Embedding Critical Thinking Skills in Education teaching
The Greatest Need... The Highest Desire...
OUTCOMES• Meaning & Significance of CT• Intentional Teaching of CT• Embedding & Assessing CT• Creating CT Teaching/ Assessment Plan
CRITICAL THINKING?• CT is the evaluation & judgment of a solution to a problem or issue. (Vincent Ruggerio)• CT is reflective thinking that is focused on driving what to do and believe. (Robert Ennis)
CRITICAL THINKING• Making sense of the world by carefully examining our thinking & the thinking of others in order to clarify & improve our understanding. (John Chaffee)
CT Equation Evaluation, Judgment, Reflection, Making Sense, Understanding___________________________ Student to be ACTIVELY & INTENTIONALLY engaged in CT
SIGNIFICANCE OF CT• To learn is to think• To think poorly is to learn poorly• THEREFORE, to think well is to learn well• All content, to be learned, must be intellectually constructed• CAUTION: Memorizing IS NOT learning Source: Eric Rusten & Susan Schuman – USAID/PAEM & MoE
CT SKILLS TO CONSIDER EMBEDDING• Mind Mapping• Asking Qs• Defining the central issue/ problem• Classifying information into groups• Placing info. in sequential order• Distinguishing fact from opinion
ASSESSMENT OF CT• What form of assessment? Good Q!• Better Q is: How valid is the assessment?• Qs with a single correct answer do not promote CT• Move from simple to challenging CT tasks
ASSESSMENT OF CT• MCQs generally not good for engaging in CT• Supplement MCQs with short essay Qs to test CT
ASSESSMENT OF CT• Reasoning by Analogy – Foundation to all general intelligence (Hunt, 1982)• Reflection – Ask Students to reflect & write the steps, rules used & the sequence in problem solving situations
ASSESSMENT OF CT– Ranking Assignment: present a task with several options and ask to rank in order of priority with supporting reasons– Lecture Summary on Wiki • Most important concepts, in student own words, using their examples
EXPERIENCE SHARING• Connecting the dots assignment• Write a paper (50-words) discussing how what students learned in that weeks topic is connected to other courses or life?
SCAFFOLDING• Provision of appropriate support for learning CT is crucial – This support to be gradually withdrawn
SCAFFOLDING• Atmosphere of Trust – Allowing students to take risks and make mistakes• Validate students’ contributions – Make encouraging nods & show patience