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Developing SEAL


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Developing SEAL

  1. 1. Developing SEAL : what does theevidence say we need to do? Professor Katherine Weare Universities of Southampton and Exeter skw Bridgend July 2011
  2. 2. AimsOutline the origins andevidence for the key featuresand principles of SEALExplore what recent researchadds to the pictureTo clarify what actions youneed to take as a result.
  3. 3. l Health Promoting Schools inMy role Europe: Mental Health l Reviewing evidence e.g. for UK Govt (‘what works”) and EU (Dataprev) l Helping design SEAL programmes l Advisory e.g. TaMHS, Early Intervention, WHO, Scottish Assembly
  4. 4. SEAL drew on international work from a rangeof interrelated perspectives….
  5. 5. SEAL drew onl Long term work in LAs on SEL e.g. Cumbria, Southampton, Bristol, Birminghaml Successful whole school approaches e.g. Healthy Schools, Anti-bullying, diversityl Evaluated SEL programmes in UK e.g. PATHS, Second Step, Incredible Years, Friendsl Successful SEL work elsewhere e.g. Australia - resilient schools, Norway - bullying, US – conflict resolution, solving problems, emotional control, optimisml Secondary SEAL – on primary
  6. 6. Schools who opted for SEAL had a range ofmotives:l To raise achievement/ continuous improvementl To support what the school does anyway but get more explicit and coherent e.g. about skillsl To extend Healthy Schools and PSHE work on emotional health and wellbeingl To address particular problems – staff or pupilsl To build staff confidence, staff skillsl To get out of special measures/ impress Ofstedl Secondary – to build on work in primary feeder schools
  7. 7. Based on a new understanding of the role of social and emotional learning in schoolsl Traditional view Modern viewl For young children l Everyone including adultsl Responsibility of the l Everywhere e.g. secondary home/ health services schools, workplacesl For special needs/ those l All of us, including ‘without with problems problems’(?)l Trouble shooting/ l Positives e.g. wellness, growth, prevention strengths,l Bolt on extra/low status activity l Central to life and educationall Wishful thinking - an art goals – learning, behaviour, not a science relationships, career l Evidence based – it can work
  8. 8. Primary SEALl Initially mainly curriculum based - 7 themes, 5 levelsl 1 lesson a week across whole primary school plus assembliesl Delivered how schools wish e.g. PSHE, circle time, literacy etcl Developed whole school guidance, work with parents – Family Seal, work for special needs – silver set
  9. 9. Secondary SEALl Built on primary SEAL, international evidence, and pilotl Web basedl Whole school approach from the outset – school organisation, staff development, behaviour, parents etcl Using diverse models of implementationl Emphasis on staff developmentl Learning materials for years 7-9 and anti-bullying
  10. 10. Some key landmarks/ evidencel What works in promoting emotional and social competence University of Southampton (2004) – SEL can work, outline of principles, need for home grown approachl Evaluations of SEAL by Institute of Education, Ofsted NFER – SEAL popular with schools, modestly positive on hard outcomesl NICE reviews of primary, secondary, violence related, targeted (2009) principles generally endorsed, SEAL supportedl Evaluation of secondary SEAL by University of Manchester (2010) disappointing on outcomes, need for high quality implementationl Evaluation of secondary SEAL by University of Sussex (2010) SEAL can work well – central importance of implementation and school ethosl Dataprev – EU review 2011 – SEL can work if done well, principles endorsed, need for high quality evaluation especially for whole school approaches
  11. 11. Overall findings of reviews l Strong group of SEL interventions l Few adverse effects l Positive, and small to moderate effects, overall (average 0.28) on all the areas reviewed l Some interventions sometimes have much stronger effects in some circumstances l Positive impact on academic learning l Effects cannot be relied on – devil is in the detail
  12. 12. Well designed interventions can impact on l Positive health and wellbeing: l Mental health problems - anxiety, depression, stress l Social and emotional skills l Social behaviour l Teacher retention, performance and morale l Attendance l Learning
  13. 13. Recent summary of results of 207 SEL programmes in US:l 11% improvement in achievement testsl 25% improvement in social and emotional skillsl 10% decrease in classroom misbehaviour, anxiety and depressionSocial and emotional learning (SEL) andstudent hBrief.pdf
  14. 14. l Sound theory and evidence based Key ingredientsl Whole school, integrated of effectivel Supportive ethos and environment – approaches balance key featuresl Balance universal, targeted, indicatedl Develop skillsl Partnerships with parentsl High quality implementationl Monitoring and evaluationl Strong leadershipl Effective staff development
  15. 15. The key principles/ ingredients of effectiveapproacheslSound theory and evidence
  16. 16. Evidence from neuroscience- brain isan emotional organ l Cerebral cortex - value driven and can only process what the limbic system lets in l Limbic system – gatekeeper -responds to what is emotionally meaningful/ valued l Reptilian brain – basic survival - all that is left to us under stress l Brains pathways need social and emotional attachments to grow
  17. 17. Learning and performance of staff andpupils is improved by wellbeing l Stress is the enemy of rational thought l Chronic emotional problems make learning difficult l Unattached people find learning difficult l Ready to learn when we feel safe, valued l We think about/ process what we feel strongly about l Learn better when alert but relaxed and focused – flow l Helps staff feel motivated, and perform
  18. 18. Whole school approachwith supportive schoolethos
  19. 19. The whole school environment Skill development Management Curriculum and Leadership Methods Policies Pupil support Staff Pupil involvement School climate and ethos Community Parents Physical environment Outside agencies• More is better, so long as it is coordinated and coherent
  20. 20. Create balanced environments and ethosl Relationships e.g. warmth, listening, respectl Clarity e.g. rules and boundariesl Participation e.g. belonging, bonding, ownership CARP?l Autonomy e.g. independence, critical thinking
  21. 21. Relationships… l Warmth l Sense of connectedness, belonging, valuing l Respect l Empathy l Focus on positives e.g. behaviour management l Listening l Learning social skills, cooperation l Fun, humour
  22. 22. Participationl Involvement, engagement, ownershipl Openness and transparencyl Diversity/ success for alll Bottom up’ approachl Shared goals, values, powerl Groupwork, teamworkl Peer learningl Learning stylesl Pupil voicel Partnerships e.g. parents, community, agencies
  23. 23. Clarity– clear, explicit, positive….l Values and aimsl Goals - measurablel Boundaries, rulesl Congruencel Consistency e.g. rewards and consequencesl Roles and responsibilitiesl Standards and expectationsl Sense of safety
  24. 24. Autonomyl Self determinationl Questioningl Independencel Having controll Personal responsibilityl Independent thinkingl Critical awareness including staffl Real choices, decision making, responsibilityl Involve pupils e.g. in management of their behaviour and learning
  25. 25. Balanceuniversal,targeted,indicated
  26. 26. Get right balancelUniversal – for alllTargeted – at risk interventionslIndicated – one to one for severe problems
  27. 27. Universal approach more helpful for thosewith problems than targeted alone l Less stigmatising l Problems are widespread, on a continuum, connected l Same processes which help everyone help those with problems – ‘more’ not ‘different’ l Provides educated ‘critical mass’ of people to help those with problems
  28. 28. Targeting - start early and keep going l Brief interventions can sometimes work with mild problems -but most take time l Target the youngest/ address early l Spiral approach/ booster sessions l Integrate with whole school l Use small groups and one to one l Beware using groups with same problem, especially bullying l Use experts to support in-school work, not just withdraw pupils l Strong parental involvement
  29. 29. Specific mental health issuesl Self esteem – tough to influence, best if focused onl Depression – also tough, associated problems make it complicated. Long term, CBT/Social Skills indicated.l Anxiety, stress, easier to influence with medium term interventions using mixed methods e.g. relaxation, CBT, meditation, body workl Conduct disorder – short term can work, long term is better, training teachers to be less negative helpsl Bullying – whole school work, with bullies, victims and bystandersl Universal suicide prevention - unwise
  30. 30. Some generally effective targetedapproaches • Long term programmes on social and emotional skills – reinforced in all interactions with children • CBT l Conflict resolution programmes l Play based approaches l Nurture groups l Parenting programmes
  31. 31. Skills and the curriculum
  32. 32. What are the skills are we trying todevelop in students and staff? l Self understanding l Understanding and managing the emotions l Motivation l Social skills l Empathy
  33. 33. Learning skills l Learning outcomes clear and explicit through school day l Underpins all teaching and learning l Includes peer work l Sensitive to differences e.g. cultures, learning styles, stage l Empowers - not coercive or manipulative l Use the key methods of skills learning e.g. generalisation, coaching, feedback, modelling l Monitored to improve learning, not label the student
  34. 34. Myriad opportunities for learning...Out of classroom Thee.g. sports, trips, visits, curriculumstudent council, work Subjectsexperience PSHCE Circle time Learning and teaching, thinking skillsStaff development Student supportCoaching TutorialsModelling Counselling and guidance Careers
  35. 35. Methodsl Active, varied, experientiall Groupworkl Peer approachesl Use identification/practice/generalisationl Use coaching, feedback, mentoringl Structured lessons, scaffolding etcl Modelling
  36. 36. l Share the goals Working withl Involve parents in delivering the programme parentsl Recognise parental concerns and anxieties e.g. about language, stigma, their own difficultiesl Normalise -include wellbeing in home/school literature e.g. contracts, postcards home, parents evening discussionsl Use variety of outreach methods – meetings, leaflets etcl Integrate it into events parents come to anyway e.g. plays, concertsl Parenting programmes – teach skills
  37. 37. High quality implementation
  38. 38. High quality implementationl Explicit: focused directly on desired outcomesl Well defined, specific and measurable goalsl Explicit guidelines, possibly manualisedl Thorough training and quality controll Ongoing support for staffl Complete and accurate implementationl Consistent, comprehensive coherent, coordinated, congruentl Success monitored
  39. 39. Monitoring and evaluation Built into the implementation cycle Use tailored measures e.g. inventories and questionnaires of skills, values, opinions Assessment of whole school ethos Ask all involved, staff, students, parents Use existing data e.g. attendance, incidents, academic results Qualitative approach, e.g. interviews, discussions Use same tools across schools for comparison
  40. 40. Founded on sound leadershipand staff development
  41. 41. Key challenge – motivating self,and staff l “What has this got to do with education”? l “Too many other initiatives”
  42. 42. Address the wellbeing of staff l Listened to l Respected l Given autonomy and choice l Help with own stress levels l Take change slowly l Integrate the new with normal activity l Time to develop own skills
  43. 43. Effective leadership for SEAL l Strong and involved lead from the top l Clear, focused, explicit l Clear specification of responsibilities l Clear what is different from what went before, and why l Linked with concerns of your staff l Integrated with normal staff development l Taken slowly and with sense of ownership l Allow criticism
  44. 44. How far are you looking after yourown wellbeing? l Time for self l Allowing yourself to be human and make mistakes l Seeking as well as giving support l Stress reduction l Work- leisure balance
  45. 45. Social and emotional learning is central to good education