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  1. 1. CHARLES M McDOWELLL a n d s c a p e A r c h i t e c t u r e P o r t f o l i o
  2. 2. DESIGN “There is a love of wild nature in everybody, an ancient mother-love showing itself whether recognized or no, and however covered by cares and duties.” - John Muir PHILOSOPHY In every person there is an appreciation and respect for the natural environment. This comes from a primitive relationship with the environment that some may have forgotten, ignored, or never experienced, but it is still rooted deep within us. Through design, it is possible to provide an environment in which people can reconnect to that basic relationship with nature. Each project has a unique opportunity to reveal and expose the local environmental and cultural conditions to the users. In this way people can reconnect with nature through their own personal experience and learn to appreciate and respect the natural environment in their own way.
  3. 3. pen & ink sketches hand renderings watershed plan colorado lightsrainier t.o.d. competition sand turn overlook doane college r .a.c. brush creek eco-designEvery project throughout this portfolio has one thing in common, they all reveal and expose the local environmental conditions to theusers. The ability to connect people to their environment is addressed at multiple scales in different ways. Each project responds to thedesign philosophy uniquely to create a sense of place specific to each project.An extended version of the portfolio can be accessed at:
  4. 4. course: Study Abroad - Orvieto, Italy - Spring 2010 Internship - Bighorn National Forest - Summer 2010media: Pen & InkPEN & INK SKETCHES umbria - tuscany, italy sheridan, wyoming
  5. 5. maker and colored pencilcourse: Graphic Design & Visual Thinking - Fall 2007 Planting Design - Fall 2008 Mixed Use Design - Fall 2009media: Pen & Ink, Marker, Colored Pencil, WatercolorHAND RENDERINGS dallas, texas kanas city, missouri maker and colored pencil
  6. 6. maker and colored pencil watercolorwatercolor watercolor
  7. 7. Manhattan, Kansas will grow by over twenty thousand people inthe next ten years due to the relocation of the National Bio andAgro-Defense Facility and the initiation of the Base Realignmentand Closure which will effect the military base at Fort Riley.Currently Manhattan’s community plan and vision will not handlethis increase in population effectively. The current politicalboundaries are not consistent with watershed boundaries.Existing zoning and subdivision boundaries cross watersheds,making it difficult to effectively manage water resources. Thereis little evidence of environmental stewardship in the community,illustrated by the inadequate protection of agricultural and openspace areas. There is an extensive park and trail network withinthe existing city but there is a lack of connectivity. community stream cleaning and trail constructionThe solution to the design problem is a framework for planningby watershed which highlights the concepts of preservingnatural and cultural resources, including the prairie ecosystemand agricultural lands, while promoting stewardship throughcommunity education. Through stream setbacks, and landuse proposals a set of typologies have been created to setthe framework for new development within the watersheds ofManhattan, Kansas.The design team consisted of three landscape architecturegraduate students. environmental education at wetlandscourse: MKS Futures - Summer 2009media: ArcGIS, AutoCAD, Adobe Illustrator & PhotoshopWATERSHED PLAN manhattan, kansas elementary education at neighborhood greenway
  8. 8. ! ! ! ! ! ! !schools and parks agricultural lands flood prone areas proposed land use plan N big blue river parklandThe dilemmas that were addressed in the comprehensive buffer type 1 kansas state universitywatershed plan focused around existing conditions which buffer type 2 existing schools, food marketsincluded: schools and parks, highly productive agricultural lands, buffer type 3 existing trailsand flood prone areas. The proposed land use plan maximizes conservation land city proposed trailsthe amount of developable land, not within flood prone areas,while increasing agricultural opportunities and creating new agricultural land proposed trailsconnections between schools, parks, and open spaces. urban land existing city of manhattan
  9. 9. trail trail stream type 2 kansas state university stream stream kansas state university agriculture land i l l d buffer buffer agriculture land i l l d 100 ft. setback 100 ft. setback • wildlife corridor • native prairie grasses • trails • woodlands • healthy ecosystem • wetlandsstream types stream type 1 stream type 2 stream type 3 trail trail kansas state university city of manhattan stream type 3 residential stream stream residentialStream types were defined by the existing conditions of the development buffer buffer developmentstream and by the size of the stream; type 1 being the largest and • native vegetation 50 ft. setback 50 ft. setback • stormwater retrofits • stormwater best • wildlife corridor • native prairie grasses • transitional buffer areastype 3 being the smallest. From the defined stream types, stream management practices • trails • woodlands • pedestrian connectivitytypologies were developed to serve as an example of how land • low impact development • healthy ecosystem • wetlands • runoff managed in watersheduses could be implemented. The main result of setting streamtypologies was the implementation of a 300 ft. riparian buffer fortype 1 streams , a 100 ft. buffer for type 2 streams, and a 50 ft.buffer for type 3 streams. 500 year floodplain bmp bmp 100 year floodplain trail trail trail trail trailnatural outdoor classroom community communityarea and green space agriculture green space riverfront stream stream wetlands commercial residential park buffer buffer • stormwater management produce agriculture development • community events • passive recreation 300 ft. setback stream type 1 300 ft. setback • stormwater treatment • highly fertile soil • native vegetation • stormwater retrofits • community celebrations • active recreation • wildlife corridor • native prairie grasses • restored ecosystem • vegetable and fruit • stormwater best • transitional buffer areas • community center • community involvement • trails • woodlands production management practices • pedestrian connectivity • agriculture education • environmental education • healthy ecosystem • wetlands • local employment • low impact development • runoff managed in watershed
  10. 10. output buffer natural food sources output buffer agriculture education output buffer urbanizationbuffer function wildlife corridors runoff sediment fertilizer chemicals trailsOne strategic move to improve water quality within the watershedwas to implement stream buffers on existing streams. As thestream buffers are implemented on different types of land uses,the buffers will function to filter out different types of pollutants.
  11. 11. Colorado Lights is an outdoor mall located within a mixed-usedevelopment at 9th Ave. and Colorado Blvd. in downtownDenver, Colorado. This development encompassesapproximately twelve blocks formerly the site of the University ofColorado Health Sciences Center.The project was broken into two phases, the first being todetermine site potential by designing a mixed-use developmentwhile retaining existing historical or iconic buildings for adaptivereuse. The second phase of the project was to look at a specificsite within the redevelopment to design in more detail.Colorado Lights is a linear outdoor mall surrounded by mixed- concept sketchuse retail and residential units. The focal point of the space is alow wall that undulates both horizontally and vertically. The wall islit from within with LED lights that can be programed to changethe lighting scheme throughout the night. Running directly alongside the wall is a bioswale which collects all the water that runs offof the plaza. Water is also taken from the surrounding buildingsand channelled across the walkways through grates into thebioswale. The vibrancy and activity of Colorado Lights makes it aunique place within downtown Denver and creates a new senseof place for the entire development. wall and bioswale perspective sketchcourse: Denver Metropolitan Studio - Spring 2009media: Colored Pencil, Google Sketchup, AutoCAD, Adobe Illustrator & PhotoshopCOLORADO LIGHTS denver, colorado wall and bioswale section sketch
  12. 12. LED wall concept sketchesview of outdoor dining area
  13. 13. master plan Nlongitudinal section
  14. 14. LED wall perspectivedetail section materials cross section
  15. 15. The challenge for the 2011 Urban Land Institute/Gerald D.Hines Student Urban Design Competition was to redevelop the33.5 acre site as a transit oriented development that is focusedon improving multi-modal transportation, carbon neutrality,stormwater management, cultural identity, and creating aprofitable market.The interdisciplinary team was comprised of three landscapearchitecture graduate students, one architecture graduatestudent, and a business graduate student who’s emphasis wasin real estate. The Competition Stage was a two week periodwhere the team focused on a conceptual strategy to addressthe project needs while creating a unique urban environment node concept development sketchfocused around the Mount Baker Transit Station on RainierBoulevard.The concept for the Rainier Transit Oriented Developmentwas based on the local and regional juxtaposition betweenthe city, the land, and the water. Through research, our teamdiscovered that, in the pre-developed history of the site, a largestream draining the valley, existed and was eventually pipedinto an underground drainage network. The design proposalreconstructs and exposes the idea of the stream that flowsthrough the site. Although the proposal does not daylight theunderground stream, the proposal collects all on-site stormwaterin a corridor which symbolizes the historical stream. stream corridor concept development sketchcourse: Urban Land Institute/Gerald D. Hines Student Urban Design Competition - Spring 2011media: Marker, ArcGIS, Google Sketchup, AutoCAD, Adobe Illustrator & PhotoshopRAINIER T .O.D. COMPETITION seattle, washington walking and biking distances from light rail stations
  16. 16. 10 y 0 75 150 300 450 600 ArtSpace Collaboration Sustainable building typology Art space boardwalk creating housing opportunities including balconies and setbacks for main art space contianing studios, for artists in the Seattle region shading, daylighting, and ventilation galleries, and exhibit spaces Photovoltaic panels while considering solar orientation provides renewable energy to powers electric charging station Greenroofs Rainier Boulevard Building atrium Rooftop garden in carpark vegetated roofs increase biodiversity, a green corridor connecting to downtown provides natural ventilation provides produce to in- infiltrate water, and reduce the heat Seattle, creating a pedestrian environment that and sunlight supports multi-modal transportation building grocery store island effect Bioswale collects stormwater runoff filtering and infiltrating water Site Section Linear greenway Stormwater planter Stormwater cisterns Geo-exchange thermal systems collect stormwater runoff buildings Urban stream corridor Structured parkingsite section text structured network that collects increasing biodiversity, collect on-site stormwater uses ground source temperature to for greywater use stormwater runoff filtering and supporting residential and retail needs 0 25 50 100 150 200 efficiently heat and cool structures runoff, filtering and infiltrating water, sequestering infiltrating water carbon, and providing and urban aesthetic 7 6 7 3 5 9 4 1view of restored stream corridor 7 2 8 8 1 mt. baker light rail station 5 stormwater stream corridor 2 elevated office campus - 6 rooftop agriculture plot ground level bus transfer station 7 residential tower 3 iconic pedestrian bridge 8 residential nodeproposed major bicycle route connections master plan N 4 north rainier square 9 art studios and boardwalk
  17. 17. The Sand Turn Scenic Overlook is the proposed location ofthe Highway 14 Forest Portal for the northeast entry of BighornNational Forest in Wyoming. The proposal includes a pedestrianoriented overlook with interpretive signage, a trail head for aproposed short loop trail, as well as the siting of a new toilettefacility.The pedestrian overlook responds to the lines and geographicformations of the surrounding mountain landscape. Users canview informational signage as they drive up, from their cars, orthey can walk to the viewing area where they have a better viewand can read more information about the Powder River Basinand surrounding context. The overlook has three viewing areas view to the eastthat can be directly accessed from the parking area. These areassupport elevated viewing and allow for access to a short trail. Theviewing area located at the bottom of the ramp and stairs hassignage integrated into the barrier walls and allows users to movecloser to the edge of the site for unobstructed views. view to the southcourse: Internship - Bighorn National Forest - Summer 2010media: ArcGIS, Google Sketchup, Pen & InkSAND TURN OVERLOOK bighorn national forest, wyoming view of guardrail barrier
  18. 18. context diagramdetail plan N aerial perspective
  19. 19. Doane College, located in Crete, Nebraska, was the client forwhich a set of construction documents was prepared. Theproject was to site a new Recreation and Athletics Complex aswell as complete site design. This was followed by a series ofconstruction documents. The challenge of the project was sitinga large facility on a fairly small lot while providing adequate sitecirculation and vehicular access. Existing site features that had tobe addressed were steep slopes near the proposed entry driveand a wooded riparian area owned and maintained by the ArmyCorps of Engineers.The general program included: siting a facility which had abuilding footprint of approximately 30,000 sq. ft., an entry plaza, watershed calculationsa parking lot accommodating 75+ vehicles, a trash pickup area,a visitor’s drop-off point, adequate space for bus parking, anoutdoor open air structure, planting, lighting, and irrigation.The project went through many stages from site designto detailing. The process of the Doane College R.A.C.included: Proposal of Professional Services, Survey of ExistingConditions/ Site Analysis, General Development/ Site Design,Site Grading, Earthwork Estimation - Contour Area Method,Earthwork Estimation - Average End Area Method, Layout andDimensioning, Irrigation, Lighting, and Construction Details. planting plancourse: Land Construction I & II - Fall 2008 - Spring 2009media: AutoCAD Civil 3D, Land F/X, Microsoft ExcelDOANE COLLEGE R.A.C. crete, nebraska construction details
  20. 20. Section 2+51.75 Sub Cut Area(s) sq.ft. Sub Fill Area(s) sq.ft. K (Cut in Fill Area) C1 318.53 F1 360.83 K1 14.06 C2 3324.85 F2 173.80 K2 0.00 C3 Section 1535.38 2+51.75 F3 0.00 K3 0.00 TotalSub Cut Area(s)Area Sub Cut sq.ft. Sub Fill Area(s) sq.ft. Total Sub Fill Area K (Cut in Fill Area) Total K Area = C2 C1 C1..C10 318.53 F1 5178.76 360.83 K1 = F1..F10 14.06 534.63 = K1..K10 14.06 3324.85 F2 173.80 K2 0.00 C3 1535.38 F3 0.00 K3 0.00 Total Sub Cut Area for K Adjusted Total Sub Fill Area Total K Area 5178.76 534.63 14.06 = C1..C10 Total SubK Cut Area Adjusted for = F1..F10 5192.82 = K1..K10 Total Sub Cut Area 5192.82 =( C1..C10)+( K1..K10) =( C1..C10)+( K1..K10) Section Vertical Exaggeration 10.00 Section Vertical Exaggeration 10.00 Section VerticalArea Corrected Sub Cut Exaggeration sq.ft. 519.28 Corrected Sub Fill Area sq.ft. 10.00 Section Vertical Exaggeration 53.46 10.00 =Total Cut / Vert.Exag. =Total Cut / Vert.Exag. Corrected Sub Cut Area Corrected Sub Fill Area sq.ft. 519.28 sq.ft. 53.46 =Total Cut / Vert.Exag. =Total Cut / Vert.Exag. Corrected Sub Cut Average SubSub Cut Area for Cut Volume Distance sq.ft.Cut AreaSub Cut VolumeVolume Sub Cut Volume Corrected Sub Cut Average Sub Distance Sub Cut Sub Cut Volume Sub Cut Volume for Sections Areas Between cu.ft. cu.yds. Areas sq.ft. 2+51.75 Between sq.ft. 519.28 = (Sta1+Sta2) / 2 Sections cu.ft. =Avg Cut Area * Dist. cu.yds. =Cut Volume / 27 Sections sq.ft. = (Sta1+Sta2)2+90.60 /2 706.57 612.93 Sections Sub Fill Area 38.85 23812.17 =Avg Cut Area * Dist. 881.93 =Cut Volume / 27 Sub Fill Volume for Average Corrected Sub Fill Distance Sub Fill Volume Sub Fill Volume 2+51.75 519.28 Sections Areas sq.ft. Between cu.ft. cu.yds. 612.93 2+51.75 sq.ft. 38.85 53.46 = (Sta1+Sta2) / 2 23812.171105.91 Sections 881.93 =Fill Volume / 27 2+90.60 706.57 2+90.60 3.47 28.47 38.85 40.96 Sub Fill Volume for Corrected Sub Fill Average Sub Fill Area Distance Sub Fill Volume Sub Fill Volume Areas sq.ft. Between cu.yds. Sections cu.ft. sq.ft. = (Sta1+Sta2) / 2 Sections =Fill Volume / 27 2+51.75 53.46 28.47 38.85 1105.91 40.96 2+90.60 3.47layout and dimensioning plan N grading plan earthwork estimation
  21. 21. The Brush Creek Corridor was the focus of a study to assessthe impacts of urbanization on stream systems and to explorewhat designers can do to mitigate those impacts. Throughresearch and precedent studies, the following four project goalswere determined for the Brush Creek Corridor: Improve localenvironmental conditions through ecological design; Connectthe corridor for improved pedestrian use; Educate users to theenvironmental benefits of ecological design; Reveal and interpretecological processes and phenomena through design. Theproject process included a corridor study which was used todetermine the site for design exploration and the design of thesite addressing the project goals. restored meander and vegetationProposed design solutions are represented by two differentalternatives, each responding to the same design concept butenvisioned in unique ways. Alternative 1 is a more costly solutionto the design problem and would involve a greater amount ofmaintenance up front and over the long run. In Alternative 1, thesite is manipulated significantly to amplify the users experience.Alternative 2 is less costly since the site is manipulated minimallyand much is done to utilize vegetational changes within theexisting context. Material and maintenance estimates wereprovided as to compare and contrast the two design ideas.The report, in its entirety can be viewed at: stormwater management demonstration sitecourse: Project Programming - Fall 2010 Master’s Project and Report - Spring 2011media: ArcGIS, Google Sketchup, AutoCAD Civil 3D, Adobe Illustrator & PhotoshopBRUSH CREEK ECO-DESIGN kansas city, missouri interactive water flow signage
  22. 22. corridor study improve vulnerability analysis ¯ 0 500 1,000 2,000 ,0 0 000 3,000 4,000 0 Fe eet FeetThe goals of the corridor study were to determine a specific site,or sites, that are suitable for design and development, and toprioritize the selected sites based on a select set of factors todetermine an order for site exploration, design, and development.The study specifically addresses the project goals of Improve,Connect, and Educate. The corridor study is broken up into theImprove vulnerability study, the Connect suitability study, and theEducate suitability study.The Improve vulnerability study is an inventory of the majorfactors affecting environmental vulnerability: current projectstatus, in-stream conditions, degree of confinement, and floodprone areas. connect suitability analysis ¯ 0 500 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 FeetThe Connect suitability study is an inventory of the major factorsaffecting connectivity of the corridor: pedestrian circulation, near-stream conditions, adjacent and crossing roads, and population.The Educate suitability study is an inventory of the major factorsaffecting the ability to educate the users of the corridor: specialinterest areas, green impact zone, schools, and population. 1 3 2site selection educate suitability analysis ¯ 0 500 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 Feet
  23. 23. stream alignment area of inundation vegetation zones alternative one 1 parking area 2 rain garden hig b b b b bru h h h h hwa ce 3 bioswale r. w co y 71 4 open green space nc a atk a a o o o or 5 primary walkway / i s ins d co 6 plaza driv u u u ur ive 10 t e e 7 constructed wetland 11 8 elevated outlook area 9 em 9 pedestrian bridge 9 anu el c lea 10 deck overlook ver II II b oule 11 wetlands 5 eva rd 12 lowland area 8 7 6 9 12 woodland woodland 8 1 3 ood and 4 2 nd d d d d d sw swope parkwa swope parkway wo 3 kw kwa w wa In alternative one, the land was manipulated to create flowing 9 landforms which helped to expand the floodplain, and elevate avenue avenue walkways above the site. Existing mowed turf on the site is nue replaced with native vegetation which relates to the availability of moisture in the soils. Users can interact with signage and viewalternative one master plan N the ecosystems at different vantage points throughout the site.
  24. 24. nd up plapes rain garden u lo slo lan bioswale s pe d s bioswale upland transitio nalvegetation interaction and education section brush creek restored lowland vegetation and proposed walkway
  25. 25. stream alignment area of inundation vegetation zones alternative two 1 parking area 2 rain garden hig b b b b bru h h h h hwa 3 bioswale ce e e r. er co 4 open green space y y y y 71 wat nc ak 5 vegetated filter strip o o o or / / / / i s ins d co 6 plaza driv ur ive t 9 7 constructed wetland e e e 10 8 elevated outlook area em 9 pedestrian bridge anu el c 10 wetlands 7 lea e ver II b I o 11 stormwater collection area off of bridge ule lev 6 ard 12 lowland area 8 11 1 12 2 4 3 woodland woodland 9 5 dland and 3 swo swop parkwa swo swope parkway w wop kwa kw kwa A much more liberal approach to the manipulation of landform is taken in alternative two. This alternative is much less costly due avenue avenue to the minimal earthwork movement involved. The project goals en are addressed primarily through the changes in vegetational patterns. The vegetational areas flow through the site and replacealternative two master plan N the mowed turf which currently exists on site.
  26. 26. turf land upopes upland up slo land bioswale sl pes constructed up tra land wetland nsi tion alvegetation interaction and education section brush creek restored meander and wetland vegetation