, hastubers per acre developed Bt Corn that contains a proteinplanted. They may to repel destructive pests such asalso be encouraged caterpillars and cornto produce more borers, without the usenutrients, such as of chemical sprays.oils, proteins orvitamins. North Carolina example: In 2004,Biotechnology in- 6 percent andcreased crop yields and 80 percent of thereduced production costs state’s corn andworth $2.3 billion for U.S. cotton crops,growers in 2004. respectively, were North Carolina example: North Carolina’s farm insect resistant. income was improved by more than $64 million from its four main biotech crops: corn, cotton, soybeans Better weed control and squash. Crops can be engineered to resist certain herbicides, allowing farmers to use smaller amountsImproved quality and less-hazardous versions of weed-control chemicals.Fruits, vegetables and other crops can be improved North Carolina example: Herbicide-resistant cottonthrough biotechnology to increase nutritional value and is grown in eastern North Carolina. Beaufort Countyto improve taste, color and freshness. farmer Milton Prince grows 2,700 acres of biotechAllergen-free wheat, rice, peanuts, milk, eggs and fish cotton that resists the environmentally friendly butmay be produced. broadly effective herbicide Roundup. Prince has said, “These genetically engineered cultivars gave us the op- North Carolina example: Nicotine-free tobacco, portunity to grow cotton and control weeds effectively. developed by Vector Tobacco, of Mebane, is used to Without biotechnology, cotton would not be grown in make low- and no-nicotine cigarettes. this area today— no question about it.”Improved stress toleranceAfter plants are genetically improved for drought andsalt tolerance, they can be grown in places where theycould not be grown before. Growing seasons can also belengthened by modifying plants’ cold and frost tolerance.NORTH C A ROLIN A B IOTECHNOLOGY CENTER 11
  12. 12. Biotechnology tools for industriesPlants as bio-factories Improved manufacturing efficiencyPlants can act as factories to produce high quantities of Biotechnology processes will allow textile mills to reduceindustrial enzymes and polymers. This method is often their water consumption by 20 to 50 percent.cheaper and quicker than traditional production tech- Bio-based polymers use less petroleum to manufacture.niques. Tobacco has a number of positive qualities thatmake it ideal for this purpose. North Carolina example: DuPont’s corn-derived nonwoven polymer Sorona, to be manufactured in Kinston, for use in clothing, carpeting, upholstery,Textiles and Furniture plastics and other items, requires 30 to 40 percent less energy to produce.Improved strength and appearance North Carolina example: Socks made from a corn-Cotton can be genetically modified to produce longer based fiber called Ingeo are being manufactured inand stronger fibers and a wider array of natural colors. Conover, Hickory and High Point.Spider silk and other strong and flexible natural andsynthetic textiles can be made rapidly and in largequantities with biotechnology tools.Biotechnology can help improve dye uptake and retentionin textiles, and enhance absorbency of the final product.In addition, biotech cotton has improved wrinkle andshrink resistance. North Carolina example: In 2005, DuPont announ- ced plans to make a bio-based fiber at its plant in Kinston. DuPont says its Sorona is a new brand of fabric made from corn sugar that takes dyes well, has great stretch recovery and makes a stain-resistant carpet fiber. North Carolina example: Laam Sciences, a spinout company from North Carolina State University, is developing a coating for textiles that will confer antiviral properties to treated fabrics.NORTH C A ROLIN A B IOTECHNOLOGY CENTER 12
  13. 13. Biotechnology tools for industries ResourcesU.S. Biotechnology Product Sales Forecast(dollars in millions)   Base Year Forecast Years ’04–’14 Growth Key Sectors  2004 2009 2014 (annual %) Human Therapeutics $19,800 $33,400 $56,000 11 Human Diagnostics $3,400 $4,700 $6,100 6 Agriculture $1,900 $3,800 $7,000 14 Specialties $900 $1,700 $2,800 12 Non-Medical Diagnostics  $500 $900 $1,300 10 TOTAL  $26,500 $44,500 $73,200 11 Source: Consulting Resources Corporation, In an effort to make conservative estimates, CRC’s sales forecasts for agriculture include genetically enhanced crops on a value-added basis,rather than on the basis of total seed or crop revenues.Web Sites and Guides Transgenic Crops: An Introduction and Resource GuideGuide to Biotechnology This publication from Colorado State University The Biotechnology Industry Organization (BIO) contains background information and graphics. It publishes a guide to biotechnology annually. was last updated in 2004. It contains some great practical examples for more in-depth study on particular topics within biotech. North Carolina Biotechnology CenterFact Sheets for Educators The North Carolina Biotechnology Center Web site is the most comprehensive access point for informa- A series of fact sheets was developed by the GEO-PIE tion about biotechnology throughout the state. It’s Project to cover a broad range of issues related to updated daily with news items, virtual versions of genetically engineered organisms and genetic engi- publications such as this one, and a wide range of neering in U.S. agriculture. There are individual other resources. fact sheets for major crops (corn, soybean, cotton, tomato), as well as some that describe the technology in more detail. The fact sheets were last updated in May 2003, so the statistics may be outdated, but the explanations are very clear for a lay audience. educators.htmlNORTH C A ROLIN A B IOTECHNOLOGY CENTER 13
  14. 14. Biotechnology tools for industriesArticles and Reports Organization.The following sources were used to create this report: Biotech: “The Smell of Wealth.” Access Excellence, The “Effective, Safe Anthrax Vaccine can be Grown in Tobacco Plants.” National Health Museum. Science Daily, December 20, 2005.“Avian flu virus growing similar to lethal ‘Spanish flu’.” The Washington Post, October 5, 2005. Environmental Biotechnology Cooperative Research Centre, Australia. article/2005/10/05/AR2005100501565.html “Enzymes and Laundry Detergents.” Southwest Biotechnology and“Bio-pharming.” Transgenic Crops: An Introduction and Resource Informatics Center (SWBIC). Guide, Colorado State University. “Food Biotechnology.” International Food Information Council“Biotechnology and its Applications.” Department of Food Science, Foundation, May 2004. NC State University Cooperative Extension. Genetically Engineered Organisms — Public Issues Education Project.“Biotechnology-Derived Crops Planted in 2004 – Impacts on US Agriculture.” National Center for Food Agricultural Policy. December 2005. “GM Crops could bring allergy relief in the future.” FoodToday, Issue #6. 1998. European Food Information Council (EUFIC).“Biotechnology for the 21st Century: New Horizons.” National Science and Technology Council, July 1995. “How to Unlock the Magic of Nature.” Business North Carolina. June 2005.“Biotechnology in Forestry.” Canadian Forest Service (CFS), April 2005. McKeon, Thomas A. “Genetically Modified Crops for Industrial Products and Processes and their Effects on Human Health.” Trends index_e.html in Food Science and Technology. Vol. 14. 2003, p.229-241.“Biotechnology Sparks an Industrial Revolution.” Solutions! “New Biotech Tools for a Cleaner Environment.” BIO. June 2004. Biotechnology Industry Organization (BIO), October 2004, p. 42-3.!200410.pdf North Carolina Sea Grant Program Web site, accessed Jan. 20, 2005.Cheremisinoff, Nicholas P. Biotechnology for Waste and Wastewater Treatment. Westwood, NJ: Noyes Publications, 1996.“Bio 2005-2006 Guide to Biotechnology.” Biotechnology Industry Raloff, Janet. “Toxic Surfs.” Science News, July 23, 2005.NORTH C A ROLIN A B IOTECHNOLOGY CENTER 14
  15. 15. Biotechnology tools for industriesRawlins, Wade. “New hog waste treatments might prove too costly.” Prepared by The News Observer. Dec. 27, 2006. Karin Shank and Sperry Krueger“The Role of Biotechnology for the Characterisation and Conservation of Crop, Forest, Animal and Fishery Genetic Resources in Library and Information Services Developing Countries” [e-mail conference held June–July 2005]. Jim Shamp Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. News Publications EditorRoston, Eric. “Going Green: DuPont’s CEO believes his company’s science can help reduce the earth’s pollution.” Time. Dec. 19, 2005. Acknowledgements The authors were assisted in the development of this“Scientists find genes to make fish fatter.” Food Navigator, January 18, report by the contributions of many Biotechnology 2006. Center staff, including:Seo, Jung-Kil et al. “Purification of a novel arthropod defensin William Bullock from the American oyster, Crassostrea virginica.” Biochemical Steven Burke and Biophysical Research Communications, Vol. 338, No. 4, 30 December 2005. Boris Hartl Randall Johnson“The Use of Genetically Modified Crops in Developing Countries.” Kathleen Kennedy, PhD Nuffield Council on Bioethics. 2003. Rob Lindberg, PhD Maria Rapoza, PhD gmcropsdevcountries/report_212.htm John Richert“The Value of Biotechnology to Southern Appalachian Forests.” Christy Russell Institute of Forest Biotechnology, Raleigh, NC, 2003. Bill Schy, PhD Barry TeaterVan Deynze, Allen, et al. “Crop Biotechnology: Feeds for Livestock.” Ken Tindall, PhD Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Seed Biotechnology Center, UC-Davis, 2004. Design + Layout: Sheilah Barrett-CarrollWard, Kevin A. “Phosphorus-Friendly Transgenics.” Nature Biotechnology. Vol. 19, May 2001. Jay Harlow Kim MarcomNORTH C A ROLIN A B IOTECHNOLOGY CENTER 15
  16. 16. 06-062 CA = • 3/200715 T.W. Alexander Drive • PO Box 13547 • Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-3547919-541-9366 • fax 919-990-9544 • www.ncbiotech.orgasheville · charlotte · greenville · research triangle park · wilmington · winston-salem