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NCSU HFES Colloquium

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NCSU HFES Colloquium

  1. 1. Feedback Requirements: Are There Age Related Differences? Chris Kelley
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Mixed results on whether more or less feedback is better </li></ul><ul><li>Disputed as to whether more or less is better </li></ul><ul><ul><li>( cf. Schmidt and Bjork 1992, van Merri¨enboer & Sweller, 2005 ). </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Some Definitions <ul><li>Feedback - Information from an external source about performance meant to guide learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Kluger & DeNsi, 1996). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Performance vs. Learning measures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Brosvic, Dihoff, Epstein, & Cook, 2006; McLaughlin, 2007; Salmoni, Schmidt, & Walter, 1984; Schmidt & Bjork, 1992) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Feedback support </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(McLaughlin, 2007) </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Introduction to Feedback Parameters <ul><li>Content </li></ul><ul><li>information contained in feedback (FB) </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency </li></ul><ul><li>absolute or relative; generally # of trials receiving FB </li></ul><ul><li>Timing </li></ul><ul><li>amount of delay between precipitating action and FB </li></ul>Conceptual Directive Rare Every Trial Lengthy Delay Immediate Low High SUPPORT
  5. 5. The Role of Support Feedback Present No Feedback Acquisition Retention High Increased performance Low Decreased performance Feedback/Support Condition Results Results Stay tuned… Stay tuned…
  6. 6. Less Support for Learning <ul><li>Desirable Difficulties in acquisition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(see Schmidt and Bjork 1992) </li></ul></ul>Less support is better Butki & Hoffman, 2003 Park, Shea, & Wright, 2000 Schmidt, Young, Swinnen, & Shapiro, 1989 Schooler & Anderson, 1990 Schmidt, Lange & Young, 1990 Schroth, 1997
  7. 7. More Support for Learning <ul><li>Cognitive Load Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Sweller, 1998) </li></ul></ul>More support is better Adams, 1971 Dihoff, Brosvic, Epstein & Cook, 2004 McLaughlin, 2007 Schmidt, Lange & Young, 1990 Vollmeyer & Rheinberg, 2005 Wulf, Shea, & Matschiner, 1998
  8. 8. Why the Mixed Results!? <ul><li>Any ideas? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-Cognitive resources </li></ul></ul>& -Task demands
  9. 9. Support Revisited Feedback Present No Feedback Acquisition Retention High Increased performance Low Decreased performance Cog. Resources Task Demand Feedback/Support Condition Results Results
  10. 10. The Role of Cognitive Resources
  11. 11. Previous Research Reorganized Simple or easy tasks Complex or difficult tasks Task Load Prior knowledge   Low knowledge Special pop. Younger adults High ability Older adults Low ability Learner Characteristics Low Feedback Support High Feedback Support Best Level of Support
  12. 12. The Role of Aging <ul><li>Age Related Cognitive Declines a </li></ul><ul><li>Note: a (Craik & Salthouse, 2000) </li></ul>Fluid and Crystallized ability changes by age b <ul><li>Note: b (Craik & Salthouse, 2000) </li></ul>Sensory processes Memory Working memory Visual perception Executive functions Attention
  13. 13. Feedback Research with Older Adults <ul><li>Limited research as to whether more or less feedback is better for older adults </li></ul><ul><li>Resource framework would predict older adults need more supportive feedback than would be optimal for younger adults </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Simple motor task </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>OA required feedback every trial vs YA learned from every 5 trials </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Wishart, Lee, Cunningham, & Murdoch, 2002) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Complex motor task </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>OA and YA both required more feedback support to learn the task </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Wuf, Shea, & Matschiner, 1998) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Research Question <ul><li>What are the feedback requirements for older and younger adults learning a simple cognitive task? </li></ul>
  15. 15. Simple or easy tasks Complex or difficult tasks Task Load Prior knowledge   Low knowledge Special pop. Younger adults High ability Older adults Low ability Learner Characteristics Low Feedback Support High Feedback Support Best Level of Support
  16. 16. Hypotheses <ul><li>Age will interact with feedback support level, where older adults will require more support than younger. In addition, younger adults should learn more with less support compared to younger adults given more feedback support in acquisition </li></ul>Acquisition Retention Younger adults, high support Younger adults, low support Older adults, low support Older adults, high support
  17. 17. Method <ul><li>Participants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Younger Adults </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Older Adults (65 – 75) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Task </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Manage 3 employees </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Summary </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Between Participants </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Independent Variables </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Feedback Support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Age (quasi) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dependent variables </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Acquisition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Retention </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purpose: To investigate the relationship between age and feedback required to learn a complex cognitive task </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Procedure Complete ability tests Acquisition (18 trials) Retention (12 trials) Feedback Retention Test 3 days More Less No Feedback
  19. 19. The Task: Furniture Factory Employee 1 Job Goal Feedback Reward Performance Decisions Employee 2 Job Goal Feedback Reward Performance Results Was it fair?
  20. 20. Differences in Feedback
  21. 21. Other Variables Measured <ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>WMC of younger adults </li></ul>
  22. 22. Conclusions <ul><li>By systematically categorizing task demand and cognitive resources, it will help to support or refute if resources explain feedback requirements </li></ul>
  23. 23. The End <ul><li>Questions &/or comments? </li></ul>
  24. 24. Experimental Design <ul><li>The experiment will be a 2 x 2 x 2 design. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Between subject variables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Feedback specificity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Within subject variables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>task complexity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>session </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>A 2 x 2 factorial will also be conducted to investigate the relationship between feedback specificity and levels of motivation. </li></ul><ul><li>Dependent variables </li></ul><ul><ul><li>acquisition performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>retention test performance. </li></ul></ul>

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